2Outcome: Students engage in a “writing process” to write for a number of different purposes. 0.1 Teachers teach students the stages of the writing process.0.2 Directed teaching of writing occurs daily and includesimplementing preplanned mini-lessons focusing onteaching students a variety of aspects of each stage ofthe writing process.0.3 Teachers develop and implement an efficient classroommanagement system for supporting each student in thevarious stages of the writing process.0.4 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffoldingstrategies, as needed, in the prewriting stage, includingidentifying reason for writing, choosing a topic, identifyingaudience, determining form, etc.
30.5 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the drafting stage, including finding, ordering, and selecting information about which to write, etc Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the revising (for clarity) stage, including choice of grammar, determining amount of information, presenting information in different way, use of graphics, etc 0.7 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the editing stage, including proofreading and correcting composition as it relates to spelling and mechanics of punctuation, and grammar Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the publishing stage, including making final copy, selecting a way to share with intended audience (e.g., bookshelves, author’s chair/share, bulletin boards, “binding”, etc.) Students are given routine opportunities to discuss their writing with their peers/others/intended audience Each student has a writing portfolio that contains at least 5 publications representing different forms. All 5 publications have evidence of progress through each phase of the writing process.
4Activity-Getting to Know One Another Form teams of four members who do not know each other.Pair up to do interview. Decide who is A and B.A’s interview B’s. B’s interview A’s.Without talking any more write about your partner.Partners get together to see if revision is necessary.Groups use Rallytable to proofread/edit.Make final copy.Share by introducing your partner.
5“Another way students learn to read is by writing “Another way students learn to read is by writing. For some children, their own writing provides the first successful reading experience. Many children love the combination of writing and illustrating that leads to a published work. Children’s writing samples, prior to the publication stage, serve as a rich portrait of how well young minds are applying important language skills and strategies, as well as what they know about words”. -Patricia M. Cunningham, Dorothy P. Hall, & Cheryl M. Sigmon
6Required Communication Thought Clarification Why teach writing?Reading ImprovementRequired CommunicationInfluence OthersThought Clarification
7Writing to Learn Reading to Learn What do you have to say?Be active.Do it.Student chooses the words.Productive.Output.What did they have to say?Sit still.Pay attention.Teacher chooses the words.Consumptive.Input.Virginia DeBolt, 1998
8WRITING PROCESS Daily Opportunities to explore and create writing Progression through a number of levels Part of well balanced literacy program
9CURRICULUM PHILOSOPHY INTEGRATED LANGUAGE ARTSCOMMUNICATION AS CENTRAL FOCUSLANGUAGE CONVENTIONS DEVELOPED AND APPLIED IN CONTEXTRESOURCE BASED CURRICULUMSUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTREFLECTIVE TEACHER/FACILITATORRESPECT OF GRADUAL, ONGOING LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
10Purposes of Writing To record events To explain To hypothesize To persuadeTo invite a response To predictTo command, direct, or requestTo amuse, entertain To narrateTo invent To informTo find out To invite reflectionTo summarize To comment or give an opinionDancing with the Pen
11WRITING WORKSHOPA BLOCK OF TIME SCHEDULED EACH DAY WITH STUDENTS WORKING THROUGH THE WRITING PROCESS. THIS TIME TYPICALLY BEGINS WITH A TEACHER DIRECTED MINI-LESSON FOLLOWED BY STUDENTS WRITING ON THEIR OWN. THE TEACHER MOVES FROM INSTRUCTOR TO FACILITATOR AND PROMOTER OF WRITING WITH FOCUS ON INDIVIDUALIZATION.
