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Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States Beverly D. Shaklee, Ed.D. Director, Center for International Education George Mason University.

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Presentation on theme: "Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States Beverly D. Shaklee, Ed.D. Director, Center for International Education George Mason University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States Beverly D. Shaklee, Ed.D. Director, Center for International Education George Mason University College of Education & Human Development

2  Expanded views of diversity to include international global viewpoints  Professional development experiences that lead to inter-cultural competence for faculty and students  Foreign language & intercultural communication requirements  Use of curriculum, technology and other resources to expand the ‘view from Virginia’ in relation to the world Four target areas B. Shaklee, 20132

3  Primarily from western or westernized nations  Primarily English speaking < 10% another language  Primarily prepared in western models of teacher education  Primarily prepared to teach in the English medium  Primarily female: ratio is 3 to 1  Primarily Caucasian  Primarily live away from the school community U. S. Teachers B. Shaklee, 20133

4 Comparisons Teaching Practices Areas of potential conflict  Western Perspectives  Personal Control  Change  Time/Control  Equality  Individualism  Self- Help  Competition  Future Orientation  Action/Work  Other Countries  Fate  Tradition  Human Interaction  Rank/Status/Hierarchy  Group’s Welfare  Birthright Inheritance  Cooperation  Past Orientation  “Being”  Cushner, McClelland,Safford 2013 B. Shaklee, 20134

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6  Virginia, 135 school districts = 1,250,852 students  36.7% are on free/reduced lunch  14.4% speak a language other than English at home  7% receive ELL services  41% classified as ‘minority’  11% were born internationally  22.9% are under the age of 18 Our students B. Shaklee, 20136

7  What are ways in which your professional development programs or teacher education programs attempt to bridge the gap between teachers and students? With a partner B. Shaklee, 20137

8  “ It is often hard to learn from people who are just like you. Too much is taken for granted. Homogeneity is fine in a bottle of milk, but in the classroom it diminishes the curiosity that ignites discovery.” Vivian Gyssin Paley B. Shaklee, 20138

9  Schools and Classrooms  School Culture  Student Culture – norms, traditions, religion and values  Teacher Culture  “Best” predisposed to regard diversity as interesting  “Worst” diversity = deficit  “Seldom” is diversity seen as exciting and enriching  Cushner, McClelland, Safford, 2012 Where Cultures Intersect B. Shaklee, 20139

10  Many good teachers are wishing that the diversity they see in September will somehow fade away as the class becomes a group.” Sara Lawrence Lightfoot B. Shaklee, 201310

11  Teachers who are prepared for multicultural settings normally focus on diverse domestic population, which may include some students who have recently immigrated…it is not clear how the knowledge and skills used with national students apply to international students or their families.  Levy, 2007 Multicultural-International B. Shaklee, 201311

12 Social justice MME Domestic US Civil Rights Era Race Socio Economic Status New “American” Populations IE Post WW I League of Nations Peace Activism Cross-national Social JusticeMobilityGlobalization International - multicultural B. Shaklee, 201312

13  Cross-cultural experiences  Knowledge of diverse cultures  Understanding of globalization  Intercultural Communication skills  Enhanced ability to work with and learn from people different from themselves  Shared belief in values that support diversity, equity and global connectedness  Merryfield, 2001 Expanding views B. Shaklee, 201313

14  STATE  State of Virginia – what does it mean to be a citizen?  NATIONAL  United States of America – what does it mean to live and contribute to a democratic society?  INTERNATIONAL  The World – what does it mean to be inter-dependent with the world? What is my responsibility? International B. Shaklee, 201314

15  There is a chance that international curriculum and practices will be seen as only for high performing schools creating an opportunity gap.  There is research that indicates children in low- performing schools that internationalize the curriculum “students perceive themselves as modern day explorers” raising their motivation and performance (Asia Society, 2008). Low-Performing Schools B. Shaklee, 201315

16  The focus has been on preparing our students for the 21 st Century – for a global and inter-connected world.  Who is preparing the teachers?  Programs ‘dance’ around terms such as social justice, culturally responsive classrooms, global citizens…  There is much language but little practice.  There is little implementation in teacher education programs.  Shaklee & Baily, 2012 Teachers B. Shaklee, 201316

17  How do you foster the inter-cultural competence of your administrators and teachers?  How do you study the values, roles, traditions of the international students you serve?  What is the role of international parents in your school?  How have you moved beyond “food, festivals and fun” approach to culture? In small group B. Shaklee, 201317

18  Able to manage the stress associated with intercultural interactions  Able to communicate verbally and non- verbally across cultures  Able to establish and maintain positive new relationships across cultures  (Brislin & Yoshida, 1994) Becoming inter-culturally competent B. Shaklee, 201318

19 U.S.A. & U.K = okayJapan = money Russia = zeroBrazil = insult B. Shaklee, 201319 An Example: Okay?

20  Affective – respect, openness and curiosity is a pre-requisite to developing  Cognitive - cultural self-awareness, culture- general as well as culture-specific knowledge  And Skills sets such as:  Listening, observing, and interpreting  Deardorff, 2006 Pyramid of Intercultural Competence – Initial B. Shaklee, 201320

21  All of which are needed prior to being able to develop a more enhanced behavioral repertoire of:  flexibility,  empathy,  adaptability, and  more culturally competent communication and interaction Pyramid of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff) B. Shaklee, 201321

22  Ultimately, people who are inter- culturally minded move from the avoidance or tolerance of difference to a respect and appreciation of difference, and from an unconscious ethnocentrism to a more conscious awareness of their own and others’ cultures (Bennett, 1993). Inter-culturally minded B. Shaklee, 201322

