2General approaches that teachers and teaching materials can adopt Traditional direct approach: Teach vocabulary itemsIndirect1, learner training approach: Teach conscious vocabulary-related strategiesHow to help a poor man?Indirect2, natural approach: Create opportunities for spontaneous acquisition via communicative tasks . The three hypotheses.
3Direct teaching Selection and ordering Amount and rate Presentation PracticeProductionAssessmentTASK Which are in the teacher’s hands?
4Selection and ordering… the vocab syllabus Who does it?What criteria are relevant?TASK
12PresentationWhat actually is a pedagogically useful vocabulary item to present?Words?Word families?Lexical chunks aka lexical phrases, formulae, readymades…?
13Beyond phrasal verbs (e. g. bring up), multiword compounds (e. g Beyond phrasal verbs (e.g. bring up), multiword compounds (e.g. hard disk) and idiomatic phrases (e.g. pull someone’s leg) to:polyword at any rate, by and large, as well [= ‘also’]frame or slot the [adj.]-er the [adj]–er, as [adj]….as,so [adj]…that… ,Little did…realize that…sentence head Could you....., God only knows wh-…sentence tail …, if you would., …and so on.cliché There's more than one way to skin a cat.
14What is there to present about a lexical item? ..beyond the basic ‘form – one meaning’ linkHow can presentation be done?Traditional deductive presentationInductive presentation
15Deductive presentation Three basic ways to present word meaningExtension to other aspects of words like collocationE.g. More Words You Need (Rudzka et al., 1985, MacMillan)
16Inductive presentation, requiring learner strategies To present word meaningTeacher provides a ‘pregnant context’ , e.g. a situation or story from which the meaning of the word can be easily guessedFor other aspects of words like collocation, grammatical behaviour, stylistic valueStudents work on corpus concordance lines or statistics e.g. at
17Practice… ProductionAny repetition / practice of vocab has some at least minimal value… but….there are many types of vocab exercise/taskTeacher needs to choose suitable ones in the light of what kind of work needs to be done on vocab that has been presentedSo what are the functions of exercises / practice?
18Confirm that X has been correctly learnt X = what the teacher presented about the lexical itemsConfirm that X has been correctly learntReinforce prior learning, i.e. aid memory of XRecycling, repetitionEstablishment of associationsDeepening of processingActivation: automatise /proceduralise what has been learnt of X so that learners access it more fluentlyActivation: extend knowledge of the items beyond XActivation: turn passive/receptive/recognition mastery of X into active/production/recall ability
21Exercise types in P and W Selective attention: Make students identify/notice wordform (e.g. underline the word wherever it occurs in the text) aRecognition: Make students show recognition/receptive knowledge of meaning (e.g. match word with picture) bManipulation: make students show wordformation knowledge (e.g. change word from noun to adjective)Interpretation: make students show knowledge of collocation and syntactic properties (e.g. guess meaning from context, give grammatical function of word in text)Production: make students show recall/production word knowledge (e.g. open cloze) c
22Communicative practice/production Often seen as ultimate goal of vocab teaching‘Deep end’ approach… reverse PPPIndirect 1 approach needed here
23Indirect1 teaching Vocabulary related strategies potentially to teach To help learner where (s)he does not know vocabulary, esp. in real communicative use: CopingSome of those involve learning: DiscoverySome involve managing without the needed vocabTo help learner remember vocabulary previously met/taught: ConsolidationTASK… think of examples
24Coping Consolidation Skip/avoid Make do with existing L2 resources (and maybe Discover)Appeal (so Discover)ConsolidationSelf-selection and note keepingRepetitionAssociationIntegrative practice
25What the teacher needs to check What strategies do students already know from L1?What strategies have been already taught, maybe implicitly, through direct teaching?For more demanding strategies, check if students have the threshold language prof to be able to exploit them / transfer them from L1
26Three general approaches: Allow or encourage them (e.g. ‘Use your dictionary’, ‘Try guessing it’, ‘Why not put that in your vocab notebook?’)Teach them overtly as opportunities arise during a reading task, on specific instancesInductively: e.g. ‘What did/could you do here to get the meaning?’Deductively: e.g. ‘Look at the phrase after the word and guess’Teach them overtly and separately from reading taskInductively: e.g. ‘What do you do when you meet an unknown word?’, ‘What do you do to try to remember words?’Deductively: e.g. ‘I am going to show you how to use your dictionary properly’. Note: examples used may be known words
27After strategy teaching… Implement ‘deep-end’ approachIndirect2 should work better now
28Indirect2 teachingIncidental spontaneous learning in extensive communicative language useThe three hypotheses claiming major sources of thisInput (Krashen)Output (Swain)Interaction (Long)
29What really occurs? Incidental learning/acquisition ..but is it unconscious/implicit?The need for noticingSo consciousness is involved… but the teacher does not teach vocab or strategies in this approach/phase
30Conditions the teacher needs to create Interesting communication opportunitiesMotivated students?Input modificationIncidental learning may be planned to beVocab acquisition tasks: required vocab at i+1… but not i+2Vocab fluency tasks: required vocab at i or i-1Strategy development tasks?
31ReferencesThornbury, S How to Teach Vocabulary. London: Longman.Gairns, R. and Redman, S Working with words: a guide to teaching and learning vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Carter, R. and McCarthy, M Vocabulary and language teaching. London: Longman.Sökmen, A ‘Current trends in teaching second language vocabulary.’ In Schmitt, N. and M. McCarthy (eds) Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. PressHatch, E. and C. Brown Vocabulary, Semantics and Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (parts only)Nation, I.S.P Learning Vocabulary in another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series, CUPRead, J Assessing Vocabulary.