12THE WRITING WORKSHOP IS HIGHLY STRUCTURED AND GENENRALLY REQUIRES: A TIMETABLE RULES CLASSROOM SPACE A TYPICAL STUDENT MATERIALS LESSON
13KINDERGARTEN: 30 – 40 MINUTES GRADES 1 – 3: 45 MINUTES – 1 HOUR TIMETABLEDAILY SCHEDULED TIMEKINDERGARTEN: 30 – 40 MINUTESGRADES 1 – 3: 45 MINUTES – 1 HOURGRADES 4 AND UP – AT LEAST ONE HOUR OR MORE INTEGRATED INTO ANOTHER SUBJECT-Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
14-Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos SPACEWHERE WILL BE THE DESIGNATED WRITING AREA? WILL THERE BE A TABLE OR COUNTER SPACE FOR NEEDED MATERIALS? WILL THERE BE WALL SPACE CLOSE FOR WRITING POSTERS? WILL THERE BE WORD WALLS? ARE THERE PLACES TO DISPLAY STUDENT WRITING?-Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
15RULESKEEP TO A MINIMUM.THERE WILL BE MOVEMENT AS STUDENTS ORGANIZE WRITING AND OBTAIN MATERIALS FROM THE WRITING CENTER. THERE WILL BE CONFERENCING.A GOOD RULE OF THUMB IS THAT “WRITING TIME IS QUIET TIME”.-Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
16A TYPICAL LESSONLESSON STARTS WITH A MINI-LESSON THAT IS USUALLY 5-20 MINUTES LONG.STUDENTS PROCEED WITH THEIR OWN WRITING. THEY WILL BE AT VARIOUS STAGES IN THE PROCESS.AT THE END OF THE LESSON STUDENTS NEED A CHANCE TO SHARE THEIR WRITING.-Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
17MATERIALS STACKING TRAY WITH VARIOUS KINDS AND COLORS OF PAPER DATE STAMP STACKING TRAY WITH VARIOUS KINDS AND COLORS OF PAPERMARKERS, PENS, COLORED PENCILSBASKETS FOR WRITING PAPERS STAGE STAMPS AND INK PAD ATLASRUBBER STAMPS FOR DECORATIONCHARTSSTAPLER HOLE PUNCHTAPE STICKY NOTES DICTIONARIESTHESAURUS WORD BOOKS PHONE BOOKS
18STAGES OF THE WRITING PROCESS ~ PREWRITING ~~ DRAFTING ~~ REVISING ~~ PROOFREADING ~~ PUBLISHING ~
19ROTATINg REVIEW1. Topics are written on pieces of chart paper and hung around the room.2. Each team is given a marker.3. Designate teams to go to one of the papers.4. Team is given one minute to write on the paper about specific topic.5. Teams rotate to next paper when time is called.6. Teams are given one minute to read what the previous team has written.7. Teams put a question mark beside ones that they have a question on ordisagree.8. Team has an additional thirty seconds to write any other information.9. Continue this procedure until each team has rotated to all the papers.
20The writer establishes and clarifies a purpose PrewritingThe writer establishes and clarifies a purposeof writing, brainstorms possible topics, collects pertinent materials, identifies an audience, chooses an appropriate form of writing, and establishes an initial organizational strategy.The teacher helps students select topics, encourages them to talk to generate ideas and language about the topic, provides resources, suggestions, and materials and discusses appropriate format and audience.
21INSPIRATION FOR TOPIC IDEAS PERSONAL INTEREST INVENTORIESCLASS INTEREST INVENTORIESMAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALSRADIO, TV, INTERNETINTERVIEWSDREAMS, MEMORIES, EXPERIENCESLITERATURE RESPONSEDISCUSSION, BRAINSTORMING,ROLE PLAYING, IMAGINATION
22WAYS TO PREWRITE WAYS TO PREWRITE BRAINSTORMING FREE WRITING TOPIC OR WORD CHARTSLISTSJOURNALLINGWEBBINGMAPPINGCLUSTERINGIMAGE STREAMINGVISUALIZATIONFAST WRITINGGRAPHIC ORGANIZERSTHINKINGDAYDREAMING
23PREWRITING STRATEGIES ~ Graphic Organizers – brainstorming webs,mind maps, and other charts that help organizethoughts and ideas ~~ Come Aboard a R.A.F.T. – Role, Audience,Format, Topic ~~ Descriptive Word Prompters ~~ Five Senses Chart ~~ Handprint Organizer ~
24Cooperative Learning Structures for Prewriting 4-S BrainstormingFormationsInside-Outside CircleRoundrobinTeam DiscussionTeam InterviewThink-Pair-Share
25Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting The writers express ideas in an uninterrupted flow while keeping the purpose and audience in mind. They get information on paper, concentrate on content and explore topic possibilities. Invented spellings, blanks, cross-outs, and abbreviations are acceptable.The teacher offers encouragement, helps organize information, gives assistance focusing on the topic, provides enough time and structure to ensure students get off to a good start.
