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“CONVICTING THOSE WHO CONTRADICT” HELPING SAINTS PREPARE TO ANSWER AND PERSUADE THOSE IN ERROR.

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Presentation on theme: "“CONVICTING THOSE WHO CONTRADICT” HELPING SAINTS PREPARE TO ANSWER AND PERSUADE THOSE IN ERROR."— Presentation transcript:

1 “CONVICTING THOSE WHO CONTRADICT” HELPING SAINTS PREPARE TO ANSWER AND PERSUADE THOSE IN ERROR

2 CATHOLICISM SECTION #2 2

3 WHY STUDY CATHOLICISM? Local Application Typical of Religions Whose Authority Is Rooted in Living Institution Sleeping Giant 3

4 WHAT IS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH? “Catholic” – Greek, katholikos, meaning “universal”. Membership – billion worldwide Headquarters – Vatican City, a sovereign city-state within Rome, ruled by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. Organization: Pope – Bishop of Rome, Father (papa) over church College of Cardinals – Elevated bishops Roman Curia – Various operational councils. Dioceses – Large geography ruled by a bishop. Parish – Local church ruled by a priest or deacon. 4

5 ROOT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH? Ca. AD 112 – Ignatius argues for a single bishop over the church and its elders – without arguing it was of “divine institution” (New Bible Dictionary, p.158, #1) Bishops in large churches influenced smaller churches. By AD 251 – Cyprian taught bishops were the successors to the apostles. By AD 451 – Bishops of Jerusalem, Rome, Antioch, Constantinople, and Alexandria = 5 “patriarchs” Ca. AD 606 – Roman bishop, Boniface III, given title of “Universal Bishop” by Byzantine Emperor Phocas. 5

6 ROOT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH? “Besides, arguments about Scripture achieve nothing but a stomach-ache or a headache.” (Tertullian, p.42; para. 16) “And I shall prescribe now that what they preached (that is, what Christ revealed to them) should be proved only through the identical churches which the apostles themselves established by preaching to them both viva voce, as one says, and afterwards by letters. If this is so, it follows that all doctrine which is in agreement with those apostolic churches,.. is to be deemed true on the ground that it indubitably preserves what the churches received from the apostles, the apostles from Christ, and Christ from God.” … next page … 6

7 ROOT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH “… It follows, on the other hand, that all doctrine which smacks of anything contrary to the truth of the churches and apostles of Christ and God must be condemned out of hand as originating in falsehood. … We are in communion with the apostolic churches. That is not true of any other doctrine. This is evidence of truth. (Tertullian, p.44, para. 21) Early Latin Theology, Library of Christian Classics V (1956), pp Apostolic succession – The “Living Magisterium” 7

8 A FLAWED STANDARD CATHOLICISM 8

9 THE AUTHORITY OF CATHOLICISM “The Catholic hierarchy is led by the Pope and includes cardinals, patriarchs and diocesan bishops. The Church teaches that it is the one true Church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles and that the Pope is the sole successor to Saint Peter who has apostolic primacy.” Holy Scripture Sacred Tradition Living Magisterium 9 Versus: Sola Scriptura “Bible Alone”

10 THE STANDARD OF CATHOLICISM “The Catholic hierarchy is led by the Pope and includes cardinals, patriarchs and diocesan bishops. The Church teaches that it is the one true Church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles and that the Pope is the sole successor to Saint Peter who has apostolic primacy.” Holy Scripture Sacred Tradition Living Magisterium 10 Versus: Sola Scriptura “Bible Alone”

11 RESULTS OF THEIR STANDARD Papacy “Adoration” of Mary Clergy vs. Laity Celibacy of Priests Mass Transubstantiation Sacraments Purgatory Mortal vs. Venial Sin Auricular Confession Penance Indulgences Statues, Relics, and Images Original Sin Infant Baptism Holy Orders Political Power Civil Superiority Joining Church & State Church Control of All Schools Mental Reservation Inquisition 11

12 SYLLABUS OF ERRORS? 80 Errors – Published in 1864 by Pope Pius IX, 1870 by Cardinals. 15. (It is not true that) “Every man is free to embrace and profess that which he, led by the light of reason, things to be true religion.” 24. (It is not true that) “The Church does not have the power of using force, nor does it have any temporal power, direct or indirect.” 37. (It is not true that) “National churches can be established which are exempt and completely separated from the authority of the Roman Pontiff.” 42. (It is not true that) “In a conflict between the laws of both powers, the civil law prevails.” 12

