3ObjectivesTo model how to conduct a large group teaching session using a learner-centered approach (PROCESS)To recognize the factors that are essential components in any educational interaction (CONTENT)To identify the characteristics within each factor that describe its essence (CONTENT)
4Lecturing to Large Groups What should we strive for?Getting the learners’ attentionClear objectivesLearners’ attention spanInterspersed learner participation
5Lecturing to Large Groups In this session, observe contrasts between a ‘traditional’ lecture and an interactive large group discussionAre there demonstrated differences in learning? How do you know?Are there differences in determining the level of the learners? How do you know?What are the positives and negatives in using an interactive approach in lecturing?What techniques am I using to engage learners? Effective/Ineffective?
6Education does not mean teaching people what they do not know. It means teaching them to behave as they do not behave. It is notteaching the youth the shapes of letters and the tricks of numbers,and the leaving them to turn their arithmetic to roguery, and theirliterature to lust. It means, on the contrary, training them into theperfect exercise and kingly continence of their body and souls. It is a painful, continual and difficult work to be done by kindness, by watching, by waiting, by precept and by praise, but above all, by example.John Ruskin
8ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES Adult learning principles (Knowles) - foundation of effective learning and teachingAssumes that the learner has major responsibility for self-assessment and masteryUltimate goal is for learner to be self-directed
10ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES Learning applicable to real life experiencesLearner-centeredProactive learningDependent Independent Interdependent
11ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES Self-directedIntrinsically motivatedLinked to self-conceptNeeds opportunities to apply objectives
12LEARNING CLIMATE Clear goals and objectives Likely patient experiences Roles, responsibilities and expectationsBalance between challenging and ‘safe’Environment conducive to learning
13LEARNING CLIMATE Learner involvement cf. preceptorship Respect and comfortAdmission of limitationsTone or atmosphereUse of learners’ namesEducational contract
14TEACHERBeing creative, promoting fun, and facilitating useful learningChallenges, stimulates and inspiresModeling humanismPromoting trust
15TEACHER Takes learners to new heights Promotes self-directed learning and problem-solvingAccessibleKnowledgeable
16TEACHER Provides timely feedback, corrective and reinforcing Effective team leaderGroup instruction skillsClinical competenceClinical supervisionProvides timely feedback, corrective and reinforcing
17CONTENT Clear goals and objectives…..reached by consensus? Realistic to cover with time constraints?Opportunities to apply objectivesLearner Vs teacher-centered
18CONTENT Appropriate setting Teaching to the curriculum Level of trainee and content integratedEvaluation should be linked to the domain; e.g., assessing attitudes
19and understand how these variables interact and relate to one another SUMMARYTo answer the question ‘How do I know I’m teaching effectively?’ one must have a working knowledge and definition ofThe teacherThe learnerThe learning climateThe curriculumand understand how these variables interact and relate to one another
20Lecturing to Large Groups In this session, observe contrasts between a ‘traditional’ lecture and an interactive large group discussionAre there demonstrated differences in learning? How do you know?Are there differences in determining the level of the learners? How do you know?What are the positives and negatives in using an interactive approach in lecturing?What techniques did I use to engage learners? Effective/Ineffective?