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Teachers’ Knowledge Development During Toolkit-Supported Lesson Study Preliminary Findings Rebecca Perry, Catherine Lewis, Shelley Friedkin, & Elizabeth Baker Mills College Oakland, California http://www.lessonresearch.net

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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DRL-0633945 and DRL- 0723340. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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Lesson Study 1. STUDY Consider long term goals for student learning and development Study curriculum and standards 2. PLAN Select or revise research lesson Do task Anticipate student responses Plan data collection and lesson 3. DO RESEARCH LESSON Conduct research lesson Collect data 4. REFLECT Share data What was learned about students learning, lesson design, this content? What are implications for this lesson and instruction more broadly?

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? Instructional Improvement Visible Features of Lesson Study Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc. How does lesson study improve instruction?

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Pathways Teachers’ Knowledge -of Content -of Instruction -of Student Thinking Teachers’ Personal Disposition -Identity -Sense of Efficacy -Attention to Student Thinking - Beliefs about Students - Inquiry Stance on Practice Learning Community -Changes in Norms -Changes in Participation Opportunities - Changes in tools Instructional Improvement Visible Features of Lesson Study Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc. How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?

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Pathways Teachers’ Knowledge -of Content -of Instruction -of Student Thinking Teachers’ Personal Disposition -Identity -Sense of Efficacy -Attention to Student Thinking - Beliefs about Students - Inquiry Stance on Practice Learning Community -Changes in Norms -Changes in Participation Opportunities - Changes in tools Instructional Improvement Visible Features of Lesson Study Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc. How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?

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Pathways Teachers’ Knowledge -of Content -of Instruction -of Student Thinking Teachers’ Personal Disposition -Identity -Sense of Efficacy -Attention to Student Thinking - Beliefs about Students - Inquiry Stance on Practice Learning Community -Changes in Norms -Changes in Participation Opportunities - Changes in tools Instructional Improvement Visible Features of Lesson Study Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc. How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?

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Lesson Study 1. STUDY Consider long term goals for student learning and development Study curriculum and standards 2. PLAN Select or revise research lesson Do task Anticipate student responses Plan data collection and lesson 3. DO RESEARCH LESSON Conduct research lesson Collect data 4. REFLECT Share data What was learned about students learning, lesson design, this content? What are implications for this lesson and instruction more broadly? Toolkit

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Why Toolkits? Kyouzai kenkyuu (“curriculum study”) is important part of lesson study U.S. textbooks may not support “curriculum study” of the mathematics, student thinking Much U.S. mathematics education research is not well-reflected in teachers’ manual or textbook

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Toolkit Topics Proportional Reasoning Area of Polygons

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Toolkit Contents Mathematical Tasks & Student Work Curriculum Materials Research Articles & Summaries Lesson Videos Reflection Forms & Questions

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Mathematical Tasks (Ex: NAEP)

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Curriculum Materials

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Research (Examples) Driscoll, Mark, Nikula, Kelemanik, DiMatteo & Egan (2007) - The Fostering Geometric Thinking Toolkit: A Guide for Staff Development, Heinemann (Area). Lamon (2006) - Teaching Fractions and Ratios For Understanding, Erlbaum (PR).

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Lesson Videos (Example) Can You Find the Area? Akihiko Takahashi, U.S. Classroom

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Reflection Forms and Questions (examples) Concept map: Sequence of understandings that students develop Daily meeting reflection Reflection on lesson study cycle

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Data Sources Teacher assessment (pre and post) Reflection forms Lesson study artifacts Video data of lesson study meetings & research lesson for 4 “intensive study” groups

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Sample

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Outcomes: Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

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Outcomes: Knowledge Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching (Hill & Ball; Univ. of Chicago School Mathematics Project)

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Standardized Teacher Assessment Items

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Prop Reasoning Item At the currency exchange, Jean-Pierre can get three Euros for every four Dollars he trades in. a)Jean-Pierre wonders if this is a proportional situation. Is it? Why or why not? b)Make a table, graph, and equation to show Jean-Pierre the relationship of Euros and Dollars. c)What aspects of the table, graph, and equation might help Jean-Pierre notice whether the relationship is proportional?

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Change in Teachers’ Use of Prop. Reasoning Codes - Pre to Posttest

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Teachers’ Reflections Learning Connections Complicate Coding 10% Coded Content/ Student Understanding of Content, e.g.: “Since I’m still developing my knowledge and understanding of proportion and ratio, I was surprised to learn the importance of fractions, algebra, patterns, multiplication and addition, tables, and graphs in solving problems involving ratio and proportional reasoning.” [ID 369]

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Outcomes: Personal Dispositions

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I enjoy teaching mathematics. I like solving mathematics problems. I actively look for opportunities to learn more mathematics. I would like to learn more about area of polygons. I am interested in the mathematics taught at many grade levels. I would like to learn more about ratio, proportion, and rate.. Teachers’ Interest/ Enjoyment in Learning Mathematics Scale

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No matter how hard I try, some students will not be able to learn aspects of my subject matter (reversed). My expectations about how much students should learn are not as high as they used to be (reversed). Students who work hard and do well deserve more of my time than those who do not (reversed). The attitudes and habits students bring to my classes greatly reduce their chances for academic success (reversed). There is really very little I can do to ensure that most of my students achieve at a high level (reversed). Most of the students I teach are not capable of learning material I should be teaching them (reversed). Teachers’ Expectations for Student Achievement Scale

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Outcomes: Learning Community

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I have learned a lot about student thinking by working with colleagues. I have learned a great deal about mathematics teaching from colleagues. I find it useful to solve mathematics problems with colleagues. Working with colleagues on mathematical tasks is often unpleasant (rev.) Teachers’ Collegial Learning Effectiveness

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Teachers’ Knowledge No significant impact on standardized assessment items of MKT Impact on open-ended assessment items and self-reported knowledge of topics Teachers’ Personal Dispositions Some evidence of increased enjoyment and expectations Teacher Learning Community Increase in self-reported collegial learning effectiveness Summary: What have we learned?

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Standardized MKT assessment items may not be a good fit for lesson study, since a group’s focus cannot be specified in advance Need for research to follow groups over multiple cycles, to see whether changes self-reported collegial learning effectiveness and personal dispositions have future impact Our simple linear model does not capture any loops within the model – for example, how collegial learning effectiveness affects knowledge or vice versa. Final Thoughts

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rperry@mills.edu clewis@mills.edu lessonresearch. net Email address: Website address: Thank you!

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