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Technology & English Language Teaching Sonja Lind Ying Ren Mark Warschauer Department of Education, UC Irvine.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology & English Language Teaching Sonja Lind Ying Ren Mark Warschauer Department of Education, UC Irvine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology & English Language Teaching Sonja Lind Ying Ren Mark Warschauer Department of Education, UC Irvine

2 Research project: - Sponsored as a market study by a large ELT publishing company - Length: Spring 2008 – Fall Research team: Mark Warschauer, Sonja Lind, Ying Ren

3 Three incremental stages: Online survey 300+ teachers 14 countries Interviews 42 teachers 8 countries Case studies 8 sites (4 sites in southern CA)

4 Research Questions: Access: What technology do EL teachers and students have access to at their institutions, whether in a classroom or in a lab? Use: How do EL teachers and students use technology? Opinions: What are EL teachers' attitudes towards technology?

5 1) Brazil 2) Colombia 3) Costa Rica 4) Ecuador 5) Guatemala 6) Japan 7) Korea 8) Mexico 9) Nicaragua 10) Panama 11) Peru 12) Taiwan 13) United States Countries Represented

6 Participant Demographics: Survey: 332 participants 179 (54%) female and 148 (45%) male Most participants (32%) were years old Most participants (31%) have taught for 21+ years Most participants (34%) worked at a 4-5 year university or college Interviews: - 42 participants - 28 (67%) female and 14 (33%) male - Participants divided equally (33% each) among regions - Most participants (34%) worked at a 4-5 year university or college Case Studies: - Eight focal teacher / institution participants - Five (63%) male and three (37%) female focal teachers - Four (50%) participants in the U.S., two (25%) in Japan, one (13%) each in Brazil and Mexico - Most participants (five, or 63%) worked at a 4-5 year university or college

7 “I believe that technology for English language teaching is extremely important. Since students learn at different rates of speed, individual technology gives each student the opportunity to work at his/her own pace in a relaxed setting without competing with others in the class. It also allows students to make mistakes and to practice skills in private in order to avoid the embarrassment that often occurs in the conventional classroom setting.”

8 Analysis of Teacher Access and Use (Interviews) All regions: same access and use of computer labs U.S. participants reported: more access and use of electronic content, language learning CDs and CD- ROMs, , websites, word processors, presentation software and blogs.

9 Interview Themes

10 Case Studies: Adult school (computer lab) Four-year university (computer lab) Public high school (classroom) Two-year community college (classroom)

11 Adult school (classroom):

12 Adult school (computer lab):

13 Adult school – Focal Teacher Bob is the “technology expert” for his district Maintains many technology blogs for teachers Sees technology as a tool: “The focus is not computers. The focus is ESL.” Uses: coursebooks, newspapers, class blog (PageFlakes), , Microsoft Office, Audacity, whiteboard, projector, computers, OHP, headsets, USB thumbdrives

14 Adult school – Teachers and Technology Bob has access to technology; others don't (have to borrow computers, reserve lab) Teachers used traditional technologies: Whiteboards, CD players Other teachers were reticent to use technology, or had limited use (e.g. Powerpoint) Teachers felt technology was useful: “In general, I think it’s very helpful and it can only have positive results.”

15 Adult school – Students and Technology 5 Mexican-American students (3 female, 2 male) At home: 4/5 ss had computers with Internet All ss have DVD players and TVs All ss access social networking sites Play video games and watch movies (usually Spanish) At school: No ss brought computers to school All ss bring cell phones Use for class, no social networking sites Use Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint to create essays, spreadsheets and slideshow presentations

16 Public high school (classroom):

17 Public high school:

18 Public high school – Focal Teacher Jennifer is also a “technology expert” for her district; she helped develop an ELD program guide for other ELD instructor Uses: coursebooks, novels, , Microsoft Office, Movie Maker, Rosetta Stone, whiteboard, projector, laptops, OHP, headsets

19 High school – Teachers and Technology All teachers have access to technology Teachers focus on academic writing and information literacy (how to use info correctly) Teachers used , Microsoft Office, but were aware of Digital Divide challenges Teachers used AERIES, a learning management system (grades, announcements) Teachers used projectors, laptop carts

20 High school – Students and Technology 17 students, mostly Mexican-American At home: All ss own cell phones No ss owned laptops, a few had desktop computers Some students have MP3 players, smart phones Some ss learned English on radio, TV and iPods At school: All ss brought cell phones Ss borrowed laptops from laptop cart Some ss use iPods to record audio (reading aloud) Use Rosetta Stone, CD-ROMs, Internet search engines (Google), Google Translate Use Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Movie Maker to create essays, slideshow presentations and videos

