2Purpose Of This Presentation Special Education Teachers need to know about and know how to implement many different approaches to teaching. They need to select approaches that fit the needs of their students based on data and IEP goals and objectives. They need to understand the theory behind the approaches so they can make adjustments to the approaches when they are not working well. They need to learn which approaches can be combined effectively and which approaches cannot be combined because they contradict or interfere with one another. They need to understand approaches being used by other teachers so that they can analyze and problem solve when those approaches are not working with students. This presentation presents an overview of approaches or models of teaching.
3Conceptual Frameworks Theories provide a conceptual framework for understanding.
4Conceptual Frameworks We can think of the conceptual framework as a set of lenses through which we see, or understand, learning.
5Theory influences what we see and how we see it. Analogy: If we look at an ice cube through red lenses we would tend to view the ice as red, but if we look at an ice cube through blue lenses we would tend to view the ice as blue!
6Theory influences our perceptions about learning. So what? If theory influencesWhat we believe about learning,What learning looks like,How we believe people learn…Then it should influenceHow we teach so that people learn,How we evaluate learning outcomes.
7Models of TeachingFor a given theory of learning, different models (styles) of teaching and evaluation have been developed within the conceptual framework.Select models that are useful for identified purposes.Understand the theory behind the model in order to make adjustments and increase success.
8Bruce JoyceBruce Joyce has researched and taught about models of teaching for about 30 years…He describes 4 basic families of models that we will look at.
15Cognitive Theories Of Psychology In Cognitive Psychology we are interested in how a person thinks, remembers and knows. Applications of this branch of psychology help individuals understand, remember, and make connections among ideas and thoughts.
16Information Processing Family Of Models Models in this family draw from cognitive psychology. They focus on ways we can improve a person’s drive to make sense of the world including how they acquire information, organize data, frame problems, and generate solutions.
17Concept Formation Model Some teachers use inductive thinking to teach. They specially arrange an environment and give specific tasks to students so that they form and use concepts.Educational names associated with this approach are El-Nemr, and Taba. Taba popularized the term teaching strategy.
18Concept Attainment Model Teachers who use concept attainment provide students with positive and negative examples of an idea but don’t tell what it is. Students guess (hypothesize) the idea, based on the examples. They test their guesses (hypotheses) against more examples, confirming or changing their guesses. This leads to a stated definition, eventually confirmed and clarified by the teacher.Names associated with concept attainment are Jerome Bruner and Robert Gagne.
19Picture-Word Inductive Model The Picture-Word Inductive Model (PWIM)structures cycles of learning over 2-6 weeks.These begin with a picture. Students identifythings they see in the picture. Teacher drawslines from the picture to written wordsoutside the picture, restates the word, writesand spells the word or phrase aloud. Students repeat the word and its spelling, resulting in a picture-word dictionary. Students receive an individual set of word cards, check if they can recognize the words. As they begin to read the words they begin to classify the words by phonetic, structural or content properties, share their categories and their rationale for clustering the words as they did. This approach is related to psycholinguistics.
20Scientific Inquiry Model / Making Inferences Students are involved in real inquiry problems. They are presented an area of investigation, identify a problem (conceptual or methodological) within that area, and design ways of overcoming the problem.“Biological Sciences Curriculum Study”(Schwab) and “Invitation to Inquiry”(Schwab) are part of this approach.
21Memorization ModelsAll students need information to be available to them readily so they can learn effectively and efficiently. This improves “…learning power, saves time, and leads to a better storehouse of information” (Joyce, Weil and Calhoun, 2004, p. 138). While memorization may be considered trivial it is very important. Pressly and Levin developed a model of teaching for memorizing that includes 4 phases: attending to the material, developing connections, expanding sensory images, and practicing recall.Mnemonics and link-word approaches are examples.
