Presentation on theme: "1 Plenary II: The Education of Children and Youth Who Are Justice-Involved Lauren Amos, NDTAC TA Liaison, American Institutes for Research."— Presentation transcript:
1 Plenary II: The Education of Children and Youth Who Are Justice-Involved Lauren Amos, NDTAC TA Liaison, American Institutes for Research
2 Session Agenda 1.Setting the Stage 2.Panel Presentations: Culturally and Linguistically Competent Instruction Special Education Girls and Gender-Specific Programming Young Adults of Transition Age 3.Small Group Activity 4.Panel Q&A and Whole Group Discussion
3 Setting the Stage Special Populations Served by Title I, Part D –Racial and ethnic minorities –Limited English proficient students –Students with special needs (cognitive, emotional/behavioral and physical) –Girls –Young adults of transition age
4 The Problem with Airlines and Peanuts Treating everyone the same isn’t treating them equally –Special populations are “special” because they have unique needs –Program designs are often skewed to the majority –Onus is on us to: Determine which students are underserved and falling between the cracks Promote and facilitate the implementation of appropriate supports and/or intervention(s)
5 Food for Thought To whom are you serving peanut butter when ham and cheese would be better advised? Which student populations are falling between the cracks in your State TIPD program? What can you do to help your subgrantees serve those students better?
7 Culturally and Linguistically Competent Instruction Recent research indicates that teachers believe they have not been adequately prepared to teach children from cultural and linguistic backgrounds different from their own. 1.What is cultural and linguistic competence? 2.What does it look like in practice when implemented effectively? 3.What resources are available to support Title I, Subpart D subgrantees?
8 What Is Cultural and Linguistic Competence (CLC)? Beliefs, behaviors, knowledge, skills, and systems through which individuals and organizations demonstrate empathy and understanding of and respect for the values, historical context, expectations, language, and experiences of a diverse population
9 What Is Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching? The capacity of an educational setting and its personnel to: Communicate effectively and convey information in a manner that is easily understood by diverse audiences Use the cultural, linguistic and prior knowledge of diverse students to make learning more accessible and tangible Teach to and through the strengths of all students; not denigrate or disregard their unique cultural perspectives, experiences and preferences (Frey, 2010; Gay, 2000; Goode & Jones, 2009)
10 CLC in Action With the appropriate policies, structures, practices, procedures, trained staff, and dedicated resources in place in schools to support it, CLC can: Improve the knowledge possessed by staff about the students they serve Help stakeholders develop the skills to recognize, diffuse, and prevent the tensions that may arise in demographically diverse settings Increase student engagement and achievement
11 CLC in Action (Cont’d) Develop partnerships with students, parents and other caregivers, and the community to establish: –A school climate that is perceived as welcoming and fair –A school climate that promotes positive cultural identity Use instructional materials and approaches that will help engage all students; small choices can have big implications Provide a learning environment inclusive of diverse learning needs Provide a learning environment free from prejudice and stereotyping
12 CLC Resources Websites –National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE)National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE) –National Clearinghouse on Supportive School Discipline (NCSSD) Reference GuideNational Clearinghouse on Supportive School Discipline (NCSSD) Reference Guide –The Education Alliance at Brown UniversityThe Education Alliance at Brown University –Center for Culturally Responsive Teaching and LearningCenter for Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning Publications –Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters! (Equity Alliance)Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters! (Equity Alliance) –Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching (Gay)Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching (Gay) –Preparing Teachers to Work with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (Embracing Diversity)Preparing Teachers to Work with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (Embracing Diversity)
13 Panel Presentations Special Education Joe Gagnon University of Florida
Characteristics of Incarcerated Youth 38.15% of students are in special education compared to 12% in public school. Most of these students have emotional disturbance or learning disabilities (Gagnon, Barber, Van Loan, & Leone, 2009; Stizek, Pittsonberger, Riordan, Lyter, & Orlofsky, 2007) Typically have few academic credits and low grade point averages (Major, Chester, McEntire, Waldo, & Blomberg, 2002) Rarely return to high school, stay in school, and earn a diploma upon exit from a JC school (Griller-Clark, Rutherford, & Quinn, 2004).
