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I have contributed to investigations Into the role of Micro-organisms in producing and breaking down some materials. SCN 2-13a REVISION NEW LEARNING Using.

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Presentation on theme: "I have contributed to investigations Into the role of Micro-organisms in producing and breaking down some materials. SCN 2-13a REVISION NEW LEARNING Using."— Presentation transcript:

1 I have contributed to investigations Into the role of Micro-organisms in producing and breaking down some materials. SCN 2-13a REVISION NEW LEARNING Using a microscope, I have developed my understanding of the structure and variety of cells and of their functions. SCN 3-13a

2 Cells

3 Think Pair Share Discuss with your partner the following topics, 1. What is a cell? 2. How can we look at and study cells?

4 Viewing cells Today we will learn to use a microscope to magnify and view cells. We will do this by Labelling a diagram of a microscope and using it to view different cells. We will have succeeded if We are able to view cells under the microscope clearly.

5 The Microscope Eyepiece Fine focus control Light Rough focus control Handle Nosepiece Stage Clip Objective lenses Since the cells we are going to look at are so tiny, we must use a microscope to see them clearly. Lets name all the “bits”!

6 Parts and Functions of Microscope Part of MicroscopeFunction Eyepiece lens Objective lens Stage Mirror Rough Focus control Fine Focus control Clips Handle Nosepiece magnifies holds the slide shines light through what you want to see Gives you sharp picture with small adjustments Gives you sharp picture small adjustments Holds slide in position To carry microscope safely Hold the objective lens in place

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8 Cell Membrane Cell Wall Cytoplasm

9 Chloroplasts Nucleus Vacuole

10 Animal Cells

11 Starter Label the parts of the microscope using the words below. _______ __________ _________ _______ ______ _______ _______ Objective lense Eyepiece Fine focus control Rough focus control Light Stage Eyepiece Fine focus control Rough focus control Light Stage Objective lense

12 Learning Intentions To draw a typical animal cell Label the parts of a typical animal cell Be able to describe the functions of each part To draw a typical animal cell Label the parts of a typical animal cell Be able to describe the functions of each part

13 Animal Cell Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus

14 Parts and functions of Animal Cell Part of CellWhat it does 1Cell membrane 2Cytoplasm 3Nucleus Controls movement of substances in and out of cells. Chemical changes take place. Controls the activity of the cell.

15 Questions What does the nucleus do? Controls all cell activities What is the cytoplasm? Liquid centre of a cell where chemical reactions happen. What is the cell membrane? The border of a cell which controls what goes in and out of the cell. It only allows small molecules to enter and exit, what word is used to describe it? Semi-permeable

16 Starter Name the parts of an animal cell Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus

17 Learning Intentions To prepare a slide using cheek cells View the cheek cells using a microscope Draw what you see through the “field of view” Label the parts of a cheek cell State that stains are used to show the parts of the cell more clearly To prepare a slide using cheek cells View the cheek cells using a microscope Draw what you see through the “field of view” Label the parts of a cheek cell State that stains are used to show the parts of the cell more clearly

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22 Starter Match the part of the animal cell to its function Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Chemical changes take place. Controls movement of substances in and out of cells. Controls the activity of the cell.

23 Plant Cells

24 Learning Intentions To draw a typical plant cell Label the parts of a typical plant cell Be able to describe the functions of each part To draw a typical plant cell Label the parts of a typical plant cell Be able to describe the functions of each part

25 Plant Cells First…The bits in common..... Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Now the “Plant only” bits….. Cell Wall Vacuole Chloroplasts A few together

26 What do the “Plant only” parts do? Cell Wall Vacuole Chloroplasts A tough but flexible outer layer made of cellulose. It supports the cell, helping it to keep its shape. Stores sugary sap. When it is full, it makes the cell rigid, and so stops the plant from wilting. Contains green chlorophyll which the plant uses to make its own food by photosynthesis.

27 Parts and functions of Plant cell Part of CellWhat it does 1Cell membrane 2Cytoplasm 3Nucleus 4Cell Wall 5Chloroplasts 6Vacuole Controls movement of substances in and out of cells. Chemical changes take place. Controls the activity of the cell. Gives the cell shape and support. Making food using sunlight. Holds a watery solution.

