1Assessment Matters : Enhancing Student Learning Linda A. Roberts, LMSNortheast High School – Arma, KSKASL Past-PresidentTerri Snethen, LMSBlue Valley North High School – Overland Park, KSRecipient of KASL Fall Forum Grantwith a Special Report fromDr. Jackie LakinInformation Management Consultant - KSDEReports from “Assessing Student Learning in the School Library Media Center” AASL Fall Forum, October 2006April 10, 2007
2Acknowledgements Kansas Association of School Librarians (KASL) AASL Fall Forum Grant –2008 – Application due February 1, 2008Mentorship Program
3AASL Fall Forums “AASL Fall Forum Focuses on Reading to Learn” (2004) “Assessing Student Learning in the School Library Media Center” (2006)TBA (2008)
4Presentation Outline What is assessment? Why should SLMSs be involved in assessment?How should SLMSs become involved?How can we best assess student learning?Which assessment tool is the right one to use?How should instruction include assessments?How may we communicate evidence of learning?What questions do you have?What resources are available?Happy TRAILS to you!
5What is assessment?Process of collecting, analyzing, and reporting dataAssessment offers more than evaluationEvaluation – summative activity that places value on the end result (auditing)Assessment – formative activity that reveals student performance throughout the learning process (educating and improving)Assessment provides decisive information on how a student is doing and what can be used to improve the learning experience
6Purpose of Assessments Interactive characteristic makes it a part of a larger paradigm shift – spiraling & student-focused – results in improved student learningEngages students in learning through ownership and understanding expectationsLearning tool that serves both teacher and studentsTeachers and SLMSs can redirect activities based on assessmentsBecomes a motivational tool for students by giving them direct input into how they will be assessed
8Why should SLMSs be involved in assessment? We have a curriculum and a vision for instructional information literacyWe have a real need for “ongoing assessment of student progress and the reporting of this progress in a manner that communicates effectively to school staff, students, and parents”We are trained collaboratorsWho needs convincing???Teachers, Administrators, and SLMSs!(The Handy 5, 7)
9What are my excuses not to become involved? Myth 1 – The fault lies with the students being unable to learn.Myth 2 – Repetition using the same approach is best, so there is no need to assess and change things.Myth 3 – The primary method of assessing student performance is traditional evaluation tools, such as paper and pencil tests.Myth 4 – Assessment and evaluation are the same thing, therefore, SLMSs won’t assess because they don’t give grades.Myth 5 – Skills and attitudes that students develop their ability to read and use information do not require assessment.Myth 6 – Developing skills and attitudes for lifelong learning are not the focus of instruction in the library. These are attributes that learners somehow acquire on their own later in life (Harada and Yoshina xvi-xvii)
10Good News!While NCLB has caused a dread of “assessments”, it offers opportunitiesLet it become an empowering force that gives authority to SLMSsUse this impetus to take immediate action and make a difference – become the leader!
11How should SLMSs become involved? Be proactiveStart small – small changes make big gainsAsk for course syllabiHelp decide what students must be able to do at the end of the learning experienceBe able to identify standards and indicators addressedProvide evidence of learning that results from instruction
12How should SLMSs become involved? Help design assessment tools with students and teachersParticipate in formative assessmentsReview search strategies with students and suggest additional resources as neededHelp teachers identify issues to investigateTeach use of multimedia tools for interviews and presentationsSeize opportunities to show how our teaching reinforces and enhances classroom learning
13What is your vision? Claim authority Claim your authority in your classroom : The LMCWe are the learning specialists in the area of information literacy and technologyStudents AND teachers should become our “students” - mentor!True authority does not come from administrators, it comes from the large gap between the academic expectations for learners and current achievement levelsGet the data - study and learn from actions and their results – otherwise it is appears we are coming from a biased viewpoint(Zmuda)
14What is your vision? Write it down! Without a curriculum document, the LMC does not exist. Include these ideas:Identify and clarify core beliefs with a shared and measurable visionArticulate what we want to look like and be like in the futureDefine our principles, values, and beliefs about teaching and learningDefine measurable and attainable goals of what we want to accomplish in student and adult learning
15Can we talk about it? – SLMS Job Description Challenge:Write a vision to include indicators for:Classroom teachers and studentsCollection development planPhysical environmentRelationship to school improvement effortsWrite your job description from your visionWrite one or two measurable statements of what you would see if you were fulfilling the vision of what a SLMS should doCheck the time on each job and analyze if your time identifies and fits your vision
