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ISA BUS (Industry Standard Architecture).

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Presentation on theme: "ISA BUS (Industry Standard Architecture)."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISA BUS (Industry Standard Architecture)

2 TIPE-TIPE BUS BUS ISA Bus ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) adalah
sebuah bus PC/AT (16 bit) yang beroperasi pada 8,33 MHz BUS PCI Bus PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect bus) Bus yang beroperasi pada kecepatan 33 MHz

3 BUS Seri Universal Sebuah bus standart yang disepakati bersama oleh tujuh perusahaan untuk digunakan pada peralatan berkecepatan rendah

4 What is BUS ? A bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and Main memory. Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz. A fast bus allows data to be transferred faster, which makes applications run faster. On PCs, the old ISA bus is being replaced by faster buses such as PCI.

5 BUS adalah Jalur komunikasi yang dibagi pemakai Suatu set kabel tunggal yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan berbagai subsistem BUS Sistem adalah Sebuah Bus yang menghubungkan komponen-komponen utama komputer (CPU, Memori ,I/O)

6 I/O BUS System Bus: Connecting to CPU, memory and Cache.
Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus I/O Bus: Connecting to the above three buses is the "good old" standard I/O bus, used for slower peripherals (mice, modems, regular sound cards, low-speed networking) and also for compatibility with older devices. On almost all modern PCs this is the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus.

7 System Bus

8 BUS DATA - Saluran data memberikan lintasan bagi perpindahan data antara dua modul sistem . - Besar jalur bus data mempengaruhi kinerjanya, contoh : 8, 16, 32 dan 64 bit

9 Bus Alamat - Identifikasi sumber atau tujuan data pada bus data
- Mengalamati port-port I/O - Contoh : jika CPU akan membaca word ( 8, atau 32 bit) data dari memori maka CPU akan menaruh alamat word yang dimaksud pada saluran alamat

10 Bus Kendali - Mengontrol akses ke saluran alamat dan penggunaan data dan saluran alamat. - Mengendalikan dan mengatur timing informasi : a. Sinyal read /write b. Interrupt request c. Sinyal clock

11 CPU-Memory-I/O Architecture
I/O module I/O device “I/O bus” “Bus interface” “CPU bus” or “System bus”

12 Types of I/O Buses PCI Local bus AGP ISA PC-Card (PCMCIA)
USB Fire Wire (IEEE-1394) ISA Micro Channel (MCA) EISA VESA Local bus (VL-bus)

13 ISA BUS Bus ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) adalah sebuah arsitektur bus dengan bus data selebar 8-bit yang diperkenalkan dalam IBM PC 5150 pada tanggal 12 Agustus Bus ISA diperbarui dengan menambahkan bus data selebar menjadi 16-bit pada IBM PC/AT pada tahun 1984, sehingga jenis bus ISA yang beredar pun terbagi menjadi dua bagian, yakni ISA 16-bit dan ISA 8-bit. ISA merupakan bus dasar dan paling umum digunakan dalam komputer IBM PC hingga tahun 1995, sebelum akhirnya digantikan oleh bus PCI yang diluncurkan pada tahun 1992.

14 I/O BUS ISA BUS (8-16-bit) EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) BUS (32-bit) PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) BUS (32 or 64-bit) AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) (32-bit)

15 ISA BUS 8-bit 16-bit

16 ISA BUS 8-bit ISA BUS 16-bit ISA BUS Pins Pins Bus width 8 - bit
Compatible with 8 bit ISA Pins 62 Power +5 V, -5 V, +12 V, -12 V Clock MHz Bus width 16 - bit Compatible with 16 bit ISA Pins 98 Power +5 V, -5 V, +12 V, -12 V Clock MHz

17 ISA BUS is used with sound cards, disk drives or most network and video cards. 8-bit ISA(XT) CARD bit ISA CARD


19 ISA BUS Additional connections converts to 16 bit ISA VESA connectors
Original 8 bit ISA connectors

20 3 ISA slots 5 PCI slots 6 SIMM slots 2 DIMM slots Pentium CPU

21 ISA BUS In the figure you can see the pinouts of the ISA BUS. The BUS is divided into two sides. The first side pins are named A1 to A31 and it is the components side. It consists of the address and data buses. The second side pins are named B1 to B31 and it is the solder side. This side contents the power pins and the signals related to interrupts and DMA transfers.

22 ISA BUS 16 bit Original 8 bit ISA More DMA lines More DMA lines
IRQ lines ± 5, ±12V Power & G IRQ lines 2-7 clock Extra 8 bits of I/O bus Extra 4 bits of Address bus 20 bits of Address bus 8 bits of I/O bus 16 bit Original 8 bit ISA