13 SYLLABUS OF ERRORS? 80 Errors – Published in 1864 by Pope Pius IX, 1870 by Cardinals. 54. Kings and Princes are not only not exempt from the jurisdiction of the Church, but are subordinate to the Church in litigated questions of jurisdiction. 55. The church ought to be in union with the State, and the State with the Church. 57. Philosophical principles, moral science, and civil laws may and must be made to bend to Divine and Ecclesiastical authority. 13

14 “AXE LAID TO THE ROOT …” “Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.” – Abraham Lincoln “If the ax is dull, And one does not sharpen the edge, Then he must use more strength; But wisdom brings success.” (Ecclesiastes 10:10) Luke 3:9 14

15 THE POPE A FLAWED STANDARD 15

16 IS THE POPE’S TITLE BIBLICAL? 1.Is there anything wrong with the Pope’s title of Papa, or “Father”? “But you, do not be called ‘Rabbi’; for One is your Teacher, the Christ, and you are all brethren. Do not call anyone on earth your father; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven. And do not be called teachers; for One is your Teacher, the Christ. But he who is greatest among you shall be your servant.” (Matthew 23:8-11) He sent redemption unto his people: he hath commanded his covenant for ever: holy and reverend is his name. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom … (Psalm 111:9-10 KJV) 16

17 “WHAT ABOUT TIMOTHY AND PAUL?” I Timothy 1:2, 18 – “To Timothy, a true son in the faith … This charge I commit to you, son Timothy, …” Titus 1:4 – “To Titus, a true son in our common faith …” Philemon 10 – “for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten …” Personal “begetting” and “raising” in the faith – not given to complete strangers, because of their office. “But you know his proven character, that as a son with his father he served with me in the gospel.” (Philippians 2:22) … Metaphor for their close relationship – not title! 17

18 BIBLE QUALIFICATIONS FOR POPE? 2.Where are the qualifications for a pope given in Scripture? How does this compare with other officers of the church? None! Where are “cardinals”, “doctors”, “patriarchs”, etc.? “And He Himself gave some to be 1 apostles, some 2 prophets, some 3 evangelists, and some 4 pastors and teachers, for the equipping of the saints for the work of ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ …” (Ephesians 4:11-12; see: Acts 20:17, 28; I Peter 5:1-5) “A bishop then must be … Likewise deacons must be …” (I Timothy 3:1-13; Titus 1:7-9) 18

19 WAS PETER THE FIRST POPE? “The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the ‘rock’ of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock” (The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 233) 3.Catholics look to Peter as their first pope. According to the Bible, why does he not meet their qualifications of a being a pope? Matthew 18:18 – Other apostles could also bind & loose Matthew 19:28 – The apostles ruled on “twelve thrones” – not 1 and 11. I Peter 1:1; 5:1 - Only an “apostle” and “fellow elder” 19

20 WAS PETER THE FIRST POPE? “The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the ‘rock’ of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock” (The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 233) 3.Catholics look to Peter as their first pope. According to the Bible, why does he not meet their qualifications of a being a pope? Matthew 19:28 – The apostles ruled on “twelve thrones” – not 1 and 11. I Peter 1:1; 5:1 - Only an “apostle” and “fellow elder” 20

21 WAS PETER THE FIRST POPE? I Peter 2:25; 5:4 – Jesus the only “Chief Shepherd” Matthew 8:14; I Corinthians 9:5 – Married after G. C. Acts 10:25-26 – Refused worship as “also a man” Acts 11 – Required witnesses and “called on the carpet” Acts 15 – Witness, not final speaker or presiding Galatians 2:11-14 – Paul “withstood Peter to the face” II Corinthians 11:5; 12:11 – Paul was not less than any other apostle. Paul dominates over Peter in most of Acts and epistles of NT. 21

22 THE CHURCH BUILT ON PETER? 4.If you were speaking to a Catholic friend, and she said, “In Matthew 16:18, Jesus said He would build His church upon the foundation of Peter, and He gave Peter special powers (i.e., keys, forgiveness) indicating he would be the first Pope.” How would you respond? 22