28 Starter Name the parts of the plant cells which are not found in animal cells. Cell Wall Vacuole Chloroplasts

29 Learning Intentions To prepare a slide using onion cells View the onion cells using a microscope Draw what you see through the “field of view” Label the parts of a onion cell State that stains are used to show the parts of the cell more clearly To prepare a slide using onion cells View the onion cells using a microscope Draw what you see through the “field of view” Label the parts of a onion cell State that stains are used to show the parts of the cell more clearly

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31 Draw what you can see in your field of view

32 Starter Animal cellPlant cell Tell me if each of these cells is a plant or animal cell Plant Cell Animal cell

33 Plant Cell vs Animal Cell Similarities and Differences

34 Film Watch “Cells’’ This film will help you to remember the different cell types http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exRxOozxtI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rxq0Kqw327s (5.08-7.15)

35 Similarities and Differences… Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Chloroplasts Cell Wall Vacuole

36 Similarities and Differences BOTH animal and plant cells have ONLY plant cells have: NucleusCell wall CytoplasmVacuole Cell membraneChloroplasts The typical plant and animal cells look different to each other – they are different shapes and the nucleus is in a different position.

37 Comparison of Plant and Animal cells Part of cellAnimal CellPlant Cell cell wallX  cell membrane  cytoplasm  VacuoleX  Nucleus  chloroplastX 

38 Cells from different organisms are build differently, what stays the same?

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41 Tissue

42 Learning Intentions To match different types of cell with their functions Create a table that summarises this information Know that the shape of a cell depends on what it does To match different types of cell with their functions Create a table that summarises this information Know that the shape of a cell depends on what it does

43 Cells and Tissues Animals and plants are made up of lots of different types of cell. Each type has a different job. Cells that do the same job join together to make tissue. For example - Muscle cells join together to make tissue that can contract.

44 Muscle Cell Muscle Tissue

45 Tissue Where we have a group of similar cells all working together, we call this a Tissue.

46 Organs Different tissues join together to make an organ. The stomach is an organ that digests food Muscle tissue, nervous tissue and blood tissue are examples of some of the tissues that make up the stomach

47 Organising cells Cell The basic unit of life Tissue Cells of the same type grouped together Organ Different tissues working together System A group of organs co- operating to a common purpose Organism All the systems working together as a coordinated living unit Simple Complex

48 Specialised Cells…. Nerve cells (neurones) These cells have trillions of interconnections, and carry messages within the brain, and all around the body. There are lots of different types of plant and animal cells and each cell has a job to do.

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50 Potato Cells These are large, round, thin walled cells filled with starch grains. The starch acts as a food store for the next generation of plant. Starch grains

51 And…… Blood Cells Red blood cells (which have no nucleus) carry oxygen round the body. White cells (much fewer, but of different types) fight diseases in the body.

52 Cell Structure and Function Collect a pack of cards. You should have 6 cell pictures and 6 different descriptions. Read each card and try to match it with the correct picture. Ask your teacher to check your work. Use a ruler to draw a table to summarise this information. Method:

53 CellFunctionFeature Red blood cellCarry oxygenLarge surface area NerveCarry nerve messagesLong strand SpermSwim to egg for fertilisation Tail White blood cellFight diseaseChemicals inside digest germs LeafMake foodContains green chlorophyll RootAbsorbs waterRoot hairs provide large surface area GuardOpens and closes small pores Sausage shaped Water vesselCarry water from rootsLong tubes with hoops and spirals to add strength Specialised Cells

54 Film Watch “tissues” This film will help you to remember the different cell types

55 Organ Cell Organ System Tissue Organelle Organism Nucleus Muscle cell Muscle Heart Circulatory system Human As cells have lots of different functions they are often specialised to do a particular job. This means that they have special features that make them well adapted at carrying out these functions.

56 Learning Intentions To be able to describe what a “microbe” is Name some microbes that are useful and some that are dangerous to humans Explain how the body defends itself against unwanted microbes To be able to describe what a “microbe” is Name some microbes that are useful and some that are dangerous to humans Explain how the body defends itself against unwanted microbes

57 Microbes Microbes are singled-celled organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye Bacteria, viruses and fungi (yeast) are microbes They are a lot smaller than plant and animal cells and high magnification is needed to see them.