21 Community college (classroom):

22

23 Community college – Focal Teacher Karen teaches noncredit VESL and Digital Storytelling class Is a “self-taught” technology user; keeps up to date by reading TESL newsletters, blogs and watching educational videos Uses: coursebooks, blogs, wikis, , clickers, scanners, Microsoft Office, Movie Maker, whiteboard, projector, laptops, headsets

24 Community college – Teachers & Technology Program coordinator: “We have set ourselves as a high-tech, high-touch community college. We... recognize that it has to have a lot of support and faculty engagement.” Technology support: Program coordinator, focal teacher, tech-savvy librarian, e-newsletter; six paid hours of professional development a year Active use of technology: PowerPoint, Word, websites, wikis, blogs, learning management systems (Moodle, Blackboard, etc.), clickers, document camera, scanner, audio recording, wireless keyboards, multiple computer labs

25 Community college – Students & Technology 21 students, most Latin Americans, some East and Southeast Asians (13 female, 8 male) At home: Most ss had computers; use them to chat, check , visit social networking sites, pay bills online, watch TV Most ss have DVD players and TVs Some ss have iPods, smart phones At school: No ss brought computers to school A few ss re-enrolled in this class multiple times, for fun and English practice Access to laptop carts, four computer labs Only one student brought an electronic dictionary Use Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint to create essays, spreadsheets and slideshow presentations

26 University (computer lab):

27 University (classroom):

28 University – Focal Teacher Leah teaches upper-level academic ESL Doesn't think she's tech-savvy: “I’m probably kind of in the middle towards the high end of using technology just because I’m curious.” Uses: coursebooks, blogs, wikis, , Microsoft Office, YouTube, podcasts, NoodleTools (citation management), whiteboard, projector, headsets

29 University – Teachers & Technology Great sense of comradeship involved; teachers share enthusiasm for technology, share materials, prepare tests for each other Active use of technology: Microsoft Office, Gradekeeper, Audacity, Voicethread, audio and video clips (CNN, etc.), podcasts (NPR, etc.), websites, wikis, blogs, digital camcorders

30 University – Students & Technology 11 students, most East Asians, two Europeans, one Middle Eastern (9 female, 2 male) At home: All ss had computers with Internet; use to chat, visit social networking sites, read news, watch videos, listen to music All ss used online dictionaries and thesauruses Most ss have MP3 players, practice listening to English At school: No ss brought computers to school Access to one computer lab Use of for school, but not for personal use Ss had electronic dictionaries, translators, cell phones Use Microsoft Word and PowerPoint to create essays and slideshow presentations; record voices on Audacity and Voicethread

31 Findings – Digital Divide Not all students or teachers have Internet or computer access – Teachers may not have computers in class – Students may not have access to computers outside class – Students' access to computers may be limited to computer labs

32 Findings – Cell phones All students had them Students have cell phones, but may not have computers Teachers are interested in using mobile learning, but have not done so yet Still an untapped field of teaching and published teaching materials

33 Findings – Ease of use Demand ≠ use Unintuitive technology was mostly unused (interactive whiteboard) Refresher courses are needed for more complicated technologies

34 Findings – Ease of use CDs, CD-ROMs are frequently used DVDs, supplementary publisher websites are rarely used Most teachers indicated a moderate to strong dislike of electronic materials, particularly supplementary websites

35 Findings – Multimedia Teachers overwhelmingly customized teaching materials with online materials Multimedia (esp. video) popular with teachers and students (YouTube, Hulu, Voicethread)

36 Findings – Open-access Materials Teachers prefer open-source, free and easily- accessible materials: – Popular: YouTube, Moodle, etc. – Unpopular: Blackboard, podcasting, etc. – Exceptions: Microsoft software, etc.

37 Findings – Technology Leaders One or two teachers or administrators who advocate for technology These were the same leaders who advocated for new teaching techniques

38 Findings – Technology Leaders Any program needs to have pioneers or leaders … And that is the key. I think people have to think not only of what technology can provide, but who are going to be the leaders and mentors that make change happen? It doesn’t happen with technology or the support person, because the support person can keep the computer going, but the support person can't get the teachers connected to it the way they need to. - Program coordinator, community college

39 Findings – Technology as a tool “They come to my class and they would say, 'Are you the teacher who teaches computers?' And I would say, 'Yeah, it's ESL and Computers.'” “The focus is not computers. The focus is ESL.”

40 Findings – “ Why use technology?” Student motivation “If students aren't having fun, they won't be motivated”

41 Thank you!


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