Characteristics of Incarcerated Youth (cont.) Typically do not read well enough to gain basic information from passages (Beebe & Mueller, 1993; Coulter, 2004; Krezmien, Mulcahy, & Leone, 2008; Wilkerson, Gagnon, Mason-Williams, & Lane, 2012). Typically behind peers in mathematics by as many as four academic years (Baltodano, Harris, & Rutherford, 2005, Krezmien, Mulcahy, & Leone, 2008). Six times more incarcerated youth than youth in public schools has an emotional/behavioral disorder (Gagnon, Barber, Van Loan, & Leone, 2009)
Current Knowledge on Instruction and Behavioral Supports Mathematics No intervention study has been done in juvenile corrections We must rely on our knowledge of effective instruction for youth with LD and EBD, given their overrepresentation Reading Only a handful of studies exist Studies focus on reading alone (not writing) Studies focus on aspects of the Corrective Reading program
Current Knowledge: Mathematics Instruction Rely on the following instructional approaches : Explicit instruction Strategy instruction Technology-based instruction and real-world problem solving Graduated instructional sequence (Use of manipulatives-drawings, numbers) Peer-mediated instruction Instructional adaptations --(Gagnon & Barber, in press)
Current Knowledge: Reading Instruction Rely on the following instructional approaches : Systematic and explicit instruction phonics instruction and allow for the application of skills to achieve more fluent reading Focus on fluency building (antecedent-based (repeated readings), consequence-based (contingent reinforcement)) Focus on reading comprehension (use of graphic organizers, theme-based instruction, frequent questioning and relating information to personal experience) --(Gagnon, Wehby, Strong, & Falk, 2006)
Current Knowledge: Behavioral Interventions Rely on the following approaches : A positive, proactive, and multi-tiered approach to youth behavior Multi-disciplinary/agency team to identify youth behavioral functioning, needs, assure intervention is implemented with fidelity, review of data, adaptation as needed --(Gagnon, Rockwell, & Scott, 2008) Interventions that rely on cognitive-behavior therapy --(Gagnon & Barber, 2010)
Resources: What Works Clearinghouse Practice guides help educators address classroom challenges. Practice guides Intervention reports guide evidence-based decisions. Intervention reports Single study reviews examine research quality. Single study reviews Quick reviews give the WWC's assessment of recent education research. Quick reviews The studies database contains all WWC-reviewed studies.studies database
Resources: What Works Clearinghouse (cont.) Children and youth with disabilities College and career preparation Dropout prevention Early childhood education Education tehnology English language learners Literacy Mathematics Postsecondary education School choice Student behavior Teacher and leader effectiveness Teacher incentives
Learning Port National Professional Development Library Learning Port Learning Port is an Office of Special Education Program federally funded project that works in collaboration with the National Association of State Directors of Special Education It serves as an online conduit of PD, state agency materials, videos and resources developed by national organizations, and online modules and toolkits. Topics range from those that are applicable in a variety of broad settings, including professional learning communities and accountability, to resources that specifically target JC. The format, duration, cost, level of access (public, registration), assessment components, and the year it was created are indicated along with contact information and direct links for accessing resources. --(Gagnon, Houchins, & Murphy, 2012)
Additional Resources Council for Exceptional Children Professional Development Council for Exceptional Children Professional Development University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning (UKCRL) University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning (UKCRL) Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: OSEP Technical Assistance Center Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: OSEP Technical Assistance Center Pp In Gagnon & Richards (2008)
Additional Resources (cont.) American Institutes for Research: (mathematics, reading) LD Online: (mathematics, reading) National Center for Learning Disabilities: ncld.org Common Core State Standards Initiative: (mathematics, reading)
26 Panel Presentations 2 Girls and Gender-Specific Programming Joyce Burrell National Girls Institute
NATIONAL GIRLS’ INSTITUTE PROMOTES GENDER RESPONSIVENESS IN PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS JOYCE BURRELL, PROJECT DIRECTOR
OVERVIEW OF THE NEEDS OF GIRLS 1.Gender Differences 2.Purpose of Gender Responsive Programming 3.Elements of Gender Responsive Programming To Be Integrated 4.Educators engaging other disciplines within juvenile detention and correctional settings and community alternative school placements.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE JJ SYSTEM The Problem The number of female juvenile offenders is on the rise. They frighten adults who think they must have done something serious; Female offenders are different from male offenders in: Their pathways into the juvenile justice system; The risks and needs they present upon arrival and while in the system; Their needs in preparation for leaving the system and reentry into society; The very different developmental experiences, challenges faced; Higher Incidence of physical, sexual, and emotional victimization, depression, and low self-esteem that are directly linked to at-risk behaviors. Comparatively few specialized programs and services designed to meet their unique issues and needs
THE PROBLEM Alarming increase in criminal behavior by female juvenile delinquency in the past ten years. There is an urgent need to address the challenges facing at-risk young women and girls. 70 percent of the girls have more than one MH diagnosis. Almost all report previous traumatic exposures, including physical and sexual abuse. There are comparatively few specialized programs and services designed to meet their unique issues and needs. Personnel are fearful that offenses are much more serious than they are.
NATIONAL GENDER-RESPONSIVE GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR GIRLS AND YOUNG WOMEN Acknowledge that gender makes a difference 1.Create an environment based on safety, respect and dignity. 2.Develop policies, practices and programs that are relational 3.Address substance abuse, trauma and mental health issues through comprehensive, integrated and culturally relevant services. 4.Provide girls and young women with opportunities to receive education and training necessary to improve their socioeconomic status. 5.Establish a system of community supervision and re-entry with comprehensive, collaborative services. Adapted from Bloom, Owen and Covington, Support and lead cross-discipline collaboration to change the understanding among your peer to intentionally choose to be gender responsive.