16How can we best assess student learning? Begin with clear learning targets and criteria for assessmentConsider how many assignments are worth the time and effort they are givenLook at information literacy standards that overlap content standardsBe prepared to think and do things differentlyStudent Learning
18Which assessment tool is the right one to use? Effective Assessment Tools:Have established criteria (what are you looking for?)Can be used by students to gauge progress (how are they doing?)Can be used by teachers and librarians to inform instruction (how are you doing?)Are used throughout the instructional process – beginning, middle, end(Harada and Yoshina 19)
19Tools For Assessing Learning ChecklistsRubricsRating ScalesConferencesLogsPersonal correspondenceGraphic Organizers
20Often involve yes/no rating Don’t assess quality ChecklistsOften involve yes/no ratingDon’t assess qualityCan be used to assess behaviorsKeep student/teacher/librarian focused on important aspect(s) of taskKeep a record of progressCan be used for simple tasks(Harada and Yoshina19-21)
21Example Checklist Evaluation Judge Your Product (How effective were you?) - Do this step before your assignment is due.1. Are all components of the assignment present? Yes No2. Are all assignment guidelines met? Yes No3. Are all sources correctly cited? Yes No4. Is this a product you can be proud of? Yes No
23Describes levels of success or mastery – strong, adequate, weak etc. RubricsGrid designDescribes levels of success or mastery – strong, adequate, weak etc.Can be used for complex tasksCan vary in level of detailCan be used for evaluation and/or instructionCan be created with student input – What does a quality product look like?(Harada and Yoshina 21-23)
24Kansas State Writing Assessment Example RubricKansas State Writing AssessmentGRADE 5: NARRATIVE WRITING RUBRIC: SENTENCE FLUENCYRating of 5 (Strong): The writing has an easy flow and rhythm when read aloud. Sentences are well built, with consistently strong and varied structure that makes expressive oral reading easy and enjoyable.Rating of 3 (Developing): The text hums along efficiently for the most part, though it may lack a certain rhythm or grace. It tends to be more pleasant or businesslike than musical, more mechanical than fluid.Rating of 1 (Beginning): The paper is difficult to follow or read aloud. Most sentences tend to be choppy, incomplete, rambling, or awkward; they need work. More than one of the following problems is likely to be evident:
25Oral History Project – Library Media Evaluation Rubric Example RubricOral History Project – Library Media Evaluation RubricWorks Cited Page (content, format and punctuation)Attempts were made to create a works cited page, which contained multiple errors with regards to punctuation, citing sources, as well as how the order of information was presented.Works cited page had more than a few punctuation errors; a few sources were improperly cited and the order of information contained some errors.Works cited page was completed with very minor punctuation errors (no more than a few) and sources were cited properly with correct order of information.Internal Documentation (content)In-text citations were improperly formatted, or in some cases omitted.In-text citations had minor errors in format and/or placement.In-text citations were used correctly and formatted appropriately.Consistency (whether internal documentation and works cited page match up)In-text citations did not match works cited entries in most cases.Some in-text citations pointed directly to a works cited entry. Others did not.All in-text citations pointed directly to a works cited entry.MLA Format (correct titling, font, spacing, margins, running headers, etc.)MLA format had major mistakes with regard to headers and font. Spacing, margins, and titles had major errors.MLA format had minor problems with regard to headers and font. Spacing, margins, and titles had occasional mistakes.MLA format was closely followed with regard to headers and font. Spacing, margins, and titles were also correctly formatted.Total Points = ________
26Identifies criteria for performance Rating ScalesIdentifies criteria for performanceDoes NOT describe levels of performanceUsed for measuring multiple aspects of a taskCan be qualitative (use adjectives) or quantitative (use numbers)Often use questions(Harada and Yoshina 27-29)
27Example Rating Scale Library Media Survey 1. I was confident using databases to find information before this project began. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree2. I am very confident using databases to find information now. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree3. I now understand how to use MLA format to cite my sources. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree4. I think my project was a success. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree5. In a minimum of one sentence, write what the library staff could have done differently to assist you with this project?6. In a minimum of one sentence, write one thing that you learned about researching from this project?