26FIRST DRAFT QUESTIONS What is the purpose for writing this piece? What will my audience want to know about this topic?How can I best arrange my information?What main ideas do I want to present?What details will support my main ideas?What will make a good lead to catch the reader’s attention?How can I end the piece effectively?-Gary R. Muschia
27Revising The writers narrow down topics, eliminate irrelevant writing, reorganize writing, write additional drafts, and research information. Content quality, clarity, smooth flowing ideas, and descriptive language is emphasized.Teachers encourage peer revision sessions and encourage students to talk to other students about their writing and add, cut, and reorder their writing.
28Revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling Revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling. It is probably the most difficult stage to teach students.Encourage students to:Write on one side of the paper.Use markers or pens so they can concentrate on ideas and not on erasing.Skip lines so it is easy to mark out/changewords.
29All writing does not have to be revised, BUT… Teach students to ask themselves:Can I improve my writing?Should I write from a different point ofview?Are there places where my writing couldbe clearer, more interesting, moreinformative, or more convincing?
31Proofreading/Editing Writers should correct mechanical errors (spelling, punctuation, and capitalization). Writing should be read aloud before the final copy is made. An editing checklist is a good tool.Teachers should encourage peer proofreading, provide vocabulary, give instruction of specific skills, help students evaluate their writing, and encourage students to consult reference materials.
32Teach popular acronyms such as: Use editing checklists Teach basic editing conventions to students and encourage them to use them in editing.Teach popular acronyms such as:C CapitalizationO OrganizationP Punctuation/ParagraphsS Sentences/SpellingUse editing checklists
34Publishing Publishing Publishing Publishing Publishing Publishing Writers make their final copies and share their finished work. Writers feel that their writing is important when they share.Teachers should encourage students to share by reading aloud, publishing, organizing a class book, making their own books, displaying final drafts, and sharing with bulletin boards, electronic bulletin boards, multimedia presentations, newsletters, newspapers, oral presentations, journals, etc.PublishingPublishingPublishing
35Author’s Chair is a popular way for students to share their writing. Response to writing2 Hugs and a WishTAG
36ActivityLook at your card. Go to the corner having the word that matches your word.Share with the other people in your corner anything about that stage of the writing process.Go to your seat and write about something that was shared in your group.Use Inside/Outside Circle to check to see if revisions are needed. Make any that are needed.Go back to your corner to proofread papers.Go to seat and make your final copy for publishing.