58 Different types of micro-organisms There are three types of micro-organisms : bacteriavirusesfungi

59 Bacteria There are one hundred thousand bacteria squirming around on every square centimetre of your skin. Each drop of saliva contains millions of bacteria! Can you name any types of bacteria?

60 Using bacteria and fungi Micro-organisms have many uses that are based on the fact that they can be grown. Bacteria grow in milk to make it ‘go off’. This type of bacterial growth is used to make milk into yoghurt. Fungi can also be used to make food. The meat substitute Quorn™ is a protein produced using fungi. Cheese is also produced using certain strains of bacteria.

61 Using yeast Yeast is a type of fungus and carries out respiration. The respiration of this micro-organism can be used in different ways such as baking bread Brewing (beer) and wine making

62 Micro-organisms can cause disease The diseases caused by micro-organisms, and their severity, depend on the type of micro-organism. bacteria food poisoning sore throats tuberculosis (TB) tetanus cholera typhoid bacterial meningitis influenza (flu) mumps chickenpox smallpox polio rabies virus viral meningitis fungal sinusitis athlete’s foot fungi Onychomycosis (causes discoloured toe nails)

63 How do micro-organisms enter the body? eyes nose genitals skin ears mouth cuts Micro-organisms can enter the body in many different places: How do the diseases caused by micro-organisms spread?

64 How does the body protect itself against disease? Body protects itself by B. White blood cells and the immune system C. Vaccinations A. Skin, tears, saliva and stomach acid

65 Body defences against disease Your skin acts as a barrier to prevent entry of microbes. Saliva and tears contain anti-bacterial chemicals. The stomach contains acid which kills some bacteria which get in to the body through the mouth. Some white blood cells engulf bacteria in the blood, while others produce chemicals which kill them. This forms part of your immune system.

66 Discussion How do you feel when you are ill? (Symptoms) What happens after the disease? Can you get the same disease again?- cold

67 Vaccinations One of the best ways of preventing diseases is to give people a vaccination. When you receive a vaccination, you are given a very small dose of the disease. The disease has usually been modified by scientists so that it does no harm. Your body then makes antibodies to fight the disease. If you come into contact with the disease again, you will already have the antibodies to fight it!

68 diphtheria Some Diseases that you can be vaccinated against. typhoid cholera mumps chickenpox smallpox polio rabies measles / rubella yellow fever hepatitis A hepatitis B

69 Starter Match the micro-organism with the illness caused. Bacteria Fungi Virus Influenza Typhoid Athletes foot

70 Puberty Aim: To identify the changes that happen to girls and boys during puberty.

71 Changes During Puberty MaleFemale

72 Film Watch “Teen Dreams Part 1 and 2”

73 Physical changes in puberty

74 Changes During Puberty Male (Age 12-14)Female (Age11-13) Body will become more muscular Broader shoulders Voice gets deeper Hair grows on face and chest Penis and testes (genitals) will get larger Testes will start to produce sperm Mood swings Pimples / Spots / Acne Breasts will develop Hips will become wider Start menstruating (having periods) Develop pubic hair around genitals May experience vaginal discharge Mood swings Pimples / Spots / Acne

75 Starter What two changes occurs both males and females during puberty Mood swings and acne/spots

76 Learning Intentions To identify and label the reproductive organs in males and females Know the names of male and female sex cells and where they are produced in the body State that sex cells are called gametes To identify and label the reproductive organs in males and females Know the names of male and female sex cells and where they are produced in the body State that sex cells are called gametes

77 Film Watch “The Living and Growing’’ 1 & 2 and complete the video sheets 1 & 2 And/or Watch “Teen Dreams Part 3”

78 Reproductive Organs Aim: To identify and label the reproductive organs in males and females and know the names of male and female sex cells (gametes) and where they are produced in the body. Equipment: diagram of male and female reproductive organs

79 Reproductive Organs In Humans Your teacher will describe the different parts of the male and female reproductive systems. Using this information, label the male and female diagrams. You may use page 78 of Starting Science Book 1 to help you. Find out what each part does and write this information onto the diagram. If you have time colour the diagrams and complete questions 1 to 5 on page 78 of Starting Science Book 1 (Purple). Method:

80 Female Reproductive Organs The female sex cells are the eggs, which are produced by the ovaries Eggs released from the ovaries travel along the oviducts, which leads to the uterus The vagina is the tube in which sperm is placed during sexual intercourse. A baby is born through here also.

