2TEACHING STYLES ACTIVITY EXAMPLE ONE The teacher was:Presenting facts without a contextDoing the majority of the talkingDirecting the students every moveSupplying most of the answersNot discussing his/her thought processes out loudThe student felt:InterrogatedBoredNot challengedLost
3TEACHING STYLES ACTIVITY EXAMPLE TWO IN EXAMPLE TWOThe teacher was:Drawing on students’ experienceCoaching the students towards finding the answersModeling thought processes, rather than presenting factsValidating all students suggestionsThe student felt:InvolvedCuriousAmusedCapable of ParticipatingEngaged
4How was the 2nd teaching example student-centered?
5Student-centered teaching is: based on students' experiences (both their past experiences and the experiences you, as the teacher, provide in class);designed so that teachers model for students how to arrive at an answer rather than simply giving answers to students;structured so that learning is a process of discovery (the teacher develops activities wherein the students themselves arrive at answers, e.g. the comparison activity we just completed).
6It means that lesson planning must: call students' experience and prior knowledge into play;involve teachers in modeling/discussing out loud the thought processes they go through to read, write, add, or subtract;encourage students to ask 'why' and to find the answers themselves.
7Sample Lesson Plan1Check out the following lesson retrieved from the science book for Grade 6 (Unit 5, Chapter 1: Chemical Compounds).
8A home Made Indicator: the Red Cabbage Red cabbage juice is an indicator since it contains a pigment or a coloring agent. This pigment is found in many flowers, fruits and fall leaves, and is responsible for many of the reds, blues, and purples you see around you. It makes cornflowers blue, pumpkins orange, strawberries red, and cabbage purple.
9A home Made Indicator: the Red Cabbage Red cabbage juice becomes red with vinegarRed cabbage juice becomes red in lemon juiceRed cabbage juice becomes green with baking soda.Red cabbage juice becomes deep green with sodium hydroxide solution.
10Suggest how the lesson plan could be made more student-centered
11ActivityIdentify each teaching situation as 'teacher-centered' or ‘student-centered'
12A teacher instructing students about the solar system names the planets in order and has the class repeat the planet names.(Teacher-centered: children not asked to explore and relate their experiences)
13B. A teacher teaching about density places different substances (oil, food coloring, copper coin) in water and has the class predict and explain the behavior of these substances in water.(Student-centered because the students are asked to predict and explain the phenomenon on their own)
14C. A teacher teaching about combination of circuits draws a series and a parallel circuit on the board points to each circuit and writes “series” or “parallel” under it, and tells the class to repeat the words.(Teacher-centered; children mimic the teacher ONLY)
15D. A teacher conducting a lesson about gravity drops a ball to the floor in the class and then allows the class to guess why it falls to the floor. The teacher writes each answer on the board instead of correcting any of the answers.(Student-centered: students asked to guess why it is happening)
16E. A teacher teaching children about the body control starts the lesson by asking “what are the different body activities that the brain controls?” (Students’ answers may include: hearing, touching, thinking, breathing, tasting, talking…)(Student-centered because students are calling on their own experiences)
17Short Game; three teams Answer the following ten questions
18What is the difference between a child and a student? (No difference. Children should not have to stop being children in order to become students).Does a student who is just starting his/her 1st year of school know anything?(OF COURSE! A lot!—Discuss experiences provided by participants)What is the name of the teaching technique that builds on learners' natural curiosity and abilities?(student-centered teaching)
19What are the characteristics of student-centered teaching? (Draws on what students know, teacher models thinking processes instead of just providing the correct answers, students are given the opportunity to compare/analyze information to come to an understanding)How do students feel if the teacher is NOT using student-centered instruction?(bored, confused)When students are bored or lost, how well will they learn?(NOT WELL)
20What is an example of how a teacher can draw on students' experiences? (start the lesson by asking introductory questions that draw on what students know)What do we mean when we say the teacher must demonstrate/model her thinking processes?(teacher explains WHY she does what she is doing so students understand the logic of what's being done).
21Why does student-centered teaching have to include activities where children can discover answers for themselves? (Because children will remember better if their natural curiosity is utilized in school)In student-centered teaching, is the role of the teacher closer to that of a lecturer or that of a facilitator? (Closer to that of a facilitator)
23STUDENTS Vs. CHILDRENWHEN TEACHERS COMPARE STUDENTS and CHILDREN, they OFTEN FEEL STUDENTS SHOULD BE:Better BehavedQuieterCalmerBetter Listeners
24Traditional Teaching Strategies Teaching strategies and behaviors that require young children to sit still and listen for hours at a time do not capitalize on children’s native curiosity and intelligence. These types of strategies include:Teaching children by asking them to repeat or reciteTeaching children by lecturing to them and asking them to copy information
25ConsequencesIn general, these traditional strategies have at least 2 consequences:Teaching by lecture, repeating and reciting, is boring. Students are often distracted and irritable.Children fail to master concepts at hand. Rather than an active understanding of the concept, children memorize and repeat meaningless words.
26Student Centered Teaching Teaching strategies that engage learners and help them use their native curiosity and energy are called student-centered teaching strategies.
27Student-centered teaching occurs when the teacher: draws on students’ experiences in the outside world to introduce lessons and clarify concepts;models for students each step in a thinking process, (e.g. when teaching to read, the teacher speaks out loud to the students about the reading process ‘I am looking at this word and I am seeing the letters x, y, z, and I am pronouncing them out loud from right to left so that I can read the word….”)designs activities that allow children to make comparisons, to categorize information, and to discover answers on their own, rather than dictating correct answers to the students and asking that they memorize them.
28Requirements Student-centered teaching requires that the teacher: Know about students’ culture, past experiences, interestsCreate new experiences for children in the classroom that are captivating for themReflect on how to EXPLAIN thinking processes in simple termsAllow children to present guesses and theories about a topic that may not necessarily be correct, but are interesting and worthy of discussion.
29Student-Centered Activity in Science Title: Black boxes and student involvement in science lessons
30GoalBy the end of this session, participants will understand methods used to involve students in the learning process.
31Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: describe the elements of a student centered lesson;describe the role of the students in a student-centered lesson.
33What do students learn from a black box activity What do students learn from a black box activity? (observation skills, questioning skills, team work, etc.)Why is this activity student-centered?Find topics from the Lebanese science curriculum where black box activities can be used.