23  Instead of being conscious of what not to do to avoid racism, sexism, and other prejudices, they understand what they can do to create respectful, productive intercultural relationships.  Inter-culturally effective people, thus, are proactive in nature and seek out diverse perspectives and contributions when making decisions and taking actions (Cushner, 2012 ). Inter-culturally competent B. Shaklee, 201323

24 Where do your teachers stand? How do you help them?  Ethnocentric ◦ Denial ◦ Defense ◦ Minimization  Ethnorelative ◦ Acceptance ◦ Adaptability ◦ Integration B. Shaklee, 201324

25  Emerges out of one’s cultural upbringing that is carried throughout one’s life and relations with others.  Identity motivates and colors the social dynamics of teaching as well as pedagogical approaches used to teach.  If a teacher does not reflect on the aspects of culture upon his/her identity the ramifications on students can be immense.  Romano & Cushner, 2007 Cultural Identity of a Teacher B. Shaklee, 201325

26  Openness to other ways of living, of speaking and of interacting  Propelled to be curious and then to search  Non-judgmental, understands that comparisons lead to judgments  Able to go beyond comfort zone of the familiar  Able to tolerate ambiguity  Able to understand and empathize with a diverse range of people  Able to speak another language fluently To be an inter-culturally competent teacher B. Shaklee, 201326

27 Strategies to enhance  Conversational Partner  Cross-cultural pairing to better understand another culture  Meet six to eight times during the term (online)  Discussions range from reading newspapers together to family to “how to get things done”  Sharing at a general level/level of comfort  Changes in substantive knowledge of culture, personal understandings and interpersonal relationships (Wilson & Flournoy, 2007) B. Shaklee, 201327

28  Curriculum development teams  Recognize teachers may have come from pedagogical approaches that are “tell & show” & highly westernized  Design teams that can scaffold teacher’s ability to become a “curriculum maker”  Focus then becomes on perpetual inquiry and research in order to create learning around specific concepts and designing activities to foster those concepts Strategies to enhance B. Shaklee, 201328

29  Foster study abroad or joint international student teaching placements for candidates  Fulbright Teacher Programs –  Foster immersion programs within another culture  Foster teacher education study abroad  Foster World Language for Teachers Strategies to Enhance B. Shaklee, 201329

30  An inter-culturally competent faculty  National standards for teacher education that expand our boundaries  Teacher candidates – high academic standards  Different clinical experiences  Internationalized coursework that includes knowledge of cultural heritage, intercultural competence, immersion in a significantly different culture, world language skills What does it take? B. Shaklee, 201330

31 B. Shaklee, 201331

32  Are we preparing teachers for the 21 st Century? B. Shaklee, 201332

33  Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship: Essays and reflections. Chapters 1 and 3 (pp. 5 – 18, 43- 54). Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2005). Teaching and researching intercultural competence. In E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 911-930), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  Cushner, K. & Brennan, S. (2007). Intercultural Student Teaching. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield,  Lunenberg, M., & Willemse, M., (2006). Research and professional development of teacher educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(1), 81-98.  Dooly, M., & Villaneuva, M. (2006). Internationalisation as a key dimension to teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(2), 223-240.  Duckworth, R. L., Walker Levy, L., & Levy, J. (2005). Present and future teachers of the world’s children: How internationally-minded are they? Journal of Research in International Education, 4, 279 - 311.  Fox, R. K. (2012). Critical languages: Working with world language students in the classroom. In B. Shaklee and S. Bailey, (Eds.), Internationalizing U.S. teacher education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. B. Shaklee, 201333

34  Fox, R., & Diaz-Greenberg, R. (2006). Culture, multiculturalism, and world language standards: Toward a discourse of dissonance. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29 (3), 401-422.  Goncalves, M., & Andrade, A. (2007). Connecting languages: The use of the portfolio as a means of exploring and overcoming frontiers within the curriculum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 195-213.  Heyward, M. (2002) From international to intercultural: Redefining the international school for a globalized world. Journal of Research in International Education, 9(1), 9 - 32.  Lam, W.S.E (2006). Culture and learning in the context of globalization: Research directions. Review of Research in Education, (Special Issue on Rethinking Learning: What Counts as Learning and What Learning Counts) 30, 213-237  Sercu, L. (2005). Foreign language teachers and the implementation of intercultural education: A comparative investigation of the professional self-concepts and teaching practices of Belgian teachers of English, French and German. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(1), 87-105 B. Shaklee, 201334

35  Shaklee, B. (Spring, 2011). Leading for Diversity. InterEd: The Journal of the Association for the Advancement of International Education,Vol., 38 (112), 22-24.  Shaklee, B. and Baily, S. (Eds.) (2012). Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education Publishing Group.  Vasquez, O. (2006). Cross-national explorations of sociocultural research on learning. Review of Research in Education (Special Issue on Rethinking Learning: What Counts as Learning and What Learning Counts) 30, 33-64.  Wang, E., Lin, E., Spalding, E., Odell, S., & Klecka, C. (2011). Understanding teacher education in an era of globalization. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(2), 115-120.  Wiseman, A., & Fox, R. (2010). Supporting teachers’ development of cultural competence through teacher research. Action in Teacher Education, (32) 4, pp. 26-37.  DOI: 10.1080/01626620.2010.549708  Zhao, Y. (2010). Preparing globally competent teachers: A new imperative for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 422-431. B. Shaklee, 201335

36  American Council on Education, http://www.acent.edu  Asia Society,  Global Issues Network,  Global Teacher Education,  Kidz Connect, http://www.kidzconnect.org  Longview Foundation,  Student News Action Network, http://newsaction.tigweb.org  Teacher Education Goes Global, Resources B. Shaklee, 201336

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