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Cultural Policy: New Trends Warsaw November 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Policy: New Trends Warsaw November 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Policy: New Trends Warsaw November 2011

2 Plan Culture as a source of economic growth and employment Culture as a source of innovation and creativity Redesigning cultural policy Policy recommendations

3 CORE ARTS FIELDS CULTURAL INDUSTRIES CREATIVE INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES RELATED SECTORS Visual Arts Heritage Performing ArtsBooks and Press Television and Radio Music Video Games Film and Video Advertising Architecture Design Consumer Electronics Telecommu- nications Industrial Design Software Tourism Education Fashion Design User Generated Content Luxury brands

4 ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE ECONOMY OF CULTURE IN EUROPE In 2004 5.8 million people worked in the sector, equivalent to 3.1% of total employed population in EU25. Total employment in the EU decreased in 2002-2004, employment in the sector increased (+1.85%).  EMPLOYMENT The sector’s growth in 1999-2003 was 12.3% higher than the growth of the general economy.  CONTRIBUTION TO EU GROWTH The sector contributed to 2.6% of EU GDP in 2003  Real estate activities accounted for 2.1%  The food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing sector accounted for 1.9%  The textile industry accounted for 0.5%  The chemicals, rubber and plastic products industry accounted for 2.3%  VALUE ADDED TO EU GDP The sector turned over more than €654 billion in 2003 Car manufacturing industry was € 271 billion in 2001. ICT manufacturers was € 541 billion in 2003 (EU-15 figures)  TURNOVER

5 Comparison with the other sectors of the economy

6 Copyright industries in the US Economy TURNOVER  Films, TV programmes, software, books, music represented USD 819 billion in 2006 VALUE ADDED TO EU GDP  6.6 % of US GDP in 2006 CONTRIBUTION TO EU GROWTH  Responsible for almost 13% of the overall US growth in 2005 EMPLOYMENT  In 2005 5.38 million people employed. More than 4% of total US workers Source: IIPA Report: Copyright Industries in the US Economy: the 2006 Report

7 EU-China: Cultural & Creative industries TURNOVER  More than €654 billion in 2003 €47.6 billion in 2006 VALUE ADDED TO GDP  2.6 % of EU GDP in 2003 2.45% of GDP in 2006 CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH  12.3% higher than the growth of the general economy in 1999- 2003 6.4% higher than the growth of the general economy EMPLOYMENT  In 2004 5.8 million people employed. = 3.1% of total employed population in EU25. 11.32 million = 1.48% of total employed population in 2006. EU China Sources: Economy of Culture 2006, Chinese National Bureau of statistics 2006.

8 Local Development Creative cities London 6% annual growth 1997-2002 (3% general economy) Second largest business sector (GBP29 billion GDP annual turnover) Third largest sector of employment Source: GLA 2002 “Creativity: London’s Core Business Report”, 2004 Report on London’s Creative Sector

9 Local Development Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (since 1997) Direct revenue €26 million per annum Indirect revenue of €139 million per annum 1 million visitors each year (60% foreign) Creation of 4361 jobs

10 Outlook - PWC New spending streams on ICT-related Media (internet, video games, Digital TV, VOD) Compound annual growth for Europe is forecast at 6.5% From a market valued at USD 417 billion in 2004 to USD 572 billion by 2009 Source: Global Entertainment and Media Outlook – PWC (June 2005)

11 The digital shift: outlook for digital distribution Online content distribution: TV programmes, radio, music, movies, games, publishing EC study predicts over 400% growth for creative content online in five years in the EU From a market valued at € 1,7 billion in 2005 to € 8.3 billion by 2010 Source: DG Infso study on Interactive content and convergence 2006

12 “Not everything that counts can be measured, and not everything that can be measured counts.”

