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Carolina Institute for Public Policy Impacts of Teacher Preparation on Student Test Scores in North Carolina: Teacher Portals June 10, 2010 (revised and.

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Presentation on theme: "Carolina Institute for Public Policy Impacts of Teacher Preparation on Student Test Scores in North Carolina: Teacher Portals June 10, 2010 (revised and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Impacts of Teacher Preparation on Student Test Scores in North Carolina: Teacher Portals June 10, 2010 (revised and updated) Gary T. Henry, UNC at Chapel Hill Charles L. Thompson, East Carolina University Kevin C. Bastian, C. Kevin Fortner, David C. Kershaw, Kelly M. Purtell, & Rebecca A. Zulli, UNC at Chapel Hill Alan R. Mabe & Alisa Chapman, UNC General Administration

2 Carolina Institute for Public Policy A Strategic Priority of the University  UNC Overall Priority: Preparing More and Better Teachers and School Leaders for North Carolina Public Schools  Key Strategies to address the goal:  Recruitment  Preparation  New Teacher and School Leader Support  Research approach to address quality preparation:  Entry Model, Persistence Model, and Impact Model(s)  The latest Teacher Portals analysis from the UNC Impact Research Model will be presented today 2

3 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Study Purpose and Acknowledgements We set out to answer:  How does the performance of teachers prepared in UNC teacher preparation programs compare to the performance of teachers who enter North Carolina classrooms with other types of preparation, for example, out of state, lateral entry, Teach For America, and NC private & independent colleges? For the report, we analyzed 1,556,982 million test scores, 939,016 students, and 19,940 teachers with less than 5 years of experience from all school districts in North Carolina. We are grateful to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, NC Public School Forum, Teach For America, and our partners, the UNC General Administration, for providing data and expert advice that were essential for this report. 3

4 Carolina Institute for Public Policy How are teachers prepared to enter North Carolina classrooms?  This study “benchmarks” performance of UNC undergraduates to 11 other “Portals” through which NC teachers entered classrooms.  Portals are combinations of formal education and formal preparation to teach. In , 104,424 teachers were employed in North Carolina public schools 4

5 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy What are the trends in the way teachers are prepared to enter NC classrooms? (All NC public school teachers) UNC Undergrad Out of State Undergrad NC private Undergrad Lateral Entry Unclassifiable Out of State Masters UNC Masters UNC Licensure Only TFA NC Private Masters Other Licensure Only VIF 5

6 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy What are the trends in the way recently hired teachers are prepared to enter NC classrooms? (less than 5 years of experience) UNC Undergrad Lateral Entry Out of State Undergrad NC private Undergrad Out of State Masters UNC Licensure Only TFA NC Private Masters Other Licensure Only Unclassifiable VIF UNC Masters 6

7 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Where are out of state teachers concentrated? Highest concentrations: Polk County, Kannapolis, Dare County, Charlotte-Mecklenburg, Mooresville City, Union County & Wake County 7

8 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Where are newly hired lateral entry middle school teachers concentrated? *Excludes Teach For America & Visiting International Faculty * Highest concentrations: Gates County, Scotland County, Pasquotank County, Halifax County, Anson County & Bertie County 8

9 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Preview of Findings  UNC Undergraduates –Largest single source of NC teachers (32% of the teacher workforce). –Performance in the middle of the pack (better in 14 comparisons, worse in 9 & no different in 74).  Out of state undergraduates –Second largest source of NC teachers (23% of the teacher workforce) –Perform worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers in 5 out of 11 comparisons, including elementary mathematics and reading  Lateral entry teachers (other than Teach For America & Visiting International Faculty) –Third largest source of North Carolina teachers (15% of the teacher workforce) –Even higher concentrations in middle and high schools (in HS they teach 36% of the students taking End Of Course subjects) –Perform worse than UNC UG prepared in 3 of 11 comparisons, notably in high school overall  Teach For America teachers –Smallest source of NC teachers (0.3% of the teacher workforce) –TFA corps members serve in Charlotte & 12 eastern North Carolina school districts –Outperform UNC traditionally prepared in 5 out of 9 comparisons (no different in 4).  Teaching Fellows –Comprise 3% of NC teacher workforce –State carefully selects HS seniors and provides scholarships in exchange for 4 years of teaching –Perform slightly better than UNC UG teachers in 3 out of 11 comparisons & worse in 1 out of 11.  Inexperienced teachers, particularly in their first year, are much less effective 9

10 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy UNC Undergraduate performance compared to other “portals” Teacher Portals UNC UG Outperform Teachers from Other Portals Teachers from Other Portals Outperform UNC UG UNC Masters 00 NC private undergraduate 10 NC private Masters 03 Out of state undergraduate 50 Out of state Masters 10 UNC Licensure only 10 Other Licensure only 00 Teach For America 05 Visiting Intl Faculty 21 Lateral Entry 30 Unclassifiable 10 10

11 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Focus for Today’s Briefing 1.How effective are teachers that are imported from other states? 2.Are Teach For America corps members effective in North Carolina classrooms? 3.Do North Carolina Teaching Fellows make effective teachers? 4.What are the costs of inexperienced teachers? 5.Middle school malaise – slowing gains from earlier years. 11

12 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy 12 Where do out of state teachers come from?

