Presentation on theme: "Teacher Quality Current issues and approaches. Why is improving teacher quality now such an important issue? Teachers were not always considered important."— Presentation transcript:
Why is improving teacher quality now such an important issue? Teachers were not always considered important in the achievement of improved educational outcomes. Istance (2001) suggests four reasons for the current importance given to improving teacher quality
Why is improving teacher quality important now? Teachers contribute to knowledge-based economies, social inclusion, cultural participation and citizenship. Teachers are now recognised as being central to the success of education and improving outcomes
Why is improving teacher quality important now? Increasing demands and expectations on teachers working within uncertain contexts necessitate a high quality, flexible and adaptable teaching force. Governments are concerned about teacher supply with projected shortages and the potential impact of these on teacher quality.
What is the role of a teacher in the knowledge economy? The role of the teacher in a knowledge economy is shaped by – The educational context in which they work The nature of the knowledge that is to be learnt Social and cultural agendas for education Economic priorities and resource availability
The teacher’s role in a knowledge economy is shaped by - The educational context in which they work What kind of educational contexts will be the main sites for teachers work? The education of children and young people already takes place at home; teachers work with various ICT’s, in refugee and migrant education facilities, University and TAFE settings and there are expectations for contributing to life long learning.
The teacher’s role in a knowledge economy is shaped by - The nature of the ‘knowledge’ to be learnt. What are students expected to know/do/value? The Adelaide Declaration identifies: Eight talents and capabilities Eight Key Learning areas Six areas of social justice
The teacher’s role in a knowledge economy is shaped by - Social and cultural agendas for education. How will teachers contribute to creating a socially just society that values cultural and linguistic diversity? The Adelaide Declaration provides for the absence of discrimination, improving outcomes for disadvantaged students, equitable access and opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, valuing of these cultures and working towards reconciliation, valuing of cultural and linguistic diversity, access to high quality education with clear pathways to employment, further education and training.
The teacher’s role in a knowledge economy is shaped by - Economic priorities and resource availability. How will education be funded? Davis (2001) questions our current convictions about education; for example, Can we deliver education for all? Do we need to widen the responsibility for education? Who should be accountable for delivery?
So what is teacher quality or quality teaching? Descriptions of teacher quality emerge from a number of sources: Teacher effectiveness research, Development of professional standards, competency frameworks, performance management systems and career paths, Research into teacher development, learning and knowledge construction.
Why, how and by whom is a teacher’s performance assessed? Why do we assess a teacher’s performance? 1.As feedback to support professional learning and change in practice, 2.As a basis for selection 3.To recognize and/or reward excellence, 4.As an evaluation, accountability and/or monitoring tool.
Why, how and by whom is a teacher’s performance assessed? How do we assess a teacher’s performance? Observation of classroom practice Tests of knowledge (about their subject(s), teaching skills, student learning, curriculum, assessment, ICT, context of the school etc.) Authentic assessment tasks, e.g. portfolios, Performance assessments, e.g. role play, Assessment Centre exercises, e.g. reflective review.
Why, how and by whom is a teacher’s performance assessed? Who assesses a teacher’s performance? Initial teacher education: School (usually a teacher) and university personnel Probation/Beginning teachers: Head of Department School principal, District or Employer representative Promotion/New teaching position: Head of Department, School principal, District or Employer representative
Why, how and by whom is a teacher’s performance assessed? Two examples of innovative strategies: Assessment of teacher quality for selection of Level 3 Classroom teachers in Western Australia. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Assessments for recognition of highly accomplished teaching in the United States.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Context: Development and implementation of processes in an EBA agreement, supported by Union and Employer. Contracted out as a pilot research and development program.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Process: Development of five competencies relating to: Classroom practices Assessment and reporting Professional development (self) Support for professional development of peers Contribution to curriculum, policy, school and/or community development
Level 3 Classroom teachers Portfolio structure: Rationale/context statement (2 pages) Statements for each of the five competencies (Maximum – 10 pages) Evidence to support teacher statement of achievement of each competency (Maximum 15 pages)
Level 3 Classroom teachers Portfolio assessment: Peer assessment (Assessors selected on the basis of teaching quality). Each portfolio assessed independently by two assessors on quality of the evidence. Moderation to within one point agreement.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Selection of 313 teachers for second stage assessment - THE REFLECTIVE REVIEW Observed and assessed by two peers Agreement within one point on ratings Judgement of Competencies 3, 4 and 5 based on the quality of evidence presented and observed in the reflective review.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Reflective review process: Each member of a group of 5 teachers presents a real issue/concern/problem (5 mins) Presenter facilitates discussion of the issue(15 mins) Presenter summarizes the discussion and reflects on this for his/her issue. (5 mins)
Level 3 Classroom teachers 261 teachers appointed to the Level 3 Classroom Teacher promotional position. Salary level $3-4000 above Level 2. This assessment process was repeated in 2000. 2001 - The number of L3 teachers is around 300. (about 2% of the teaching population in WA)
Level 3 Classroom teachers Equity outcomes The proportions of teachers appointed by gender, location, level/type of school and experience reflected that of both the applicants and total population of teachers.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Educational and professional outcomes: Opportunities to work with colleagues and share professional expertise together with the recognition and acknowledgement of their work were seen to improve professional expertise, morale, self esteem and confidence for both themselves and other teachers.