81 Female Reproductive Organs

82 egg tube (fallopian tube) Egg tube (fallopian tube) ovary vagina cervix uterus Female Reproductive Organs

83 Male Reproductive Organs Male sex cells are called sperm, which are produced in the testes Sperm travels along the sperm duct which eventually joins a tube that comes from the bladder called the urethra Sperm duct

84 Male Reproductive Organs penis testis urethra scrotum sperm duct

85 Film Watch “The Living and Growing’’ 3 and complete the video sheet 3

86 Starter Copy and complete these sentences: The female sex cells are the_____, which are produced by the _______. Male sex cells are called______, which are produced in the________. Eggs Ovaries Sperm Testes

87 Sperm meets egg Sperm cells need to get into the female body – this happens during sexual intercourse.

88 Sexual intercourse Sperm are deposited inside the vagina near the cervix (entrance to the womb)

89 Fertilisation In Humans Aim: To describe how fertilisation happens in humans by creating your own step-by-step diagram. Equipment: step by step diagram of fertilisation in humans pencil ruler

90 Video clip – How sperm cell gets into egg

91 An egg leaves the ovary and sperm swim up from the vagina. Ball of cells sinks into the lining of the womb where it gets food & oxygen from the blood. Fertilised egg moves down the egg tube into the womb. Cells divide making a ball. Fertilisation happens when a sperm meets the egg and the nuclei of each fuse. The egg moves along the fallopian (egg) tube. Fertilisation

92 Film Watch “The Living and Growing’’ 4 and complete the video sheet

93 Starter Copy and complete the following table: Part of the Female Reproductive System Role in Fertilisation Ovary Where egg and sperm cell fuse Womb Releases egg cell Oviduct Embryo implants into womb wall

94 Learning Intentions Examine foetal development Know the role of the umbilical cord and placenta in nourishing the baby Examine foetal development Know the role of the umbilical cord and placenta in nourishing the baby

95 fertilisation sperm fertilised egg cell divides egg cell enters egg tube two cell stage continues to divide many cells embryo arrives at womb embryo embeds in wall of womb ovary womb Fertilisation

96 This embryo is 8 weeks old This embryo is 6 weeks old This embryo is 7 weeks old

97 Real human embryos 4 weeks – 6mm8 weeks - 24mm

98 3 months into pregnancy 12 weeks – 7cm long Embryo (now called a foetus) Sac of fluid to protect the developing baby Umbilical cord to supply the baby with food and oxygen from its mother Placenta – connection to the wall of the womb

99 Development in the womb (uterus) The fertilised egg divides many times to form a ball of cells. This embeds in the wall of the womb. Then human features start to develop. After 3 months in the womb all the organs are already formed. The foetus is protected from germs and bumps by a sac of fluid. It receives food and oxygen from the mother’s blood through the placenta and umbilical cord. The baby develops for 9 months in the womb, then it is born through the vagina.

100 3 month scan picture Do you have a scan picture of yourself in the womb?

101 Three stages (trimesters) of pregnancy

102 Pregnancy

103 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJ7-v7xVm3I (3:08) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJ7-v7xVm3I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeK2kpGRsvs (5:00)

104 Just before birth

105 Labour Strong contractions of the wall of the womb (uterus) start to push the baby out. This is called labour and can take several hours. During this time the cervix and vagina widen.

106 Birth Finally, the baby is born through the vagina. The baby starts to breathe and the cord is cut and clamped or tied. There are no nerves in the cord so this does not cause any pain. The rest of the cord and placenta come out soon after – this is called the afterbirth.

107 The happy moment

108 Film Watch “The Living and Growing’’ 5 & 6 and complete the video sheets 5 & 6

109 Video clip Fertilisation, Development of foetus - Summary of

110 Research Task Your teacher will show you the list of topics to research and you are responsible for becoming an expert on your subject so that you can teach the rest of the class.


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