13 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Top 10 Out of State Teacher Sources (undergraduate) SourceTeacher Count New York2,714 Pennsylvania2,395 Ohio2,237 Virginia1,996 South Carolina1,993 Michigan1,441 Florida1,322 West Virginia1,138 Tennessee 864 Indiana

14 Carolina Institute for Public Policy How does the performance of out of state teachers compare?  23 % of North Carolina teachers come from out of state with undergraduate preparation  Out of state teachers perform worse than UNC undergraduates in elementary school mathematics and reading; in high school overall, mathematics and social studies  How much does being taught by an out of state teacher affect elementary mathematics students? – Students taught by out of state teachers lose the equivalent of 6.1 days of schooling 14

15 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Effectiveness of Teach For America Corps Members  What are the effects of TFA corps members? – TFA corps members increase student test scores for middle school mathematics by approximately ½ year of learning. – TFA corps members increase HS pass rates for their students by approximately 3 percentage points. 15

16 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Teaching Fellows and Other Scholarships LevelTeaching FellowsOther Scholarships** High School Overall % % High School Math %761.34% High School English %280.50% High School Science %260.46% High School Social Studies %200.35% Middle School Math % % Middle School Reading % % Middle School Algebra % % Middle School Science % % Elementary School Math % % Elementary School Reading % % 16 ** Non-TF Scholarships include NC Millennium Teacher Scholarship, Future Teachers of NC Scholarship, and Prospective Teacher Scholarship. 3,125 Teaching Fellows in North Carolina Classrooms in 2008 (3% of NC Teacher Workforce)

17 Effects of Teaching Fellows and Other Scholarships Comparisons with UNC Undergraduate Prepared Teachers Comparisons with “Other Teachers” † Teaching Fellows to Other UNC Traditionally Prepared Teachers Non-TF Scholarship Holders** to Other UNC Traditionally Prepared Teachers Teaching Fellows to Other Teachers Non-TF Scholarship Holders** to Other Teachers All Public & Private NC Prepared Teachers to Other Teachers High School Overall 0.019* * * High School Math * * High School English High School Science High School Social Studies * Middle School Math 0.024* Middle School Reading * Middle School Algebra Middle School Science * Elementary Math 0.032*0.072*0.044*0.070*0.013* Elementary Reading * †Note: “Other Teachers” include Lateral Entry (including TFA & VIF), Out of State, Licensure Only, and Unclassifiable Teachers ** Non-TF Scholarships include NC Millennium Teacher Scholarship, Future Teachers of NC Scholarship, and Prospective Teacher Scholarship. 17

18 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy High School: Comparing Performance of Portals to UNC Undergraduate Prepared Teacher PortalsOverallMathEnglish I Science Social Studies UNC Masters -- NC private undergrad --Worse-- NC private Masters Better--Better -- Out of state undergrad Worse -- Worse Out of state Masters -- Worse UNC Licensure only --NR-- Other Licensure only --NR Teach For America Better -- Visiting Intl Faculty Worse -- NR Lateral Entry Worse -- Worse Unclassifiable --Worse-- Dashed line ( -- ) indicates that the teachers in portal performed neither better not worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers. 18

19 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Middle School: Comparing Performance of Other Portals to UNC Undergraduate Prepared Teacher PortalsMathReading Algebra I 8 th Grade Science UNC Masters -- NR NC private undergrad -- NR NC private Masters NR Out of state undergrad -- Out of state Masters -- UNC Licensure only -- Worse NR Other Licensure only NR Teach For America Better --NR Visiting Intl Faculty -- NR Lateral Entry -- Unclassifiable -- NR Dashed line ( -- ) indicates that the teachers in portal performed neither better not worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers. 19

20 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Elementary School: Comparing Performance of Other Portals to UNC Undergraduate Prepared Teacher PortalsMathReading UNC Masters-- NC private undergrad-- NC private Masters-- Out of state undergrad Worse Out of state Masters-- UNC Licensure only-- Other Licensure only-- Teach For America-- Visiting Intl Faculty-- Better Lateral Entry-- Unclassifiable-- Dashed line ( -- ) indicates that the teachers in portal performed neither better not worse than UNC undergraduate prepared teachers 20

21 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Other Teacher and Classroom Influences on Student Achievement: Preliminary Findings 1.Inexperienced teachers  first year teachers are less effective in 10 out of 11 comparisons  second year teachers are less effective in 6 out of 11 comparisons  elementary reading teachers are less effective until 5 th year as teachers  elementary school math students lose the equivalent of 21 days of schooling  middle school math students lose the equivalent of 47 days of school 2.Out-of-field teachers  students do worse when taught by out-of-field teachers in HS (overall, math, English, and science) and in middle school math and reading  more teachers prepared to teach math and reading/English could increase student achievement 3.Masters degrees acquired after beginning teaching (supplementary Masters degree)  better in high school (mathematics and English) 4.Praxis II scores predict effectiveness in 7 out of 11 comparisons 21