Level 3 Classroom teachers Educational and professional outcomes : Implementation of specific projects, often for students at educational risk, such as individual education plans. Other projects included fostering student- centred approaches, student independence and enjoyment in work.
National Board Certification National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Independent body with majority teacher membership. Standards statements developed by teams of teachers for subjects and/or levels of schooling. Peers assessed portfolio of specified tasks, completed during a year.
National Board Certification Outcomes are similar to those suggested by Level 3 Classroom teachers: Professional development leading to changes in practice and support for colleagues. Contributions to specific projects. Evidence of improved student learning outcomes after involvement in the process.
Is teacher quality being developed and rewarded appropriately? Does professional development lead to improvements in teacher quality? Do improvements in teacher quality lead to improvements in student outcomes? What kinds of rewards should be given for teacher quality?
What is happening here and overseas? Work in Australia: DETYA research and development projects: Mapping of Professional Development Investigating the outcomes of professional development on teacher quality and student learning outcomes. (ACER)
What is happening here and elsewhere? Work in Australia: ARC/SPIRT grants to Science, Mathematics and English professional associations working with Universities on the development of standards. State developments: A range of initiative to establish professional state bodies to determine training, entry and continuing registration requirements for teachers.
What is happening here and elsewhere? Some web sites addressing teacher quality issues. Centre for the Study of Teaching and Policy http://www.depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/ http://www.depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/ Department for Education and Skills (2001) Career opportunities for teachers. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/teachingreforms/reformbri efs/trb/06. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/teachingreforms/reformbri efs/trb/06.
What is happening here and elsewhere? Some web sites addressing teacher quality issues. ACE (2001) Standards of professional practice for accomplished teachers in Australian Schools. http://www.austcolled.com.au/ http://www.austcolled.com.au/ Education Queensland (2001) Showcase – awards for excellence. http://education.qld.gov.au/tal/showcase/awards_ excellence/index.html http://education.qld.gov.au/tal/showcase/awards_ excellence/index.html
What is happening here and elsewhere? Some web sites addressing teacher quality issues. McBer, H. (2000) A model for teaching effectiveness. Report to the Department of Education and Employment. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/teachingreforms/leadershi p/mcber/index.shtml http://www.dfes.gov.uk/teachingreforms/leadershi p/mcber/index.shtml National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2001) www.nbpts.orgwww.nbpts.org
What is happening here and elsewhere? Some web sites addressing teacher quality issues. Ontario College of Teachers http://www.oct.on.ca/english/ http://www.oct.on.ca/english/ Ramsey, G. (2000) Quality matters: the next steps. Sydney, NSW. http://www.det.nsw.edu.au/teachrev/ http://www.det.nsw.edu.au/teachrev/ Ministerial Advisory Council for the Victorian Institute of Teaching (2001) Publications, news etc. http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/macvit/http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/macvit/
What should we be doing now? Enabling conversations between teachers about the assessment of their performance. What are appropriate strategies? Who should make the judgement about quality? What criteria/standards might be used? What would count as evidence?
What should we be doing now? Be clear about different purposes for the assessment of teachers’ performances. Develop appropriate assessment strategies. Encourage discussion between state registration boards and advisory bodies. …………………..