37A comprehensive writing curriculum includes the best solutions to teach K-5 students to overcome a major problem they have learning to write well.Every child has problems learning to write.Every child has predictable problems.~ J.M. Cunningham
38(More prevalent in writing than reading) Problems...Motivation(2-3 years to develop)(More prevalent in writing than reading)lack of self-confidence/ self-efficacylack of intrinsic motivationlack of independence(many students do not see writing at home)( need by 3rd grade or very tough to teach)( words to spell, topic to write…)-J.M. Cunningham
39Self-Selected Writing Solutions/ Addressing Motivation ProblemsSelf-Selected WritingThis is an approach where students choose what to write about and how to write without the guidance of a teacherSingle Draft WritingProcess writing assumes that students work on more than one draft. However, single draft writing is initially done without standards. This is a shaping process, in which students work on their own time to complete one single draft.Phonic SpellingInventive spelling is accepted at this phase.Positive SharingThis is when students can share their first drafts in a positive atmosphere. In this positive approach, students can begin sharing with questions like, “I’d like to know more about…”-J.M. Cunningham
40Writing isn’t just a speaking problem…. SpellingCapitalizationPunctuationFormattingUsage (more tolerant in speech than writing)-J..M. Cunningham
41Solutions: Writing Isn’t Just a Speech Problem Word Walls for high frequency wordsWriting mini-lessonsEditing instruction (how to use a Word Wall and editor’s checklist to proofread and correct you own paper independently)-J.M. Cunningham
42Writing ResearchMeta-analysis review of writing research…George Hallocks of Chicago stated, “If you want to teach students appropriate, mechanical writing, you must teach students to proofread and correct their own paper using a small set of rules ….editor’s checklist”.-J.M. Cunningham
43The Automaticity Problem (Take 4-5 years to develop)The natural inability to “juggle” all the components of writing at the same timeNeed student to have an acceptable first draft.“Good writers must handwrite, spell, capitalize, and format”Taking dictation is a horrible writing activity(example- Student can do one worksheet but doesn’t generalize to writing and spelling on test, not a writing paper)By the end of elementary the automaticity has developed such that the first draft is “adequate” to the last draft.-J.M. Cunningham
44Solutions to Automaticity Problem The Writing Process & Writer’s WorkshopRevision… ways to change content (add, delete, re-order, replace content)Editing… rule-based ways of finding and correcting errorsCopying-J.M. Cunningham
45Mini-LessonsMini-lessons begin in a “huddle” in the front of the classroom. The children are close and can see the teacher write as she “thinks aloud” and talks about what she is doing and why. The teacher writes and models all the things writers may do. Mini-lessons vary according to grade level and the observed needs of children.-J.M. Cunningham
46Great ideas for Mini-Lessons Actual class procedures used during the writing periodRules for the writing period made by teacher and/or studentsTeacher models writing using “think-alouds”Working together with the class on shared writing“Words Authors Use” (Have a word a day. Examples:publish, illustrate, edit, topic, dedicate, etc.)Grammar and Usage --nouns-words that mean a person,place or thingverbs-words that show actionadjectives- words that describe7. Capital letters8. Punctuation marks9. How to “Set a Scene” (setting)10. Fiction11. Non-fiction12. Mysteries13. Stories that teach14. “Feelings” in writing15. Read a book, any book! Books are great writing models16. How to add to or change a story17. Staying on the topic18. Rhyming words19. Synonyms20. Homonyms21. Antonyms22. Poetry (This could turn into a week of mini-lessons)23. Letter Writing24. Interviews25. Riddles26. Jokes27. Newspapers28. How to make a list29. Student pieces (Always use a piece that a student has down correctly)-J.M. Cunningham
47Revision Mini-LessonBring in something already written (with mistakes), and put on the overhead.Revise- Is it interesting? Does it do what I wanted?Get the student to elicit ways that address change.Cut poor parts out (kids like to see you cut it out!)Typically when adding revision during a mini-lesson, do not say what you are writing (teachers typically do). If you don’t say while writing, students have the chance to read.Tape the parts to overheadAsk if anyone wants to revise-J.M. Cunningham
48Teaching Students Copying Strategies Copying without new mistakes!First- must be revised & approved.Second- must be revised, edited, & approved.Step 1: Copy one sentence at a time. Check every sentence to see if copied. Use fingers word by word to help copy correctly.-J.M. Cunningham
49The Multiple-Genres Problem There are many different types of genres or types of writing. Each one must be learned separately!-J.M. Cunningham
50Solutions to the Multiple-Genres Problem Initially self-selected until enough confidence…motivation to write then address multiple-genres by:Focused writing lessons on a variety of types of writing - teacher selected writing.Carefully crafted prompts - problems not prompting students, it’s when we prompt- this is the heart of a focused writing lesson.Genre-based writing scales- not to teach students to edit, but how to revise--use descriptive writing scales (teacher use rubric, not students)--Scale is in a yes/no-present/not present format; one item at a time-J.M. Cunningham
51*Prompted writing disadvantages some students prior-knowledge. What students read affects how they write…The Prior-Knowledge ProblemYou cannot write well about what you do not know about.You cannot write well about what you do not understand.You cannot write clearly and interestingly about something unless you know the vocabulary.*Prompted writing disadvantages some students prior-knowledge.-J.M. Cunningham
52Self-selected writing Solutions to Prior-Knowledge ProblemsSelf-selected writingExperience-based teaching of science, social studies, and current events.-J.M. Cunningham
53Teachers should conference with students in all stages of the writing process. Students should do most of the talking.The teacher is a coach not a critic.Focus should be on one point/key element.Conferences should last no more than two minutes.Key Questions:How are you doing? Are you having any problems?What’s the best part of your piece of writing?What are you going to do next?