WHAT ALL EDUCATORS CAN DO “Celebrate and honor the female experience” means: Recognizing that the experiences of females and males are different, and should be valued equally. Providing role models and examples of strong and successful girls and women from diverse backgrounds and cultures. This can be reinforced within learning modules. Providing support for girls’ success as young women. Join opportunities in their schools to acknowledging important life events of passage and ceremonies. Providing education regarding the female experience and women in history. (Tie it to each curriculum.)
TOOLS (LINKS TO BE ADDED) TO ENSURE GIRLS FEEL RESPECTED, ENCOURAGE GIRLS: To believe in and use their physical strength and abilities. Encouraging girls’ natural creativity and innovation. Encouraging girls to know and value their own feelings and opinions. Encouraging girls to trust their own feelings, intuitions, and decisions. Providing girls with safe and socially appropriate opportunities to speak up, speak out, and advocate for their own opinions, beliefs, and rights.
35 Panel Presentations 3 Young Adults of Transition Simon Gonsoulin NDTAC
36 Special Populations: Young Adults of Transition Age (YATA) Simon Gonsoulin, Project Director, NDTAC
37 Important Development During Transition Age Transition age refers to the period from 16–25 years old Developmental period where YATA usually: Make long-term decisions about their career –Complete schooling/vocational training –Obtain and maintain gainful employment Establish their future family relationships Move away from family of origin Source: Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition age youth with mental health challenges in the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health.
38 Youth of Transition Age in Title I, Part D, Subpart 1 Programs in SY 2011–12
39 Young Adults of Transition Age in the Juvenile Justice (JJ) System YATA in the justice system face barriers to successful development: High likelihood of mental health disorders High rates of comorbidity (multiple diagnosable mental disorders) Greater likelihood of coming from economically disadvantaged, single-parent households High rates of learning disabilities and/or history of school failure High likelihood of child welfare system involvement Source: Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition age youth with mental health challenges in the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health.
40 Justice-Involved Youth of Transition Age with Mental Health (MH) Challenges Justice-involved YATA with mental health problems are often involved with the following systems/services: Child welfare Special education Mental health services Vocational rehabilitation Independent housing Source: Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition age youth with mental health challenges in the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health.
41 Large Number of Youth in the JJ System with MH Disorders Across Multiple Studies National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice70.4% Teplin69.0% Wasserman68.5% Wasserman, Ko, McReynolds67.2%
42 Most Common MH Disorders for Young People who are Justice-Involved Disruptive behavior disorders –Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder, Conduct Disorder Anxiety disorder –Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Mood disorders –Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder Cocozza, J.J., & Skowyra, K. (2000). Youth with Mental Disorders: Issues and Emerging Response. Juvenile Justice, 7 (1), 3-13.
43 Mental Health Challenges: YATA The vast majority of mental health disorders have onset by the early 20s MH problems increase beginning in middle adolescence and peak in late adolescence and early adulthood –When substance use disorder is included, the percentage increases drastically Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Challenges in the Juvenile Justice System. Washington DC: Technical Assistance Partnership
44 Keep in Mind When Working with YATA Utilization of MH services declines sharply during the transition age period Highest rates of onset of problematic substance use and substance use disorders Criminal behavior tends to peak between ages 15 and 19 Executive functioning not fully developed
45 What Successful Transitions Look like for Justice-Involved Young Adults Demonstration of academic achievement Development of career/technical skills and gainful employment Establishment of stable family, peer and romantic relationships Sense of being a productive member of family, neighborhood and society No recidivism/re-offending
46 Barriers to Consider in Service Delivery Lack of sufficient health care coverage Inability to navigate multiple systems See needs of YATA through two lenses—not a child and not an adult Lack of service providers in the community May only qualify for adult-oriented care Upon reentry: seen as behind peers in employment, education and family roles
47 Policy and Practice Recommendations Provide rehabilitation versus punishment Mandate transition planning in the JJ and adult corrections system Coordinate care across service systems Expand availability of evidence-based MH treatments and high-quality services Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Challenges in the Juvenile Justice System. Washington DC: Technical Assistance Partnership.
48 Policy and Practice Recommendations, Cont. Train professionals who work with young adults of transition age Add research and program development Assess a wider range of transition-related outcomes Reduce number of caseloads Promote appropriate family involvement Zajac, K., Sheidow, A. J., & Davis, M. (2013). Transition Age Youth with Mental Health Challenges in the Juvenile Justice System. Washington DC: Technical Assistance Partnership.
49 Breakout II-A: S1 Only States District of Columbia Delaware Hawaii Puerto Rico Rhode Island Utah
50 Breakout II-B: Low Resource/Small Population Alaska Arkansas Colorado Connecticut Georgia Idaho Iowa Maine Mississippi Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Mexico North Dakota Oklahoma Oregon South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin
51 Breakout II-C: High Resource/Large Population Alabama Arizona California Florida Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Missouri New Jersey New York North Carolina Ohio Pennsylvania Texas Virginia Washington Wyoming