22Synectics ModelSynectics comes to education from industry. It was designed to help people with problem-solving and writing activities, to gain perspectives on topics. Best results occur when synectics is used over time. It is designed to stimulate thinking but also promotes collaborative work and study skills as well as a sense of camaraderie.Gordon and Poze have developed a wide assortment of materials for use in schools.
23Advance OrganizersAdvance Organizers help students focus on content and organize information and ideas they are learning.David Ausubel’s theory of meaningful verbal learning deals with 3 concerns:How knowledge (curriculum content) is organized,How the mind works to process new information (learning), andHow teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum and learning when they present new materials to students (instruction.)(Joyce, Weil and Calhoun, 2004, p. 189.)
24Theories of Social Psychology Theories of social psychology help us understand interaction patterns among people. Large-group dynamics and small-group dynamics are two areas that are important.
25Social Family of Models The Social Family of Models apply social psychological principles in the classroom. Teacher Student and Student Student Interaction patterns have implications for learning. The teacher structures interactions to maximize learning and other desired educational outcomes. We see applied social psychology in the classroom when we see true Cooperative Learning. Johnson and Johnson have contributed greatly to this field.
26Partners In Learning Models Several theorists have developed models for using positive interdependence to carefully structure small learning groups so that promotive interaction takes place. This promotive interaction leads to improved academics, attitudes, and self concepts. Cooperative Learning, Group Investigation, and Teams-Games-Tournaments are a few of the ways of structuring student-student interaction.
27Study of Values (Role Plays, Values Clarification, Jurisprudential Inquiry) These various models are concerned with the consideration and development of personal values, character, justice and equality, and democratic principles. Role plays help students develop “voice” and learn interpersonal skills. Study of values helps students identify and clarify their values, and consider if they are living by their identified values. Jurisprudential Inquiry (for secondary students) identify public policy and examine underlying values.
28Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychology is concerned with fostering the ability of each person to find and express their maximum potential as human beings. It emphasizes consciousness, human dignity, and the capacity to direct our own destinies.
29The Personal Family of Models Models from the Personal Family draw on principles from Humanistic Psychology. They focus on the individual and emphasize the self. Helping the student feel good about herself and empowering the student to maximize her potential and have power over her own life are important focuses.
30Non-Directive Teaching Model The teacher’s role in this model is more that of a coach. He develops a partnership with the student. Rather than telling students what to learn how and how to learn it the teacher encourages the students to play an important role in directing their own education. He provides feedback regarding the progress the students are making, and helps the students solve problems. Conferences with the teacher in Writers’ Workshops would be an example of the teacher working in partnership with the student.
31Developing Positive Self Concepts Models Students who have negative self esteem tend to be discouraged and unwilling to apply themselves in school. Their lack of motivation stems from a belief that they are not capable of learning and progressing. Underlying this model is the belief that all students can learn academic content and social skills, and also how to become integrated selves. Within this model good teachers will want to know about and use ideas from the learning styles literature (Dunn & Dunn), personality typing - styles of thinking (e.g. Myers), and perhaps differences between adult and children as learners (Knowles.)
32Behavioral Psychology The premise of Behavioral Psychology is that behavior is lawful and subject to variables in the environment. Behavioral Psychology is only concerned with measurable behavior, behavior that can be operationalized. Basic principles of Behavioral Psychology are as follows: Given a stimulus and an ensuing response, the response will more likely recur if reinforced and less likely to recur if punished.REINFORCER = increased likelihood of recurringSTIMULUS RESPONSEPUNISHER = decreased likelihood of recurringIn Behavioral Psychology we are not concerned with inner functions such as thought, feelings, or beliefs.
33Behavioral Systems Family of Models Behavioral Systems Family of Models apply the principles of behaviorism in the classroom to both academic content and student behavior. The belief is that learning is a measurable change in behavior. By manipulating (controlling) select variables we can elicit certain behaviors (decoding words, comparing ideas, performing math computations, using good social skills, etc.) that define learning. By reinforcing these behaviors (providing salient praise, grades, etc.,) the behaviors will become strengthened and endure. Names associated with this model are John Carroll and Benjamin Bloom (Mastery Learning,) Madeline Hunter (7 Step Lesson Plan), Ethna Reid (Exemplary Center For Reading Instruction.)