54Use Gambits Use Peer Response Forms Use Modeling and Reinforcement Peer ConferencingUse GambitsUse Peer Response FormsUse Modeling and Reinforcement
5610 Rules for Writers Write. Write often. Write about anything. Write about everything.Write about what you see.Write about what you learn.Write about what you think.Write about what you read.WRITE!!! Virginia DeBolt, 1998
57Writing Taught Only During “Language Arts” Period Writing Across the Curriculum as a Tool for Learning
58Teacher control of decision-making by:. Deciding on all writing topics Teacher control of decision-making by: Deciding on all writing topics Dictating suggestions for improvement Determining learning objectives alone Giving instruction as whole-class activityStudent ownership and responsibility by:Receiving help in choosing their own topicsand goalsHaving brief teacher-student conferencesReviewing their own progress
59Time spent on isolated drills on “sub skills”of grammar, vocabulary, spelling, paragraphing, penmanship, etc.Time spent on writing whole, original piecesReal writing purposes with student involvement in determiningInstruction/support in all stages of the writing process
60Teacher talking about writing but never writing or sharing own work Teacher modeling all stages of the writing process and demonstrating the process
61Grammar lessons, isolated and given in order as determined by a textbook, before writing begins Grammar and mechanics taught in context as needed, especially during the editing stage of the writing process
62Only teacher reading assignments Real audiences reading writing assignments
63Negative evaluations by teacher. Marking errors heavily Negative evaluations by teacher Marking errors heavily Editing paper instead of helping student make improvements Focusing on grading instead of growthConstructive, efficient evaluationBrief informal oral responsesGrading of student-selected piecesViewing of growth and self-evaluationEncouraging risk-taking and honest expression
64Activity The topic is: Women are as effective in combat as men. Use class value line to demonstrate your feelings about this topic and participate in discussion with your partner after the line splits.Write--remembering your audience.Form teams of four. With one partner confer for content. Revise as needed. With another partner proofread. Make edits and prepare final draft. Share with the last person in your group.
65Choose one of these topics Choose one of these topics. Birth control should be available to students from their high school counselors. President Bush is doing an outstanding job. Madonna is a good role model for our students.
66If ________ were alive today, what would you ask him/her? ThinkPad Brainstorm QuestionsIndependent WriteArrange Questions/AnswersPut together as written interview
67Compare & Contrast Plants & Animals Pair Project with chartUse chart to write your compare-and-contrast essay on another sheet of paperRevise with partnerProofread with partnerMake final copy
68Math Writing + 1/8__ Solve this problem: 2/4+ 1/8__With a partner discuss the steps to how you solved this problem.With your partner, list the steps that you used taking turns writing each step.Create a poster illustrating the steps to solving the problem. You will present your poster to the class.Write a brief paper explaining the process you just analyzed and sequenced. The steps in your writing should match the steps as they were displayed on your poster.
69NOW:On your card write something from today that squared with what you already thought.On your card write something from today that made you view something from a different angle.What new piece of information from the presentation completed or “closed the circle” for you? Write it down.List an action or a new approach that you will take and share with someone.-Bob Pike and Lynn SolemZ