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The Marginalised In the Gospel of Luke.

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Presentation on theme: "The Marginalised In the Gospel of Luke."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Marginalised In the Gospel of Luke.
By Kate Fletcher

2 Definition The Marginalised is referred to as groups of people that are treated as insignificant or peripheral, or to be relegated to a lower or outer edge. Throughout the Bible, many references are made to different under valued groups within the society which can all fall into the Marginalised, some of which are still seen in today’s modern society. As seen in the Bible, Jesus accepted all these people for who they are and believed in them, that if they turned to God they could become a better, faithful person. Even though he was often scolded for it, Jesus dined, and spent time with those the “god lovers” believed to be un deserving. There are five main sub categories: Women The Poor Sinners The Sick Gentiles

3 Sub Group: Women Much of the lukan community was made up of women as a group within the marginalised In biblical times Women were considered inferior to men They had restricted rights and were not seen as having value to society. “The book of Leviticus shows that women were physically inferior because of their natural bodily functions, which make them unclean in the eyes of God” The Levites are responsible for upholding the laws of cleanliness as God’s priests. statements in the Bible show that the natural cycles of a woman’s body are seen as unclean and unholy thus prescribing Women as unclean and unholy. For these reasons women are restricted in their activities and enable to partake in religious ceremonies Also women need a stringent and thorough purification process, while men can often become clean by washing with water.

4 However, the Gospels of Jesus bring a change in status for Women, Jesus treats theme as equal and does not judge them on their problems but rather on their faithful hearts. He accepts them as his disciples and teaches them about God. The Gospels of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John all preach this message of equality and Christs fair treatment of Women.

5 Sub Group: Poor The poor were highly populated among the marginalised and were also mistreated. Those who were of a low economic standing were viewed with no value as they couldn't financially contribute to the society. They were often used as slaves which was a highly accepted practice in biblical times, however they were constantly misused. Again this was counteracted in the Jesus Gospels as he brought good news for the poor especially seen in the beatitudes. They became more included by the faith hearted as they were preached messages of God through Jesus giving them Hope. Jesus also preached similar messages to those who were well off, making them see that those who suffer will be powerful in heaven and those who flaunt their riches will become poor.

6 Sub Group: Sinners Sinners included anyone who was seen by the general community to be doing something against the teachings from God. Especially prominent in Biblical times were tax collectors, middle class society did not like such people as many of them over charged on tax, and collected some for themselves. Jesus frequently dined with these sinners, much to the dislike of people who believed themselves to be good Jews. However, Jesus believed these people could become faithful and also showed that these are the people he needs to preach to as they are the ones who need saving, not the ones who are already saved by their faithfulness.

7 Sub Group: sick In the times of the bible, it was believed that the sick must have done something wrong by God and that this was their punishment. Therefore, society outcasts such people with illnesses and portrays them as unclean and unworthy of attention. Many were seen to be possessed by demons. Jesus shows the communities that these people with illnesses are in fact part of God’s plan and will be saved because of their faith in God. Jesus also preaches this to the sick themselves to give them hope and knowledge of why they must suffer for the creation of the new kingdom of God.

8 Sub Group: gentiles The Gentiles were anyone who was not Jewish.
The early Jews who came from Israel, believed that they were the chosen ones and that only they would be saved by the kingdom of God. The term Gentiles was used to distinguish between Jews and everyone else. This later also helped the Gentiles understand having been made a part of God's people and the glory of it.  In Ephesians 2:15 it says that God made the Jews and Gentiles into one new man.  He didn't make them all Jews and He didn't make them all Gentiles.  He made them Christians.  The Gentiles were mainly outcast from the Jews as they were also seen as un holy and un worthy of the Glory of God.

9 Biblical Context All throughout the Bible we see many references to the outcast in society. We see the struggle these people went through in everyday life and even some of those who believed themselves to be the faithful Jews, still had a different level of standards for treating the marginalised. This was counteracted in the gospels of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John. In Jesus’ time, he included and preached to these people, giving them hope of salvation and a sense of belonging. Very often these people became the most faithful and loyal to serving God and living by the word of the Lord.

10 Biblical context: the Old testament
WOMEN: Women's behaviour was extremely limited in the times of the old testament, quite similar to the women of Afghanistan during the recent Taliban oppression. Unmarried women were not allowed to leave the home of their father without permission. Married women were not allowed to leave the home of their husband, without permission. They were normally restricted to roles of little or no authority. They could not testify in court. They could not appear in public venues. They were not allowed to talk to strangers. They had to be doubly veiled when they left their homes. In these Scriptures, women were generally viewed in a negative light

11 Biblical context: the Old testament
THE POOR Much of the poor in biblical times were used for slavery. Either been sold, forcefully or voluntarily to pay of debts. Slaves were seen as the property of their owner, with the owner being allowed to do what they please However, it is believed that the treatment of the old testament slaves was generally more human that that of other ancient civilisations. These people were seen as no value in the biblical communities, mainly because they could not attribute any wealth or power in society.

