Presentation on theme: "Teaching and Learning What’s the metaphor? Student ViewsThe Value of Schemas Societal ViewsSelf Schemas Educator Views Models of the LearnerAnxiety Models."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching and Learning What’s the metaphor? Student ViewsThe Value of Schemas Societal ViewsSelf Schemas Educator Views Models of the LearnerAnxiety Models of InstructionBuilding Music The MetaphorMetaphors Metaphor QuestionsBUILD A METAPHOR
Last Week’s Metaphor Teacher as … Teaching is like being a talk-show host because: -you try to get people to talk -you set the topic -students are like an audience -there are elements of entertainment -you have to plan -you ask a lot of questions…
A child’s metaphor for the teacher… the good teacher. Counter Primary Teacher as… Epistemological Wizard
Junior… Patience Fun Fairness Counselor Entertainer Judge Teacher as…
Adolescent… Strictness Fun Gimmicks Rules for Talking Tickets/Permits Free Time Valuable Rewards Police Payroll Office Entertainer Legislature Teacher as…
Here’s a Good Metaphor… Teacher as Builder How does one go about building? Building a poem. Building a story. Building a garden. Building a performance. Building a song. Building a score. Building a symphony. Building a problem solver. Building a thinker. Building a piece of art.
Build a view of a teacher… zCzChildren (The good teacher…) zAzAdolescents (The good teacher…) zSzSociety (Purpose of schools) zRzRoles (Role of the Teacher)
ROLE of schools… National Post--State Of Education, Quarterly Report, September 2001 Citizenship? Workers? Happy People? Good People? Builders of the Future (i.e., parents)? Radical change agents? Scholars (knowledgeable inquirers)?
ROLE of schools… National Post--State Of Education, Quarterly Report, September 2001
What do you consider to be the ROLE of the teacher? z1. Expert (You have to know how to count… “in your head”) z2. Empathic Counselor/Therapist (Patient) z3. Manager
What are teacher roles? zInstructional Expert zCounsellor zLeader zManager zModel zMotivator zReflective Professional
Groups Rating Teacher Roles Freq
Models of the Learner zSo how is the learner viewed? It would appear that most teachers are viewing the learner as an amorphous unmotivated mass….if the teacher’s role is to motivate... Is this what the learner is like?
To help build a model of the learner, think about the best way to learn, or to maximize learning…. How do you learn best?
A popular notion of learning… we remember z10% of what we read z20% of what we hear z30% of what we see z50% of what we see and hear z70% of what is discussed with others z80% of what we experience personally z95% of what we teach to another I personally would place reading higher on the list—say 55+%.
Who learns the most? About lecturing: --the listener? --the speaker? the teacher? --the student? the sharer? --the receiver? the entertainer? --the audience?
Models Of The Learner… Tabula Rasa Hypothesis Generator Nativist Constructivist Novice-To-Expert Check WEB Site for Models of Learners and Models of Instruction Models of Learners Models of Instruction
1. Tabula Rasa Model zLatin for “blank slate” ythe “empty vessel” metaphor zequal at birth zexperience writes its message zexperience accounts for differences ze.g., Skinner and the behaviourists
2. Hypothesis Generator zNot just experience zWe are characterized by intentionality: -we choose experiences -we generate hypotheses -we interpret experiences (in terms of our notions about the world) ze.g., Hull
3. Nativism Model zThe mind has built-in y Constraints and y Capabilities z“hard-wired” to learn certain things yimprinting (of goslings is pre-wired) ylanguage (LAD) –pre-programmed to learn language ysocial behaviours (sociobiologists—social behaviours that are genetically pre-programmed) e.g., Lorenz, Chomsky,
4. Constructivist Model zLearner constructs his/her world zLearner is a builder of knowledge zLearner progressively discovers rules -that govern relationships -for abstracting significance -for generating concepts
The Constructivist Learner zThe constructivist learner is: -self motivated -mastery oriented -driven by needs to know to organize to understand to build meaning ze.g., Bruner and Piaget
5. Novice-to-Expert zpractical zlearners move from novices to experts zbased on analyses of novices and experts zevident in information processing approaches ze.g., Rummelhart, Lindsay, Norman
Which model is evident here? z1. Telling a story…
The Teaching Process (Somewhat Traditional) zDrill zDirect Instruction zTelling zThe “Mug & Jug” Model
The Teaching Process (Somewhat Contemporary) zGuided Discovery zCooperative Learning zStudent Centered Learning zA “Constructivist” Model
Constructivist Trends zAuthentic Learning/Assessment zMessy Problems/Real Problems zImplicit Instruction zApprenticing zStudent empowerment zTeacher as “Guide on the side” zCollaborative/Co-operative learning
Metaphor Teacher as Builder
Metaphor zTeacher as orchestra conductor zWhat does an orchestra conductor build? zHow does an orchestra conductor operate? zIf this was the metaphor that informed your teaching what would the following look like: yYour teaching? yYour classroom? yYour students? You are not teaching music. You are treating all curriculum metaphorically, like music, and all classes (math, science, history, art, reading, etc.) like an orchestra.
Metaphor: Teacher as Orchestra Conductor If you were approaching your class much like an orchestra conductor approaches the orchestra, what might your class and teaching look like? Examples of questions to think about… z…How does an orchestra conductor give assignments? zWhat is the nature of these assignments? zHow does the orchestra conductor introduce new material? zWhat rules would an orchestra conductor establish for behaviour in the classroom? zWhat kind of learning activities does an orchestra conductor use or plan to use? zHow does an orchestra conductor assess student performance? zWhat might the lesson plans of an orchestra conductor look like? zWhat kinds of teaching aids might an orchestra conductor use? z What might an orchestra conductor communicate to a student’s parents? zHow would the room be arranged? zWhat would homework be like? zWhat model-of-the-learner would be most prominent? zWhat roles of the teacher would be most prominent? Least prominent? zWhat purpose of school would be most prominent? Least prominent? zWhat is being constructed or built?
An Orchestra Conductor is a Builder -Building a musician -Building a section -Building a team -Building a performance Hand in the answers your group came up with in response to this metaphor. Make sure the names (first and last) of group participants are listed at the top of the page. Make sure they are legible.
Teacher as researcher
Metaphors xPerson MetaphorsInstitution Metaphors xTeacher as SergeantMilitary xTeacher as Aerobics InstructorGym xTeacher as CoachTeam xTeacher as GardenerGarden xTeacher as ZookeeperZoo xTeacher as Nature Trail GuideNature xTeacher as Tour GuideForeign City xTeacher as ArchitectBuilding xTeacher as Medical PractitionerHospital xTeacher as PoliticianParliament xTeacher as Orchestra ConductorStage xTeacher as ResearcherLab