23 ISA BUS A0-A19 (pins A31 to A12): This twenty lines are the address BUS.They can address 1MB (2^20 bytes). D0-D7 (pins A9 to A2): The data BUS consist of this eight data lines. AEN (pin B11): It is used for the DMA controller to take over the data and address buses in a DMA transfer. GND (pins B1, B10, B31): Connected to the ground of the computer. +5V (pins B3, B29): 5V DC output of the power source. -5V (pin B5): -5V DC output. -12V (pin B7): -12V DC output. +12V (pin B9): +12V DC output. MEMW (pin B11): The µP asserts this signal when doing a write to the memory. MEMR (pin B12): The µP asserts this signal when doing a read from the memory. IOW (pin B13): The µP asserts this signal when doing a write to a port. IOR (pin B14): The µP asserts this signal when doing a read from a port. DACK0-DACK3 (pins B15, B17, B19 and B26): The DMA controller sets this signals to let a device know that the DMA has the control of the buses. DRQ1-DRQ3 (pins B6, B16 and B18): Allow the peripheral boards to request the use of the buses. +T/C (pin B27): The DMA controller sets this signal to let the peripheral know that the programmed number of bytes has been sent. IRQ2-IRQ7 (pins B4, B21, B22, B23, B24 and B25): Interrupt signals. The peripheral devices sets this signals to request for the attention of the µP. ALE (pin 28): This signal is used for the µP to lock the 16 lower address BUS in a latch during a memory (or port) input/output operation. CLOCK (pin 20): Is the system clock. OSC (pin 30): Is a high frequency clock which can be used for the I/O boards.

24 Describing the Read operation of the ISA
CPU sends out a high on the ALE signal, then sends out the A0-A19 lines. On the address of the target port to be read will be latched. Then the BUS takes the -IOR signal to a low level. So that the addressed device will take a data byte to the D0-D7 data bus. The microprocessor will read then the data bus and take the -IOR signal to a high again.

25 Describing the Read/Write operation of the ISA
The only difference between a memory read/write cycle and a port read/write cycle is that in a memory cycle the -MEMR and -MEMW signals will be asserted, working the same way as -IOR and -IOW do.

26 ISA BUS Intel 80386DX CPU Memory Keyboard I/O bus (16 bit data)
A0 to A31 Memory Address bus(32 bit) Keyboard I/O bus (16 bit data) Intel 80386DX CPU D0 to D31 Storage Data bus (32 bit) Printer RD WR IO/M Video Control bus Modem

27 Bus Structure of Intel 486 “ISA BRIDGE”

28 Bus Structure of Intel Pentium
“North Bridge” “South Bridge”

29 Bus Structure of Intel Pentium
NORTH BRIDGE CPU Bus PCI Bus FRAME# M/IO #(memory or i/o address) Expansion Bus Controller TRDY# D/C# (Data or code) IRDY# W/R# (Write or Read) STOP# REQ# AEN# GNT# BRDY# (Burst Ready) A31-A3 (Address Lines) AD[31:0] BE7# - BE0# (Byte Enable Lines) C/BE#[3:0] D31-D0 CLK

30 Bus Structure of Intel Pentium
SOUTH BRIDGE PCI Bus ISA Bus FRAME# MEMR# Expansion Bus Controller MEMW# TRDY# ALE IRDY# IOR# STOP# IOW# REQ# GNT# INTA# AD[31:0] A23-A0 C/BE#[3:0] D23-D0 CLK

16-bit ISA bus chains two 8259As together. IRQ 9 is used to re-route anything trying to use IRQ 2. Incorporated in chip set.

32 INTERRUPT CONTROLLER (IRQ 2) 8259A 8259A 80x86 IRQ0 IRQ0 (8) IRQ1
INTR IRQ4 IRQ4 (12) IRQ5 IRQ5 (13) IRQ6 IRQ6 (14) IRQ7 IRQ7 (15)

33 Elimination of ISA Bus ISA Bus is slow, hard to use and bulky.
ISA plug in cards to be replaced by either PCI plug-in cards or USB add-on peripherals Limited number of interrupts. No central registry.

34 Elimination of ISA Bus The ISA bus is limited to 24 bits of address. 2^24 = 16 MBytes. It means that an ISA card that uses DMA cannot physically access memory beyond 16 MBytes of RAM. This is a limitation of the ISA bus.

35 Elimination of ISA Bus Motherboard gets 32-bit data from ISA BUS at two times. Meanwhile at this time ISA BUS declares “wait state” to the motherboard. Therefore ISA BUS may reduce System Performance.

36 Elimination of ISA Bus If you use a ISA based controller card such as Ultra SCSI - 40Mb / sec or SCSI-2 Fast - 10 Mb / sec , you can expect no more than an 8Mb per second transfer rate from your controller card.

37 Elimination of ISA Bus PCI cards have “Plug and Play” technology and can configure themselves, so Operating Systems distinguish them. ISA cards are more cumbersome to install than other cards because I/O addresses, interrupts and clock speed must be set using jumpers and switches on the card itself.

38 Elimination of ISA Bus Bus Type MB/sec VL-bus 100 MBps 132 MBps
32-Bit PCI PCI-X 66 512 MBps PCI-X 133 1 GBps AGP x1 264 MB/s AGP x2 528 MB/s AGP x4 1056 MB/s AGP x8 2112 MB/s PCI Express x1 500 MB/s PCI Express x2 1000 MB/s PCI Express x4 2000 MB/s PCI Express x8 4000 MB/s PCI Express x12 6000 MB/s PCI Express x16 8000 MB/s

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