12 Biblical context: the Old testament
SINNERS Sinners in the old testament were those who needed redemption and saving. They were out cast because of their differences and mistakes. They were believed to be not as worthy of the attention of God or participation in religious practices because of their mistakes. Most people in biblical times believed that they should be punished and not allowed redemption because of their sins. This was not the church teaching, the church taught that these people who truly wished repentance should be absolved of their sins if they choose to show a commitment to God

13 Biblical context: the Old testament
THE SICK Many people in the old testament times believed that the illnesses and diseases of the sick were bestowed upon them by God in punishment for sin. When in fact many of these such illnesses were brought on by God but as part of his global plan The sick peoples faithfulness would prove worthy of his miracles and then Jesus, through God would heal them of their problems. The sick were marginalised by the communities as they believed they were possessed by demons and hanging around such people would create the possibility of also being infested by these demons.

14 Biblical context: the Old testament
GENTILES Gentiles were outcast from society throughout the bible for many different reasons. The Jews mostly rejected gentiles because they were not circumcised and were seen as un clean and un holy and unable to participate in religious practices A lot of the Jews also rejected Jesus because he challenged them about how they were falling back on their old religious practices rather than what God had truly meant in the Law.  The Jews were also looking for a political Messiah to lead from the throne of David. However, Jesus did not come to set up an earthly kingdom.  Jesus was rejected by the Jews because Jesus did not fit their picture of the Messiah and that he called for an inner holiness, and not just an outward facade.

15 Old testament context examples
Genesis 1:27 to 3:24: In the first creation story (Genesis 1:27) "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." 2 People believe this is implying equality between the two genders. The second creation story, (Genesis 2:7) "...the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Realizing that he needed a helper (Genesis 2:18), God marched all of the animals past Adam (Genesis 2:19-20) looking for a suitable animal. Finding none suitable, God created Eve out of one of Adam's ribs.” The term "helper" is seen to be showing Eve as holding lesser importance, however some modern scholars believe it can mean a companion of equal status. Adam later asserts his authority over Eve by naming her, which in biblical times would show his authority over her:  "...she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man."

16 Exodus 1:13 to 2:24 “13 and worked them ruthlessly. 14 They made their lives bitter with harsh labour in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labour the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly.” This is an example of where the poor and undervalued in society, (in this case the Israelites) were made to work as slaves under the control and power of a higher authority. Their cries turned to God and were heard, resulting in the story of the exodus from Egypt.

17 Genesis 2:4- 3:24 “ 11 And he said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”  12 The man said, “The woman you put here with me— she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it.” Adam and Eve, were created by God yet were also sinners They broke the law given by God but with their faithful hearts they were able to seek redemption This shows that no one is perfect and everyone will sin at some point and those with a genuine desire and faithfulness can be forgiven

18 Deuteronomy 7:15 “15 The Lord will protect you from all sickness, and he will not bring on you any of the dreadful diseases that you experienced in Egypt, but he will bring them on all your enemies.” Exodus 23:25 “25 If you worship me, the Lord your God, I will bless you with food and water and take away all your sicknesses.” This shows Gods promise to his people and shows that he tells them, that with a faithful heart, their illnesses will be cured.

19 Ephesians 2:11-22.  11 Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (which is done in the body by human hands)— 12 remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. God's covenants and promises had only been given to the Jews, through Christ. Now, the Gentiles would also be participants in them.

20 Biblical Context: New testament
Although still outcast, Jesus brought much hope to the Marginalised in the New Testament Women: Jesus helped raise Women’s image in society. He treated them as equal and as seen throughout Mathew, Mark, Luke and John’s gospels , some even took a higher rank in authority, especially within Jesus’ followers group. The Poor: Jesus dined and stayed with those with little to give, however, these people were often the most generous. They would share the little they had with anyone else in wanting. Jesus was frowned upon because he spent so much time with these people however, he still saw everyone as equal and knew that the people who suffer in that life would be prosperous in heaven because of their faithfulness. Sinners: The new Testament confirmed that sinners could be forgiven, and that only the divine (Jesus) was sinless. Jesus proves and dines with those sinners who need saving and helps them be forgiven, much to the dislike to the upper class Jewish community

21 The Sick: Jesus’ arrival bring miracles of healing illnesses everywhere. Sometimes he touched them, sometimes he told them to bathe, sometimes he spoke a word that resulted in healing even at a distance. All the sick people of approached Jesus was heeled. Gentiles: Jesus came to include and bring the message that the kingdom of God was no just for Jews but for everyone, including the Gentiles that were outcast by the Jews. Jesus also pointed out that he was sent to the land to help save those who had strayed off their path to God and those with faithful hearts did not need his saving.