23 PETER, THE ROCK OF THE CHURCH? Simon Peter answered and said, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Jesus answered and said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” Then He commanded His disciples that they should tell no one that He was Jesus the Christ. (Matthew 16:16-20) 23

24 PETER, A ROCK OR A BOULDER? Simon Peter (Gr., petros) answered and said, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Jesus answered and said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. And I also say to you that you are Peter (Gr., petros), and on this rock (Gr., petras) I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” Then He commanded His disciples that they should tell no one that He was Jesus the Christ. (Matthew 16:16-20) 24

25 PETER, A STONE – NOT FOUNDATION 4.If you were speaking to a Catholic friend, and she said, “In Matthew 16:18, Jesus said He would build His church upon the foundation of Peter, and He gave Peter special powers (i.e., keys, forgiveness) indicating he would be the first Pope.” How would you respond? Church built on object of Peter’s confession – Jesus is the Christ, not Peter himself. Even if Aramaic, specifically translated as “stone” (John 1:42) Matthew 18:18 – Other apostles could also bind & loose I Peter 2:8 – Peter said Jesus was the foundation (Gr., petra) Acts 2, 10 – Offered gospel first to Jews and Gentiles 25

26 OTHER CATHOLIC PROOF TEXTS Jesus said to Simon Peter, … “Feed My lambs.” (John 21:15-17; see also, Acts 20:17, 28; I Peter 5:1-4) “… at least the shadow of Peter passing by might fall on some of them” (Acts 5:15; see also, Acts 19:11) “Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter …” (Matthew 10:2) Circular Reasoning: “Catholics take this to mean …”, “The Catholic Church says …” Cannot appeal to an authority, when the very challenge is its authority! (John 5:31). 26

27 STUDYING WITH A CATHOLIC 1.Do not immediately attack various doctrines peculiar to the Catholic church. 2.Instead, seek to establish a common, accepted standard of authority. 3.Ask, “Do you believe the Bible?” … If, “yes” …. 4.Let them read passages on the sufficiency of Scriptures. 5.Acceptance of additional revelation contradicts their belief in the Bible. No room for “Living Magisterium”. 6.Until this is common belief … apples and oranges. 27

28 THE SUFFICIENCY OF SCRIPTURE ESTABLISHED STANDARD 28

29 CHANGE IN DOCTRINE? 5.Explain at least one passage that teaches latter revelations could not contradict established revelation? “I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed.” (Galatians 1:6-9) 29

30 CONTRAST: VATICAN II Ecumenical Council: 2,540 Catholic leaders; Language of the Mass: Latin → Common Language Fasting before Communion: Midnight → 3 hours prior Meat on Fridays: Now allowed in United States only Required Sunday Mass: Satur. substitute (mortal sin) Penance: Individual → “General Absolution” Priests’ Celibacy: Overlooked for converted priests Ecumenicalism: Still “One true church”, but … 30

31 CHANGE: PAPAL INFALLIBILITY? Vigilinus ( ) : Would not condemn heretics. Refused to attend the 5 th Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. Council proceeded and threatened excommunication. Submitted to the council and confessed being tool of Satan. Honorius ( ): Taught Monothelite heresy, denied by 6 th Ecumenical Council. Branded as heretic and excommunicated by same council. On validity of civil marriages: Valid – Hadrain II ( ) Invalid – Pius VII ( ) 31

32 CHANGE: PAPAL INFALLIBILITY? Orthodoxy of Joan of Arc: Condemned to burning as witch – Eugene IV ( ) Declared to be a saint – Benedict XV (1919) On the Jesuit Order: Suppressed – Clement XIV (July 21, 1773) Restoration – Pius VII (August 7, 1814) On Galileo and Earth Orbiting the Sun: Denounced as “utterly contrary to the Holy Scriptures” Tortured and imprisoned in dungeons of the Inquisition. … Popes Paul V ( ) and Urban VIII ( ) 32

33 CONTINUING REVELATION? 6.Explain at least one passage that teaches revelation would not be continually given throughout the ages? Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. (Jude 1:3) 33

