Presentation on theme: "Assessment 2.0 Assessment in the age of Web 2.0 Bobby Elliott"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessment 2.0 Assessment in the age of Web 2.0 Bobby Elliott “Modernising assessment” and no-one was interested… adding “2.0” made it attractive!But the presentation is about modernising assessment.Based on a paper I wrote called “Assessment 2.0”.This is not the SQA policy!
2Summary of presentation Traditional assessment has served us wellBut it’s time for changeWe’re going though a cultural revolutionEducation has resisted changeThe contemporary classroom is detached from realityWe need to modernise educationIncluding assessmentE-assessment systems are not the answerWe should use the tools that are natural to today’s learnersTakes around minutes... depending on how much I remember to say!
3Evolution of assessment Traditional assessment (Assessment 1.0)Computer-based assessment (Assessment 1.5)Tool-assisted assessment (Assessment 2.0)Three main stages in the evolution of assessment.I am going to argue that we are at a transition between stages 2-3.
4Assessment 1.0 Assessment from 618AD to today Characteristics Paper-basedClassroom basedFormalisedSynchronisedControlledIndustrialisedEnjoys public and political confidenceChanged little since early 20th CenturyIt has served us well.Egalitarian roots: Chinese Civil Service promotion based on merit (knowledge) rather than family ties.Churchill story (Eton entrance exam... blotting answer book... “I am a Churchill”).Remains one of the few times when a working class child is on a level playing field with the other classes (the A Level is the same for every pupil).
5Spot the differencePicture on left taken in One on left in 2007.The school master on the left would not be too uncomfortable being on the right...Unlike doctors or most other professions.
6Assessment 1.5 Computer-based assessment Types Embedded in most VLEs E-testingE-portfoliosEmbedded in most VLEsStand-alone systemsFamiliar to students and teachersComputer assisted assessment became popular about 10 years ago.VLE embedded is the quiz feature in Moodle... becoming more powerful (more question types).VLE/CAA systems are fairly comfortable for teachers e.g. “virtual staff room”, familiar question types (MCQs).
7Problems with 1.0… Expensive to run Inflexible Doesn’t scale wellInflexibleArranged around dietsOne size fits all (not personalised)Not delivering contemporary skillsCollaboration, problem solving, flexibilityDrives teaching and learning“Teaching to the test”Memorisation not understandingEmployers complain that education system is still not producing the right sort of people (collaborative, etc.).Teachers complain that it dominates their teaching due to targets and league tables.My story about marking Higher Grade Computing in early 1990’s (seemed a deep paper – but pupils rote learned answers).
8“Problem solving is really done through memorisation” So most exam papers are actually answered by rote learning.And most setting teams know this and refuse to change the wording of questions (“But that would confuse them – they won’t have seen a question like that in a past paper”).There was a time when memory was important – when information was scarce.But not now. “Information at your fingertips” (Bill Gates).“Memorisation is valueless when students are one click away from Google and Wikipedia”
9The irony is lost on the writer of the article. And proof that this exam is about memorisation!Is there any value in an exam that can be answered by Wikipedia?
10“Five minute university”. Apologies for bad Spanish accent!Apologies if you have seen it before. I will not show it all (couple of minutes).
11And problems with 1.5… Imitates traditional assessment “Reproduces the paper experience”“Completely locks-down the computer”Limited question typesCrude simulationsE-portfolios: little more than online storage?Simply automates Assessment 1.0?Still assessing memorisationNot really modernising assessmentConstrain innovation in assessment?E-assessment simply automates traditional assessment.It does not really change assessment in any fundamental way.In fact, it can constrain innovation by only offering traditional and e-assessment.By doing so, it still ignores the world that you people actually inhabit (Web 2.0 as we will see).And it still appears unnatural and a hurdle to be jumped to learners...
12Student perceptions Artificial and contrived Something that is done to themDoesn’t measure anything importantHurdle to be jumpedNot part of their learningSole purpose of their learningDon’t under-estimate the number of students who think that the only purpose of education is to pass exams.
13Cultural revolution OK – so that the past – good and bad. We’re currently going through a cultural revolution.Not sure when it started ’s? 1980’s?But the world is changing...Go through images from top left to bottom right... “different morals, rapidly spreading technology (even to Third World), reduced respect for authority”.Botswana story... “no shoes on their feet but ipods and laptops”.
14Web 2.0 User-generated content Architecture of participation Network effectsOpennessData on an epic scalePower of the crowdPart of that “cultural revolution” is technological change.One of the main technological changes going on right now is “Web 2.0” (“oh” not “zero”).An excellent JISC paper defined six characteristics of Web 2.0 (Anderson).
16But this is an easier way to describe Web 2.0... Flickr is simple to use, easy to contribute, massive amount of data, and free.And Web 2.0 services omit final vowel!
17New types of learner? “Millennials” “Google Generation” “Generation X” Lots of commentators have commented on new types of learner.e.g. “Google generation” is anyone born after 1984 (now 24).Marc Prensky coined the most famous description... “digital native”...“Net Geners”“Digital natives”
18Digital natives Use books Passive learning Contrived tasks IMMIGRANTNATIVEUse booksPassive learningContrived tasksProcess orientedMemoriseLibraryCompeteUse WebActive learningAuthentic tasksGoal orientedSearchGoogleCollaborateHe contrasted the “digital native” (young learners) with “digital immigrants” (you and me).
19Kids don’t use libraries. “Pupils borrow on average one library book a term”... and search Google 20 times a day.
20Old types of rules… New learners... old rules. Mr Chumley-Warner said last bit!
21This is the environment that young people inhabit. If you don’t use these services, you’re kids or grandchildren will.