22 The marginalised in Luke
Throughout the Gospel of Luke we see a very diverse social group. It consist of men and women, Jews and Gentiles, wealthy and poor, and many other social groups. Because of such contrast, there would have been many clashes and controversy within the lukan community as to who, “deserves” to be included in the new Kingdom of God. Throughout Luke, we see the author trying to dispel such arguments and emphasis the global teaching that salvation and the Kingdom of God is for everyone and that everyone is equal. Also that people appropriateness for God’s Kingdom should not be judged on their social status but rather on their faithfulness to God.

23 Significance in Jesus' and Luke's communities
In Both Jesus and Luke’s communities, the segregation was extreme and they both attempted to tackle such issues in different ways. Jesus taught through preaching and parables. He taught the fundamental ideas and reiterated over and over again as seen throughout the bible that everyone was equal in the eyes of god. Luke wrote his Gospel as many argue, as an attempt to help break down these divisions in the society and as a legitimating of the new community.

24 The Marginalised in the PSS
JUDGING OTHERS (6:37-42) In this passage, the teachings of Jesus is shown very clearly regarding God’s commands on judging others. He can be seen to be referring to the communities judgment on the marginalised, when these people are just as, or more dysfunctional as hypocrites by judging these people. 41“Why do you see the speck in your neighbour's eye but you do not notice the log in your own eye? 42How can you say to your neighbour, ‘Friend, let me take out the speck in your eye,’ when you don’t see the log in your own eye?”

25 Jesus is teaching that everyone is equal, no matter gender or wealth, nor any other discriminating factor. He is teaching it for the reason that his communities were heavily segregated and in need of a reminder of that specific direction from God in the initial Covenant.

26 HUMILITY AND HOSPITALITY (14:7-14) This passage depicts a feast at which Jesus is present. By Pointing out peoples self importance by choosing the high places at the table he describes how such people are fools and will be humbled in heaven. Jesus says “When you give a luncheon or dinner, do not invite your friends, your brothers or sisters, your relatives, or your rich neighbours; if you do, they may invite you back and so you will be repaid. 13 But when you give a banquet, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind,” He is explaining that by taking in the outcasts and doing what is right, by treating everyone as equal, you will be blessed and even though the marginalised cannot repay you, you will be repaid in the Kingdom of God.

27 This ties in with the beatitudes in which it says the poor will be prosperous where the wealthy will be poor in Heaven. It Shows Jesus compassion for the marginalised and his ability to see everyone in the same light. This teaching of equality is one repeated throughout Jesus’ life and also in writings of his time and a fundamental rule of human interaction in the eyes of God.

28 Link Through this we can see that the suffering of the marginalised in the old testament continued into the new testament although, with the introduction of Jesus and other disciples preaching the messages of equality from God, an attempt was made to combat such discrimination and inclusion and hope was brought for those who were outcasts that a better life awaited them in the kingdom of God.

29 Examples of the marginalised in Luke
The man with the unclean spirit (4:31-37) Healings as Simon's house (4:38-41) Jesus Cleanses a leper (5:12-16) Jesus Heals a Paralytic (5:17-26) The man with a withered hand (6:6-11) Jesus teachers and heals (6:17-19) Judging others (6:37-42) Jesus heals a centurion’s servant (7:1-10) Jesus raises the widow’s son at Nain (7:11-17) A sinful Women Forgiven (7:36-50) Some women Accompany Jesus (8:4-8) a girl restored to life and a woman healed (8:40-56) Jesus heals a boy with a demon (9:37-43 The return of the Unclean spirit (11:24-26) Jesus heals a crippled women (13:18-19) Jesus Heals the man with Dropsy (14:1-6) Jesus Cleanses ten Lepers (17:20-37) And many More...

30 Sources Slavery in Bible times by David Meager.
The Gospel of Luke, Sacra Pagina, 1991 Women in the Gospel of Luke, Barbara Reid, 1996 Luke for everyone, Tom Wright, 2001 Luke, Robert Tannehill, 1996 e.htm les.htm say-sick.html

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