34Mastery Learning Model Mastery Learning ModelIn Mastery Learning we believe ones aptitude is related to the amount of time it takes to learn given material. An individual with less aptitude will need more time to learn. The instructional system is generally:Define GoalsDevelop ObjectivesIdentify materials & strategiesEngage in formative evaluation and reinforcementUse evaluation data to provide supplementary instruction to overcome problems(Found on web page of Glen Hammond, B. A., B. Ed., M. Ed. [School Admin.], Adv. Cert. Ed. [Curriculum Studies]
35Direct Instruction Model In Direct Instruction the teacher designs a plan to generate and sustain motivation, through pacing and reinforcement. In general the Direct Instruction Model involves:OrientationPresentationStructured Practice (immediate feedback / reinforcement)Guided Practice (intermittent feedback / reinforcement)Independent Practice (delayed feedback / reinforcement)
36Learning From Simulations Model Cybenetics (a kind of behavior shaping through self feedback / correction) influences learning through simulations, like using a remote control to guide a toy car. With practice you learn how to manipulate the controls for the desired effect and direction.A simulator is a device that resembles reality but lets us control the complexity of the events. If we learn a concept or skill in a simulator theoretically we can generalize that learning to a reality situation. Nesbit studied simulation games for social studies.For an example of simulation ware, go to the following web site, find product demonstration area and click to view (takes a few minutes)
37A Beginning… This presentation provides a brief venture into Theory Models relationshipExamining modelsTo be effective we still need…In Depth UnderstandingSelection CriteriaAnalysis And Consideration For Combining Models Or Elements Of ModelsEvaluation
38The Special Education Teacher’s Job Know (not just know about) theories and models in depth.Only with knowledge and understanding immediately available to you will you be able to effectively and efficiently use theory and models of teaching.
39The Special Education Teacher’s Job, cont. Assess. Know strengths, needs, interests and ways of learning of the student.Remembering to use the learning-teaching cycle will maximize your effectiveness with the student. You will be able to make informed decisions through the use of data, tailor education to the individual student as required by the IEP and by law, engage and motivate your students, and document growth or lack thereof.
40The Special Education Teacher’s Job, cont. Study and understand the IEP, especially goals and objectives.By studying and understanding the IEP you will be able to closely align instruction with the plan, provide for the identified needs of the student, and use the data – information and insight– from a multi-disciplinary team to inform and assist you in pulling together an individualized program for the student.
41The Special Education Teacher’s Job, cont. Given what you know about the student, the learning goals, and objectives, determine models that will be effective with the student and select materials and styles.It is the data that you review and collect from a variety of sources that provides the information that leads to informed decisions about what to teach, how to teach, how to assess, what materials to use, how to group students, and so on. With a solid knowledge of theory, models of teaching and instructional approaches you have given yourself a large menu to select from – given the strengths, needs, interests, and ways of learning of the student.
42The Special Education Teacher’s Job, cont. Provide support to the student and to any other professionals who will provide instruction, and to family, and use the materials and approaches.Many people impact the student’s life daily, in addition to the SPED teacher. Each must be informed and trained regarding an understanding of the student, the resultant program you designed, and the rationale for the program. Those who do not know about the program or know how to implement it, won’t be able to truly use it. Benefits to the student will be limited.
43The Special Education Teacher’s Job, cont. Continuously evaluate, analyze data, and modifyBut a good program is not enough. It must be updated and changed as the student changes. If the student learns and grows, new challenges should be introduced, new approaches considered. If the student fails to progress, modifications must be made until we find a program that leads to success. Learning is a life long process.