Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tapping Social Networks to Leverage Knowledge and Innovation Patti Anklam Hutchinson Associates

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Tapping Social Networks to Leverage Knowledge and Innovation Patti Anklam Hutchinson Associates"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tapping Social Networks to Leverage Knowledge and Innovation Patti Anklam Hutchinson Associates patti@byeday.net

2 ©2003 Patti Anklam Acknowledgment  Work with Social Network Analysis at Nortel was bootstrapped through participation in research with the Institute for Knowledge-Enabled Organizations (IKO)*  Rob Cross and Andrew Parker, researchers, provided “above and beyond” support for key projects as well as solo projects during my learning process. *Formerly Institute for Knowledge Management (IKM)

3 ©2003 Patti Anklam Customer StructuralHuman Context: Knowledge Management is about Leveraging Capital Social  “Social capital consists of the stock of active connections among people; the mutual understanding, trust, and shared values and behaviors  that bind the members of human networks and communities and make cooperative action possible.” Don Cohen & Laurence Prusak In Good Company

4 ©2003 Patti Anklam The Science of Networks  Multi-disciplinary research and applications Physics Cell biology Internet and WWW Economics and social sciences Epidemiology Homeland security  Supported by mathematical evidence that networks of all types exhibit similar properties and architecture

5 ©2003 Patti Anklam Metabolic Network Source: Albert Laszlo Barabasi

6 ©2003 Patti Anklam A Social Network

7 ©2003 Patti Anklam The Al Qaeda Network http://www.orgnet.com/MappingTerroristNetworks.pdf

8 ©2003 Patti Anklam The Premise of Social Network Analysis for Knowledge Management  Knowledge flows along existing pathways in organizations.  To understand the knowledge flow, find out what the patterns are.  Create interventions to create, reinforce, or change the patterns to improve the knowledge flow.  Successful organizations understand the need to ensure that knowledge and learning are reaching all the parts of the organization that need them.

9 ©2003 Patti Anklam Business objectives for doing an analysis  Increased innovation, productivity, and responsiveness through plugging “know-who” gaps  Smarter decisions about organizational changes and establishment of key knowledge roles  Insight into challenges of knowledge transfer and integration following restructuring, mergers, or acquisitions

10 ©2003 Patti Anklam The Methodology  Interview managers and key staff to understand the specific business problems or opportunities  Identify the network  Survey the individuals in the network to determine existing connections among them  Use computer modeling tools to depict the network  Identify opportunities for improvement or potential problems (interviews and workshop)  Design and implement interventions to change the network  Follow up

11 ©2003 Patti Anklam Data Collection and Survey Methods  Qualitative Survey members of existing social networks to diagnose problems and identify opportunities  Quantitative: Transaction analysis (emails, phone calls) Analysis of information artifacts (email, documents, search strings) to identify similarity of interests

12 ©2003 Patti Anklam Qualitative Survey

13 ©2003 Patti Anklam Survey Questions  SNA for knowledge management questions: Frequency of knowledge exchange Value of interactions Knowledge of each other’s knowledge and skills  SNA for organizational development: Decision-making paths Trust Energy Development of the questions and delivery of the survey must be sensitive and appropriate to the current context of the organization

14 ©2003 Patti Anklam View of a Network = President = Operations = Product Line A = Small Accounts Functio n = Product Line B = Product Line C = HR/Finance = Large Accounts I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job.

15 ©2003 Patti Anklam Removing Managers, Administrators, and HR = Operations = Product Line A = Small Accounts Functio n = Product Line B = Product Line C = Large Accounts I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job.

16 ©2003 Patti Anklam Quantitative Analysis Provides Management Insight Density. Data provides the percentage of information-getting relationships that exist out of the possible number that could exist. It is not a goal to have 100%, but to target the junctures where improved collaboration could have a business benefit. Frequently or very frequently receive

17 ©2003 Patti Anklam Junctures in Information Flow Target Opportunities for KM Density. Data provides the percentage of information-getting relationships that exist out of the possible number that could exist. It is not a goal to have 100%, but to target the junctures where improved collaboration could have a business benefit.

