Presentation on theme: "AUTHORS Mrs. Peeyush Kamal (UGC-Senior Research Fellow) Dori Lal Chaudhary (Assistant Professor) Department of TT&NFE (IASE), Faculty of Education, Jamia."— Presentation transcript:
AUTHORS Mrs. Peeyush Kamal (UGC-Senior Research Fellow) Dori Lal Chaudhary (Assistant Professor) Department of TT&NFE (IASE), Faculty of Education, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi- 25
Sep 5, 2010, during a heated Rajya Sabha debate on teacher shortage in schools, Members of Parliament took pot shots at Bihar. They blamed it for India's skewed teacher-student ratio. Union human resources development minister Kapil Sibal stepped in to put the problem in perspective. "Shortage of teachers is a national issue."Sibal said that India is short of 1.2 million teachers; 42 million children aged between 6 and 14 do not go to school; roughly 16% of all villages do not have primary schooling facilities and 17% schools have just one teacher. Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTR) is still quite high in many districts in States like Bihar (53:1), UP (50:1), Jharkhand (45:1) & WB (45:1). The recruitment deficit in states like Bihar (91657), MP (15898), WB (46797), Rajasthan (28499) and UP (33718) is very considerable. Lack of recruitment appears as a continuing problem in these states as can be noted from the reports of previous Joint Review Meetings.
This is a matter of serious concern, therefore the Right to Education Bill makes maintaining a PTR specified in the Bill in ‘each and every school’ mandatory. The Act has regulated Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTR) to at most 30:1, and has said that this ratio must be met within six months of the commencement of the Act. At first glance, it appears that teacher shortages may be the biggest threat to the implementation of the Act. The biggest challenge for India is however, the non- availability of competent teachers to teach. We plan to pay more attention to the process of encouraging, training, and mentoring teachers. The UNESCO Institute of Statistics, in its report Teachers and Educational Quality: Monitoring Global Needs for 2015 released in June 2010, estimates that to meet the Millennium Development Goal of providing elementary education to all children by 2015, India will need more than 20 lakh new teachers, the greatest inflow of new teachers in the world. It is estimated that in addition to filling existing vacancies, the government will need to appoint an additional 5.1 lakh teachers to meet the 30:1 PTR norm. Accordingly, we expect that the incremental human resource requirement for teachers and trainers would be about 5.8 million teachers between 2008 and 2022 (IMaCS report with NSDC).
Attracting top rank holders in teaching profession. To overcome the problem of teacher shortage and teacher absenteeism the Para teacher scheme under the ‘Shiksha Karmi Project’has been introduced in India (Rajasthan). An ICT based teacher management system (web tools for tracking attendance and other parameters), addressing professional development, training, performance and accountability would contribute substantially to planning teacher development efforts. (MHRD has set a target of 90% teacher attendance across the country). Teachers equipped with ICT. Government will need to filling existing vacancies on regular basis.
Today the major challenges that India faces in the educational arena are: The challenge of number The challenge of credibility The challenge of quality The RtE in particular aim to ensure education for all children, particularly girls, underprivileged children, and children from ethnic minorities, will have access to and the opportunity to complete, free and compulsory, high quality primary education. The RtE goals needs greater cooperation amongst the development community and more resources alone will not be enough. New initiatives will also need to be employed. One such initiative is to harness the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
There are three major questions from the standpoint of Education for All. ◦ Can ICT increase interest in school? ◦ Can ICT sustain interest in school? ◦ Can ICT enrich learning and enhance performance? ICT increase interest in School/Learning ICT itself is attractive to children. If it is available and used in the school for teaching and learning, School becomes attractive, interesting, and able to increase enrollment, attendance and interest of students in school. ICT sustain interest in school The findings of Pradhan (2001) on various interventions for education of the tribal children found immense implication for the use of ICTs. All new technologies Ex satellite, cable television, Internet, computer, initially provoke reactions ranging from apprehension, to caution, to curiosity, to excitement and expectation. ICT enrich learning and enhance performance Even a single computer in classroom can bring effective results has been proved in the study of Scaplen (1999). The application of technology enhances a child’s cognitive abilities according to Hougland & shade (1990).
It recognizes that, ‘these technologies have great potential for knowledge dissemination, effective learning and the development of more efficient education services’, and identifies a need to tap the potential of ICTs to; 1. Support teaching- learning processes effectively to compensate PTR. 2. Increasing the supply of teachers through ICT based distance education. 3. Virtual or intelligent classroom concept (research consideration under the topic of artificial intelligence). 4. Enabling greater access to education for all, which will strengthen the knowledge equity on technology. 5. It can enhance the quality of education across the board at primary, secondary and tertiary level 6. Support the professional development of teachers and teacher training 7. Improve access to education by remote and disadvantaged communities; 8. Provide opportunities to communicate across classrooms and cultures; and, 9. Strengthen management and administration procedures from the central ministries through sub-national levels to the schools.
10. An ICT based teacher management system, addressing professional development, training, performance and accountability (web tools for tracking attendance and other parameters) would contribute substantially to planning teacher development efforts. This could also become a transparent tool for developing teacher accountability indicators and their use, as presently, teacher accountability systems appear to be still in the process of formation. While this indicates the importance of ICT for education, when examining the integration of ICT in support of achieving educational objectives, it can be said that, after almost one decade of using ICT to stimulate development, it is still not fully integrated in development activities. Greater awareness-raising is therefore required.
Finally, ICTs contribute to a more conducive environment through the application of ICT in Education sector. ICT can take the burden of teacher and by using it PTR can be extended 1:30 to 1:40/50. Enhance the quality of teachers and instructors; Improve the learning process by provision of more interactive educational materials; Improve management and administration; Improve young people’s learning skills; Develop a critical mass of knowledge workers; Provide access to ICT in schools. ICT helped to develop and support, educational content has been created and enriched, schools have been provided with an ICT infrastructure, and students have become computer-literate and have received sufficient training to be able to train others to select, install, maintain and repair hardware and software.
The world over, successful education systems are those that have been able to uphold the status of the teaching profession, attracting the best talent and providing pay and professional development opportunities comparable to other professions needing similar levels of qualification and training. The RtE Act has set high benchmarks and expectations for the future of education in our country. However, a failure to understand the complexity of this system, and an overemphasis on the hyperbole of teacher shortage will mean that the deeper issues that are the actual disease will get overshadowed by the symptom of teacher shortage. We will rush to hire and train teachers. We should also equip our teachers, teacher training institutes and off course schools with ICT in the next five years to compensate teacher shortage (PTR), and end up treating the symptom, while the disease will continue to fester, ultimately resulting in a failure of the RtE. The fear is that there are already enough vested interests waiting for this failure to happen, and once this happens they will grab the opportunity to label it as a failure of education itself. We will have defeated ourselves and our aims of education, and should then stand prepared to be corrected by a market that will take education into its own hands, privileging education only as a vehicle to superpowerdom in the newly booming knowledge economy of the world. Nothing more and certainly nothing less…..
1. Providing access to ICT in schools, ICT should be made teacher friendly and then school and classroom environment. 2. Increasing the supply of teachers through ICT based distance education and by organizing time to time online in-service programmes for quality improvement. 3. Creation of infrastructure, development of e- innovative teaching learning material and formulation of scheme for making available additional resources. 4. An ICT based teacher management system, addressing professional development, training, performance and accountability. 5. Networking of institutions in the form of school complexes with help in promoting the sharing of infrastructure and expertise. 6. Establishing cells in SCERTs for defining the curriculum for computer education, teacher training and ensuring quality besides up-gradation of computer facility with computer literacy in DIETs and teacher training institutes.