Presentation on theme: "“T EACHERS MUST BE VERY SKILLED, VERY AND EXQUISITELY WELL - TRAINED, BECAUSE NEITHER THE TEACHER NOR THE SURGEON CAN SAY : ‘ E VERYBODY SIT STILL UNTIL."— Presentation transcript:
“T EACHERS MUST BE VERY SKILLED, VERY AND EXQUISITELY WELL - TRAINED, BECAUSE NEITHER THE TEACHER NOR THE SURGEON CAN SAY : ‘ E VERYBODY SIT STILL UNTIL I FIGURE OUT WHAT IN THE HECK WE ’ RE GOING TO DO NEXT.’’ -M ADELINE H UNTER
G REAT S EAL OF THE U NITED S TATES Chief Cannasatego Iroquois Confederacy founded in 1500s Six Indian Nations banding together for the common good. “We, the people, to form a union, to establish peace, equity and order…” -Opening statement of Iroquoian Law
E FFECTIVE I NSTRUCTIONAL S TRATEGIES Objectives: To gain an awareness of classroom instructional strategies which have a positive effect on student achievement. To gain an understanding of why each of these instructional strategies are so effective. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering & Jane Pollock
O VERARCHING C ONCEPT Relevance - In order for students to learn something it must be relevant to their real lives. Engagement - In order for students to learn something they must feel safe and be actively engaged in the learning. BRAIN THEORY Memory = Connections Nothing we learn can stand in isolation. New learning has to be related to what we already know.
H OW D O M ESSAGES T RAVEL T HROUGH THE BRAIN ? 1. Survival 2. Emotions 3. Learning Learning and Memory: The Brain by Marilee Sprenger. in Action
4 WAYS L EARNERS IN TAKE INFORMATION Engage at least two of these modalities OR Engage one of these modalities coupled with an emotional experience. Modalities of LearningTeachers must…
W HAT IS REAL LIFE TEACHING ? List of Prohibited Words heherhers himhisI ititsyou meminemy myselfourshe theirthemthey uswewho whomyouyours
W HAT IS REAL LIFE TEACHING ? R ELATING THE SKILLS TO THE REAL LIVES OF STUDENTS. Definition - A pronoun takes the place of a noun. Example Sentences List pronouns Identify pronouns by underlining them in a sentence. List of pronouns posted Students are asked to complete a variety of activities without using the posted words. Tell something about themselves. Write a sentence about themselves Read a paragraph. Have a conversation. Why are these words so important in our language? Teacher A - PRONOUNSTeacher B - PRONOUNS
K EY S TEPS FOR L ONG T ERM M EMORY S TORAGE The teacher must carefully think through the instructional sequence and build in opportunities for the students to interact with the information in a relevant and meaningful manner.
Active emotional engagement appears to be the KEY to learning.
L EARNING = C ONNECTIONS Nothing we learn can stand in isolation. New learning has to be related to what we already know. Only the student themselves can make the information their own. The teacher must carefully think through the instructional sequence and build in opportunities for the students to interact with the information in a relevant and meaningful manner.
J UMBLES “SNOOZE ALARMS” becomes: becomes: ALAS! NO MORE Z’s When you rearrange the letters...
I NSTRUCTIONAL S TRATEGIES
R ETENTION R ATE – AFTER 24 HOURS Lecture – 5%Reading – 10%Audio-Visual – 20%Demonstration – 30%Discussion – 50% Practice by Doing – 75% Teach Others/Immediate Use of Learning – 90% “Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” -Benjamin Franklin
W HICH STRATEGIES GIVE TEACHERS THE “M OST B ANG FOR THE B UCK ”? What Do You Think Are the Most Effective Instruction Strategies? Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, Jane Pollock
K EY S TEPS FOR L ONG T ERM M EMORY S TORAGE Making Connections ( short-term memory to working memory)
S ETTING O BJECTIVES AND P ROVIDING F EEDBACK Setting objectives gives students a direction for learning. Focus on the BIG ideas Giving feedback keeps students moving in the right direction. Corrective; Timely; Specific Students begin thinking about where this new information will fit into the schemata of their brain.