34 CONTRAST: EVOLUTION OF POPE Tertullian (3 rd ) – “It is a happy fact that Peter is on the same level with Paul.” Origen (3 rd ) – “For a rock is every disciple of Christ …” Cyprian ( ) – “None of us has ever dared to proclaim himself bishop of bishops, forcing with tyrannical terror the obedience of his colleagues.” Leo I ( ) – Emperor Valentinian III issue edict declaring Roman See as supreme court of appeal for all bishops. 34

35 CONTRAST: EVOLUTION OF POPE In response to John, bishop of Constantinople, in AD 588 assuming title of “Pope”, Gregory I, bishop of Rome, wrote: “… none of us has permitted this title to be given him; none has assumed this bold title, lest by assuming a special episcopate, we should seem to refuse it to all the brethren. … But far from Christians be this blasphemous name by which all honor is taken from all other priests, while it is foolishly arrogated by one.” (The Bible vs. Romanism, Trice, p.67 via Litmer, p. 54) 35

36 CONTRAST: EVOLUTION OF POPE To Emperor Mauritius, Gregory I, bishop of Rome, wrote: “I am bold to say, that whosoever adopts or affects the title of universal bishop has the pride and the character of anti-Christ, and is in some manner his forerunner in this haughty quality of elevating himself above the rest of his order.” (The Bible vs. Romanism, Trice, p.68 via Litmer, p. 54) Gregory rejected the title in AD 604 from Emperor Phocas. Boniface III accepted the title in AD 607 from Phocas. St. Gregory I (the Great) is supposedly the 64 th Pope from Peter according to Catholics! 36

37 WHAT’S MISSING? 7.Explain at least one passage that teaches we have all that we need in Scripture. Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord, as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by glory and virtue, (II Peter 1:2-3) All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work. (II Timothy 3:16-17) 37

38 CONTRAST: DOCTRINAL ADDITIONS Doctrines peculiar to Catholic church of recent origin: 1950 – Bodily Assumption of Mary into heaven 1870 – Papal Infallibility – Formalization of Saint Canonization – Indulgences 2 nd – Purgatory 1215 – Transubstantiation & Auricular Confession – Celibacy of priests 553 – Mary, “Perpetual Virgin” 431 – Mary, “Mother of God” 390 – Mary, virgin even in birth “Perpetual belief of the church”??? 38

39 CAN WE NOT UNDERSTAND? 8.Explain at least one passage that teaches we can understand Scripture. … how that by revelation He made known to me the mystery (as I have briefly written already, by which, when you read, you may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ), which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to His holy apostles and prophets (Ephesians 3:3-5) 39

40 CONTRAST WITH CATHOLIC CHURCH “No one shall dare to rely on his own judgment in matters of faith and morals … it is her office to judge about the true sense of and interpretation of Sacred Scripture.” (Council of Trent, ca. AD 1563) 40

41 IN DEBT TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH? 9.How would you answer? “The Catholic Church gave you the Bible. You would have no Bible without the Catholic Church!” Then why is Catholicism contrary to the Bible? The Catholic church only formally recognized what was already generally accepted (Council of Hippo, AD 390). God inspired and approved the books miraculously (Heb. 2:1-4; Mark 16:15-20; II Timothy 3:16-17; II Peter 1:19-21). Early church was responsible for circulating the epistles (Colossians 4:16; I Thessalonians 5:27). Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrianus – AD

42 CONCLUSION: ON CATHOLICISM Operates upon a flawed standard: The Living Magisterium Unimportance of Scripture Numerous Errors from Flawed Standard. … Add many things to Scripture, ignoring its “silence”. “Lay axe to the root …” – Confront the Flawed standard. Papacy is most visible and powerful office in Catholicism … … also the most contrary to Scripture! Do you believe the Bible? It claims to be all sufficient? Do you believe it? If so … Then why permit an additional, contradictory standard? 42

43 REFERENCES Gibson, John. Denominational and Cult Error. Pepper Road Church of Christ. Unpublished Harkrider, Robert. Basic Bible Doctrine. Book 4, Lesson 6. Impressive Image Production. Russellville, Alabama Litmer, Greg. Catholicism Under the Microscope. Guardian of Truth Foundation, Bowling Green, KY Lambert., O. C., Catholicism Against Itself. Star Bible Publications, Inc. Ft. Worth, Texas. 1963, Wallace, Foy E., Jr. Bulwarks of the Faith, vol. 1. Foy E. Wallace Jr., Publications. Oklahoma City


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