18 ©2003 Patti Anklam Combining Question Results People want to communicate more with those who they already receive information from. Information Communicate More

19 ©2003 Patti Anklam Innovation Group I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job. = Portfolio = Technology Team = KM

20 ©2003 Patti Anklam Innovation Group – Who Knows Who? I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job. Separated by “do not know this person.” Everybody knows these people, or knows who they are Colors represent geographical locations

21 ©2003 Patti Anklam Concepts Represented by Mathematics  Distance: degrees of separation (also referred to as the diameter of a network)  Ties/Degree: in-degree and out-degree represent the number of connections, or ties, to and from a person  Centrality: the extent to which a network is organized around one or more central people  Density: the percentage of connections that exist out of the total possible that could exist

22 ©2003 Patti Anklam Comparative Metrics Provide Benchmarks

23 ©2003 Patti Anklam Using the Results of SNA  Organizational Leadership work Restructuring and process redesign Staffing and role development Categories of Interventions  Knowledge Management Tools and technologies (expertise locators, discussion forums, and so on) Collaborative knowledge exchange and getting acquainted sessions  Individual action Personal and public Personal and private

24 ©2003 Patti Anklam Addressing Concerns  Social Network Analysis practitioners are committed to use SNA in ethical ways, sensitive to individuals.  Interviews are used to validate results with managers before displaying to wide audiences  Results are presented in context

25 ©2003 Patti Anklam Learning from Research

26 ©2003 Patti Anklam Common Patterns Identified  Clusters: dense subgroups  Connectors: individuals who link to many people in an informal network (in some cases, bottlenecks)  Boundary spanner: individuals who connect networks to other parts of an organization  Information broker: connects clusters within an informal network  Outliers: people less well connected, may be termed “peripheral specialist” Adapted from “The People Who Make Organizations Go or Stop” Rob Cross and Laurence Prusak Harvard Business Review, June 2002

27 ©2003 Patti Anklam Some Principles from the Science  The structure of networks is not random Six degrees of separation are but one proof point Small worlds abound  Ties may be weak or strong Strength is a factor of frequency and proximity Weak ties are often more useful than strong ties  The rich get richer Nodes with many links tend to get more links  Structural holes represent opportunities

28 ©2003 Patti Anklam Tie Strength and Community Memberships  Social networks and communities: People who have more ties join more groups The more ties people have to others in the same group, the longer they stay in the group The more ties people have to others outside of the group, the less time they stay in the group Strong ties to many people in the same group increase the duration of membership longer than weak ties Weak ties to nonmembers increase the rate of joining new groups McPherson et al, “Social Networks and Organizational Dynamics”, 1995

29 ©2003 Patti Anklam Let’s Look at Some More Examples

30 ©2003 Patti Anklam Knowledge Problem? I am likely or highly likely to be more effective if I could communicate more with this person. = Process = KM = Technology Group = Manager

31 ©2003 Patti Anklam Communication Problem? I frequently or very frequently receive information from this person that I need to do my job. = Europe = Asia Pacific HR Group = Americas = Manager

32 ©2003 Patti Anklam Quality Problem? Frequently Get InformationNeed to Communicate More

33 ©2003 Patti Anklam Summary

34 ©2003 Patti Anklam Why Do an Analysis?  Six Myths about Informal Networks*: To build better networks, we have to communicate more Everybody should be connected to everybody else We can’t do much to aid informal networks How people fit in is a matter of personality (which can’t be changed) Central people who have become bottlenecks should make themselves more accessible I already know what is going on in my network *Rob Cross, Nitin Nohria, and Andrew Parker, MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2002

35 ©2003 Patti Anklam SNA Moves People to Action  Provides concrete view of flows and relationships: Makes concrete how work is happening in comparison to the formal structure. Makes visible the aspects of a group that we can work with.  Qualitative and Quantitative aspects: Graphics are very meaningful to people. Data enable metrics, provide meaningful information when there are very large numbers of people The combination “cracks the code” of delivering this type of diagnostic data to managers  Proven uses in: Planning for reorganization (or post-reorganization) Identifying key people prior to mergers or acquisitions Succession planning and retention Knowledge creation and sharing Improving organizational effectiveness

36 ©2003 Patti Anklam SNA Applications  Target knowledge management programs based on opportunities identified in junctures  Identify and reward individuals for “invisible” work  Identify key individuals for retention  As part of team kick-off for cross-functional or cross- organizational projects  To identify lead users for change management programs

37 ©2003 Patti Anklam Technologies for Identifying and Creating Social Networks  Categories of software Discovery Systems – Verity, Lotus, Autonomy Expertise Location – Tacit, Kamoon  Technologies Natural language processing techniques used in indexing content detect similarity of concepts in an increasingly sophisticated way Visualization tools aid in navigation of hierarchies and clusters of documents Recommender systems suggest documents and people to contact based on a worker’s current task

38 ©2003 Patti Anklam More Information  SNA Reading List: http://patti.byeday.net/sna/  email: patti@byeday.net


Download ppt "Tapping Social Networks to Leverage Knowledge and Innovation Patti Anklam Hutchinson Associates"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google