22Hidden curriculum Assignment GoogleWiki-pediaSkypeAssignmentThe way young people do assessments is not the way we imagine.They don’t do the literature reviews that we give them and use libraries.They use Wikipedia as a starting point, the Google some, then ask their friends... and produce an essay with a couple of references to your reading list!This is the “hidden curriculum” – the real resources that students use.
23Assessment 2.0 Authentic Natural Personalised Negotiated Problem-based DeepCollaborativePeer and self-assessedTool supportedI am proposing an update to assessment.Not a technological update – an update to the characteristics of a “modern assessment”.A modern assessment should exhibit some or all of these characteristics.Tool support is not *permitted* - it’s encouraged!
24Evidence Naturally occurring Digital Multimedia Distributed StudentFacebookSkypeGoogle mailMSNWikipediadel.icio.usNaturally occurringDigitalMultimediaDistributedA modern assessment will produce digital evidence in a range of formats.Such as , chat logs, Wikipedia pages (written by the student), etc.It will embrace accreditation of prior learning by accepting their previous work (such as an old dialogue or video they made a few years ago).
25Assessment 1.0 v Assessment 2.0 GivenDone aloneDescriptiveTextClosed bookDone in classTeacher assessedNegotiatedDone collaborativelyResearched/DeepText/audio/videoOpen webDone anywhereSelf- and peer-assessedHere is a summary of the characteristics of “traditional” and “modern” assessment.They are almost opposites.
26Assessment 1.0 v Assessment 2.0 Write an essay describing the rise of Fascism in Germany during the periodYou may not confer nor refer to notes or other reference material.Working with other students, choose an aspect of the rise of Fascism in Germany during the 1930’s and research this.Create a team blog to record your findings.Here is an example of a traditional assessment task and a modern assessment task.Note that the old one involves an essay that must be done along, in class.The new approach has an element of choice, group working and collaboration. The output is a group blog.
27Assessment 1.0 v Assessment 2.0 The essayThe blogIn February 1933 the Reichstag was burnt down. In March the Nazis won 44% of the popular vote making it the largest party in Germany. The Nazis were bad. The Allies were good.Here is the sort of answers you might expect.It’s been argued that essays are really “academic papers written by children”. That they encourage a simplistic approach to complex subjects. War is complex. This period was complex e.g. US industrialists complaining about peace to FDR because they had retooled their factories.The blog would have a theme chosen by the students e.g. the role of US corporations in the rise of Nazism.Modern assessment might facilitate a more research-based approach to assessment. More factual (e.g. source material) and less simplistic.Every student in each group would contribute to the blog (each could research a specific aspect of US support for the Nazis e.g. IBM’s support or Ford Motor Company or US media...)
28This front page might feature in the students’ blog. The front page of Time Magazine declaring “Man of the Year for 1939”. Guess who?(Let’s hope it was mid-1939 since we WWII started in September of that year)
29Web 2.0 servicesWeb serviceExampleCycleUse(s)Personal portalNetvibesEvidence organisationCombining Web services on single pageGoogle MailEvidence storageStoring evidence and searching archive for evidenceBlogWordpressRecording activities; e-portfolio; log-book/diaryRSSBloglinesEvidence discoverySubscribing to evidence sourcesSocial bookmarkingDel.icio.usEvidence captureCapturing URLs of potential evidence sourcesInstant messagingMSNDiscussion; group work; collaborationVOIPSkypeCapturing audio evidence; candidate authenticationWikiWikispacesEvidence creationCollaborative writing; projects; research findings; group workSearch engineLive SearchLocating evidenceOnline storageBox.netSaving and storing evidenceVideo uploadYouTubeCreating and storing video evidenceSocial networkFacebookCollaborating and publishing evidenceThese are the tools that young people use for socialising and learning.We should use them for assessment.We don’t need to worry about obsolescence since if Facebook disappears another service will take over from it.Assessment 2.0 is not dependent on specific Web 2.0 services. It is not a tool-set.
30The case for abandoning your VLE/CAA… “Because you’re pouring money into a black hole that students don’t like, which is unnatural to them, which can’t possibly keep up with developments on the Web, and which is little more than a comfort blanket to teachers who can’t, or won’t, embrace the 21st Century.”If this sounds damning, there are advantages…
31The case for retaining your VLE/CAA… It’s an important evolutionary stepNot every student is a digital nativeNot every teacher can use Web 2.0“I can’t get my staff to use the quiz in Moodle so what chance is there that they’ll embrace Web 2.0?”It solves immediate problemsreduces cost of assessmentsupports assessment on demand (life long learning)
32Challenges posed by Assessment 2.0 PlagiarismAuthenticationAuthentic assessmentUp-skilling assessorsRubrics for collaborationHow to assess a group blog?Peer and self-assessmentBut “Assessment 2.0” is not a panacea. The are problems with it too.e.g. both awarding bodies and universities support peer assessment in theory – but not in practice (rarely used and when it is it is for a tiny number of marks). Yet research shows that it is reliable.A problem not listed is that students might not want to mix their social lives with the educational lives e.g. using Facebook or their for assessment.
33The future Education Technology Education as differentiator in global economyGrowth of life-long learningGrowth of e-learningespecially mobile learningPersonalised learning/assessmentRecognition of informal learningTechnologyWeb 3.0Ubiquitous computing
34Summary Traditional assessment is past its sell-by date E-assessment imitates traditional assessmentUbiquitous computing will digitise everythingEducation is becoming detached from realityWe should embrace ICT and the InternetWe should use the same tools that students useAssessment 2.0 is half-bakedBut we need to modernise assessment…urgently