Presentation on theme: "Time for your medicine! Sentence Elements Simplified Sentences contain words that function in a variety of roles. We assign words to a word class, depending."— Presentation transcript:
Sentence Elements Simplified Sentences contain words that function in a variety of roles. We assign words to a word class, depending on the role it is performing in a sentence. zNouns name persons, places, things, ideas. zVerbs express action or state of being. zAdjectives describe or “modify” nouns. zAdverbs describe or “modify” verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and entire sentences. There are also phrases & clauses that correspond to each of these word classes, e.g., noun phrase, noun clause. The diligent students discussed freedom in class today. Their conscientious professor is at a conference this week.
Phrases zA phrase is a group of words that functions as a single part of speech. For example, a prepositional phrase (PP) can function as an adverb: zThe diligent students discussed freedom in class today. Here, the phrase in class answers this question: Where did the students discuss freedom today? zThe subject of the sentence is a noun phrase (NP): the diligent students.
Clauses zA clause has a subject and a predicate (the predicate is the verb and its modifiers). If the clause can stand alone, we call it an independent clause (IC). If it can’t because it is preceded by a subordinating conjunction, we call it dependent (DC). zThe diligent students discussed freedom in class today while the teacher was away at a conference.
Sentence Elements, con’t. zPronouns take the place of nouns. zPrepositions introduce prepositional phrases (PP) that express the relationship between two sentence elements (e.g., direction, time, location, manner). zArticles (the, a, an) introduce a noun phrase (NP) and mark nouns as definite (the book) or indefinite (a book). zConjunctions connect sentence elements. Interjections are exclamatory utterances: Ouch! zThe diligent students NP discussed V freedom N in class PP today ADV. zTheir conscientious professor NP is V at a conference PP this week AdvP. zShe P will return VP soon Adv and Conj share V what she learned NP with her students PP.
Subordinating Conjunctions connect sentence elements of unequal value. They introduce dependent clauses, which cannot stand alone. Notice that some of them function as prepositions when they’re followed by a noun phrase. Examples: After class, I /studied in the library. (prepositional phrase) After the teacher /dismissed class, I /studied in the library. (subordinate— also known as “dependent”--clause) The independent clause I studied in the library carries more weight. Here are a few: Afterunless Beforeif Thoughsince Whileas Becausewhereas Whenalthough
Coordinating Conjunctions connect sentence elements of equal value. They introduce independent clauses and can begin a sentence. FANBOYS zFor zAnd zNor zBut zOr zYet zSo The princess kissed the brave feline, and he was instantly transformed into a handsome prince. For the good fairy had heard his wish to become human.
Transition Words, also known as conjunctive adverbs, join independent clauses and introduce sentences. Here are some familiar ones: Besidesotherwise Likewisein addition Moreoveras a result Consequentlyalso Thenmeanwhile Thereforehence Neverthelessthus Howeveron the other hand He’s absent frequently; therefore, his grade is low.
Four Basic Sentence Types Form 1.Simple 2.Complex 3.Compound 4.Compound/Complex
Simple Sentence: One IC Subject/Predicate (verb + modifiers) In the examples below a slash separates the subject from the predicate. zThe noisy students and their dogs/ disturbed the English teacher. zThe students /studied in the library. z(you) /Go!
The Complex Sentence: Only one IC + at least one DC zAfter the noisy students /disturbed the English teacher, they /sneaked out of the room before the class /was dismissed. zThe diligent students /completed the assignment before the teacher /asked for it.
Compound Sentence: At least two IC’s and NO DC’s zThe noisy students /tormented the teacher, but the quiet ones /inspired her. zThe noisy students /tormented the teacher; however, the quiet ones /inspired her. zThe noisy students /tormented the teacher; the quiet ones /inspired her.
Compound/Complex Sentence: At least two IC’s + at least one DC zThe screeching cat /chased her tail, and the confused dog /yelped, while their guardian/ slept soundly. zBefore he /left for work, the man /opened a can of tuna for breakfast, but it /tasted funny, so he /gave it to his cat.
Sentence Fragments... little pieces of sentences that are punctuated as complete sentences
Avoid writing inappropriate sentence fragments! zIn the house. She worked in the house. zBefore he left for work. Before he left for work, he walked the cat. zBecause I like to read. Because I like to read, I enjoy my solitude. zWhich they already had heard. The boss told his employees the big news, which they already had heard.
Don’t write run-together sentences. zThe lazy cat slept all day it was no surprise that he prowled the house all night. zThe lazy cat slept all day, so it was no surprise that he prowled the house all night.
How would you fix this? zSometimes students enroll in too many courses in one quarter they don’t enjoy learning then they may eventually drop out. zSometimes students enroll in too many courses in one quarter, so they don’t enjoy learning. Then they may eventually drop out.