N ONLINGUISTIC R EPRESENTATIONS Symbols Pictures Models Mental Pictures – Imagery Kinesthetic Activity Connect words to pictures, actions, or images. The brain needs imagery to store words.
Evaporation Condensation Water Droplet + Dust = Cloud Formation Precipitation Students should be involved in creating their own nonlinguistic representations.
C UES, Q UESTIONS AND A DVANCE O RGANIZERS Help students… Retrieve, Use or Organize …what they already know about a topic. Educators must develop cues, questions and advance organizers which… Focus on the most important concepts/skills. Require high level thinking skills. Are well organized. Used effectively they guide the thinking process so learners can “see” how the new information connects to their prior knowledge.
How do each of the instructional strategies listed below assist students in making connections to new information? Setting Objective and Providing Feedback Non-linguistic Representation Cues, Question and Advance Organizers The teacher must plan with the end outcome in mind in order to have the information, resources and questions prepared to effectively guide students through the learning process.
K EY S TEPS FOR L ONG T ERM M EMORY S TORAGE Relevance Making it their own. (Working Memory to Long-term Memory)
S TUDENT I NTERACTION Allows students to… Interact with one another in order to process their learning. Discover new insights. Catch misconceptions. Practice using and retrieving information from their long-term memory. Be actively engaged in their learning.
S UMMARIZING AND N OTE T AKING Enhances students’ ability to recode and reorganize information to make it their own. Summarizing helps students process the most important information. Summary Frames (Limits students to specific questions/topics addressed in their summaries.) Describe the Lesson in 10 words or less Note taking organizes important information to be remembered. Present students with a variety of note taking formats. The best tools for identifying and understanding the MOST IMPORTANT aspect of what they are learning.
Why is it so important for students to recode new information and make it their own? How do the instructional strategies listed below assist students in “making meaning” of new information? Student Interaction Summarizing and Note Taking
K EY S TEPS FOR L ONG T ERM M EMORY S TORAGE Learning Using information in new situations. (Working Memory to Long-term Memory) AND (Long-term Memory to Working Memory)
H OMEWORK AND P RACTICE The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated I. PRACTICE – structured around content with which students have a high degree of familiarity. A skill needs to be practiced at least 24 times to mastered. Practice should be spread out over time. Practice develops the conceptual understanding of a skill. II. PREPARATION for New Content III. ELABORATION on New Content Homework should contain feedback.
G ENERATING AND T ESTING H YPOTHESES When students explain their thinking they deepen their understanding of concepts. Gives students practice using their new knowledge in novel situations. (LEARNING)
THE PATH TO LEARNING INFORMATION ASSOCIATIONS MEMORY CONNECTIONS THINKING LEARNING
Behavioral Instructional Strategy
R EINFORCE E FFORT P ROVIDE R ECOGNITION Reinforcing effort enhances students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement. Recognition shows students that effort pays off.
R EINFORCE E FFORT P ROVIDE R ECOGNITION 4 = I worked on this task until it was completed and viewed difficulties as a way to strengthen my understanding of the concept/skill. 3 = I worked on the task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working even when difficulties arose. 2 = I put effort into the task, but I stopped working when it became difficult. 1 = I put very little effort into the task. 4 = I exceeded the objectives of the task/lesson. 3 = I met the objectives of the task/lesson. 2 = I met some of the objectives of the task/lesson. 1 = I did not meet the objectives of the task/lesson. Effort Rubric Achievement Rubric
THE Most Effective Instructional Strategy…
I DENTIFYING S IMILARITIES AND D IFFERENCES Make new connections Experience new insights Correct misconceptions Effective Forms comparing /contrasting classifying creating metaphors creating analogies The brain stores information based on similarities. The brain retrieves information based on differences.
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Resources Marzano, R., Pickering, D. & Pollock, J. ( 2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Sprenger, M. ( 2005). How to teach so students remember. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Spenger, M. (1999). Learning & memory: the brain in action. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Teri L. Johnson Director of Special Services St. Michael-Albertville Schools