13 Sempé



16 The features of culture-based creativity which generate value are described below. The features of culture-based creativity leading to innovation: AffectSpontaneityIntuitionMemoriesImagination Aesthetic Generate values: New vision DifferentiationIntangibleDisruption Community Values Culture-based Creativity leading to Innovation


18 PUMA – A Successful Culture based Creativity Strategy 1999 - Decision “for a strong focus on creative approaches in marketing, design, technology, to deliver distinctive, irresistible products and concepts in the pursuit of its brand mission.......“to be one of the most desirable sport brands in the world.” (Jochen Zeit, CEO)

19 CREATIVE PUMA (in millions) Star promotion: Maradona to Ph. Starck (2004), Marc Wanders (2007), Hussein Chalayan (2008) 2006 - “Most desirable lifestyle brand.” 19992008 Sales€372€ 2.500 Profits€108€ 1.300

20 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURE-BASED CREATIVITY TO BUSINESS STATEGIES Creativity  - Product innovation - Branding - Human Resources - Communication

21 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURE BASED CREATIVITY TO SOCIAL INNOVATION Creativity  - Social cohesion - Community regeneration - Innovation in public services

22 Creativity  CONTRIBUTION OF ART AND CULTURE TO STIMULATE CREATIVITY IN LEARNING - Stimulates divergent thinking - Promotes social integration and mobility - Encourages learning

23 Creativity – Multi-dimensional Creativity” is defined as a cross-sector and multidisciplinary way, mixing elements of “artistic creativity”, “economic innovation” as well as “technological innovation.” Economic creativity Cultural creativity Scientific creativity Technological creativity A process of interactions and spill-over effects between different innovative processes

24 “Creative people do not get the backing they deserve because you can’t put a figure on creative value”. Ian Livingston, Creative Director Eidos

25 EU support to Creativity and Innovation 2007-2013 (in € billion): Innovation: FP7: 53 CIP: 3.6 Structural Funds: 87 Total:153.6 Culture based Creativity: CULTURE: 0.4 MEDIA: 0.7 Structural Funds:? Total : less than 3 Structural Funds: € 347 billion

26 Presidency Conclusions, Brussels European Council, 13-14 March 2008 “A key factor for future growth is the full development of the potential for innovation and creativity of European citizens built on European culture and excellence in science.”

27 A strategy for a Creative Poland The role of cultural policy Creativity is an essential competitive tool Creativity is a key component of innovation Creativity nourishes large sectors of the economy (textile, car, ICT)

28 The European cultural and creative sector - Strengths and weaknesses Plenty of individual talentbut with limited business skills and attracted to the USA (creativity drain) Some of the largest competitive players at global level but they lack same power and leverage than the US-based creative industries on governments A myriad of creative SMEs with strong local presence market access and undercapitalisation problems Importance of the public sectorbut a resistance in taking stock of international challenges Sustained consumer demand (growth in demand for content) but poor understanding of consumers’ demand in relation to the digital economy Strong IP laws in the EUbut poor enforcement in some countries (piracy levels) and subsidising broadband rollout.

29 A Creativity Policy Objectives Encourage imagination and talents at school, in life, in enterprises and public institutions. Support the development of a creative economy by integrating creativity in innovation policies. Promote social innovation and inclusion through culture. Brand Poland as the place to create in the world. Balance a policy vision entirely subject to economic ends.

30 A Creative Poland Recommendations Value culture as an important resource of creativity Mainstream culture-based creativity in local policies and programmes to foster innovation (economic and social) Re-direct existing financial resources to stimulate creativity (to support non technology innovation) Brand Poland as THE place to create. Question and tailor regulatory and institutional supports to creativity and cultural collaboration – redesign cultural policy

31 Conclusions : redefine cultural policy ? Show the importance of artistic talents and cultural activities in the process of innovation, in education, in research (break the silos). Ensure that innovation policy includes culture-based creativity. Develop a narrative on cultural policy that go beyond heritage preservation or tourism.

32 Philippe Kern 51 Rue du Trône B -1050 Brussels  +32 2 289 26 00 Credits : Sempé – Le Monde de Sempé (vol1), Edition Denoel Alan Parker – Making Movies, British Film Institute

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