28Can be very time consuming May be tailored to needs of student ConferencesAre conversationsCan be casual or formalAre very flexibleCan be very time consumingMay be tailored to needs of student(Harada and Yoshina 31-34)
29Logs Involve self-assessment and reflection Help students monitor their own learningRequire well designed prompts matched to learning goalsCan be used to assess feelings and attitudesAre best used in conjunction with other assessment tools(Harada and Yoshina 44 )
30Example Log PromptsGoal: Accesses Information efficiently and effectivelyHow did you go about finding the information to answer your research questions? Describe your search strategy.Goal: Evaluates information critically and competentlyWhich sources did you find most helpful? What criteria did you use in selecting your sourcesGoal: Pursues information related to personal interestsHow does this topic relate to your life? What aspects of the topic are most interesting to you?(Harada and Yoshina 36)
31Example Log PromptsGoal: Appreciates literature and other creative expressions of informationWhat is the best book you read this month (quarter, semester, year)? How did the book relate to your own life? How does it compare with other books you have read?(Harada and Yoshina 36)
32Example Log Prompts My Research Log Today I worked on ___________________________.I learned that _______________________________.Some problems I had were ____________________.Tomorrow I will _____________________________.This is how I feel about myself as a researcher:HappySadConfused(Harada and Yoshina 38)
33Personal Correspondence Can include letters, notes, invitations, feedbackCan involve others in the learning process (parents, community members, peers, etc.)(Harada and Yoshina 44-45)
34Example Personal Correspondence Library Media Survey1. I was confident using databases to find information before this project began. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree2. I am very confident using databases to find information now. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree3. I now understand how to use MLA format to cite my sources. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree4. I think my project was a success. Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree5. In a minimum of one sentence, write what the library staff could have done differently to assist you with this project?6. In a minimum of one sentence, write one thing that you learned about researching from this project?
35Personal Correspondence Ideas Have students write notes to others with feedback on presentationsHave students write notes to parents for parent-teacher conferencesHave students invite parents to presentations they have researched(Harada and Yoshina 44-45)
36Graphic Organizers Visual representations of thinking Can help learners:make connectionssee patterns and relationshipsoutline ideascompare and contrastshow cause and effectdetermine key ideasorganize researchtake notes(Harada and Yoshina 49-50)
37Types of Graphic Organizers KWLConcept mapVenn DiagramWebComparison matrixFlow chartTree mapStoryboard
39Example Graphic Organizer BooksDatabasesWhere will I findinformation?Internet
40How should instruction include assessments? Backward Design2 QuestionsWhat must students be able to demonstrate or perform by the end of this experience?How can we measure how well students have achieved this goal?(Harada and Yoshina 15)
41Traditional Planning Start with ideas Select activities Develop lesson procedureDetermine objectives based on activitiesDecide assessment method(Harada and Yoshina 68)
42Backward Design Outcomes Assessment Instructional Procedure Standards and IndicatorsTaskAssessmentCriteriaTool(s)Instructional ProcedureWhat will teacher do?What will LMS do?What will students?(Harada and Yoshina)
43Backward Design Example Scenario :A 9th grade English teacher wants students to research an aspect of what life was like in the 1930s before reading Of Mice and Men. Possible topics include politics and government, everyday life, art and culture, economics and business. She wants them to create an an annotated bibliography of 3 sources (one print, one website, one from a database) and develop a “Top Ten List” that summarizes the most important information about the topic.
44Backward Design Example StandardIndicatorTaskAssessment Criteria
45Backward Design Example Assessment Tool(s)What will teacher do?What will LMS do?What will students do?
46How may we communicate evidence of learning? Establish the needWe must demonstrate how our teaching contributes to learningWe must generate reportsWe must understand the dataWe must communicate results to school staff, students, and parentsLook to new research
48Are these questions being addressed? What would our curriculum look like if students designed it?What is the selling point for teachers and administrators to address information literacy?How do you get students to care about a higher level of self-scrutiny in their work?How do you move teachers from assigning reports to research?How much priority is given to the analysis of student work by both the SLMS and school?How are we closing the achievement gap?
50What resources are available? - “Refereed Research Articles”“Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) at Your Library Media Center: The Collaboration of Administration and Library Media Centers” by Cynthia Anderson (Library Media Connection)- Information Power Action Research Project (short student assessment)Assessing Learning : Librarians The Handy 5 – KASL Researchand Teachers as Partners Committee, 2001.(Harada & Yoshina)
52Tool for Real-time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills Happy TRAILS to you!Tool for Real-time Assessment of Information Literacy SkillsMultiple-choice online assessmentsBased on the 9th grade Ohio Academic Content Standards and Information PowerResults available by Online Review and class/ students reports