22 The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillCarolina Institute for Public Policy Effects of Other Teacher Characteristics Infield1 st YR2 nd YR3 rd YR4 th YRMANBCPRX High School Overall BetterWorse -- Better High School Math BetterWorse -- Better-- High School English I BetterWorse-- Better--Better High School Science BetterWorse-- Better High School SS -- Worse-- Better MS Math BetterWorse -- Better MS Reading BetterWorse -- MS Algebra I --Worse-- 8 th Grade Science -- Better--NR-- ES Math --Worse -- Better ES Reading --Worse -- Better 22

23 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Summary 1.TFA represents an opportunity for UNC & NC to learn and improve. How to move from a smaller scale “boutique” operation to an industrial model. –Top college graduates across the U.S. apply –Selection of top 10% of applicants that have traits related to successful teaching (persistence; ability to engage students; leadership) –Summer preparation: teaching in summer and planning to teach NC Standard Course of Study –TFA corps members assigned to schools in clusters, form local social support network –Continuing professional development throughout tenure as corps members 2.Out of State teachers –Little knowledge of or exposure to the NC Standard Course of Study –Less understanding of NC students & schools –Fewer classroom experiences in schools similar to those in which they teach –May over-represent teachers without option to teach in home state 3.High concentrations of lateral entry in high and middle schools 4.Serious consequences of inexperienced teachers 23

24 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Guiding Principles for Transforming Research into Action 24  UNC will take ownership and responsibility for “evidence based” policies and program improvements, including: – Improve existing UNC teacher preparation program – Develop, pilot & evaluate innovations in UNC teacher preparation programs – Increase UNC productivity where other large portals perform worse  Identify specific remedies for gaps (e.g. training to teach the NC Standard Course of Study or providing frequent & rigorous feedback to beginning teachers) in lower performing portals that could be addressed through UNC programs  Coordinate with K-12 education partners to develop, pilot & evaluate innovations  Identify aspects of TFA that are “portable and scalable” to UNC programs: – Selection based on “soft skills” e.g. perseverance, engaging audience and leadership – More focus on preparation to teach specific objectives in assigned course/grade based on NC Standard Course of Study – Intensive observation, collaboration & feedback during pre-service preparation & first year – Institute “evidence based approach” to teacher preparation

25 Carolina Institute for Public Policy More Details on Research Findings Additional Information 25

26 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Current Findings: Finer-Grained “Routes”  12 “Portals” through which North Carolina teachers entered classrooms: combinations of formal education and formal preparation to teach –Type of degree: Bachelors or Masters –Source of degree: UNC, Private Colleges & Universities in North Carolina, and Out-of-State Colleges and Universities –Completion of stand alone certification by UNC or others with prior college degree –Not licensed: Teach For America, Visiting International Faculty & Other Lateral Entry –Unclassifiable  Focus of analysis: students’ gains; teachers with less than 5 year of experience; adjusts for differences in students, classrooms & schools 26

27 Sources of North Carolina Teachers Portals Certified Personnel through Percentage Teachers Count Percentage 1. UNC undergrad prepared 54,10328%33,03132% 2. UNC graduate degree 7,8624%2,7923% 3. NC private undergrad prepared 22,25712%12,79312% 4. NC private graduate degree 988.5%479.5% 5. Out of state undergrad prepared 43,95423%24,10123% 6. Out of state graduate degree 12,5837%5,7806% 7. UNC licensure only 961.5%671.6% 8. Other licensure only 1,414.7%647.6% 9. Teach For America 535.3%310.3% 10. Visiting International Faculty 1,9251%867.8% 11. Lateral Entry 27,00814%15,26815% 12. Unclassifiable 17,1029%7,6857% TOTAL 190,692104,424 27

28 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Sources of Teachers in North Carolina: Teacher Portal Definitions Teacher PortalDefinition 1. UNC undergrad prepared A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial licensure at a UNC institution by earning (a) a bachelors degree in education or (b) a bachelor’s degree in another major while simultaneously completing the necessary education-related coursework, before beginning teaching, including Teaching Fellows 2. UNC graduate degree A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from a UNC system institution and qualified for an initial license before beginning teaching, including Teaching Fellows 3. NC private undergrad prepared A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial licensure at a private (independent) institution in North Carolina by earning (a) a bachelors degree in education or (b) a bachelor’s degree in another major while simultaneously completing the necessary education-related coursework, before beginning teaching, including Teaching Fellows 4. NC private graduate degree A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from a private (independent) North Carolina institution and qualified for an initial license before beginning teaching 5. Out of state undergrad prepared A North Carolina public school teacher who completed the requirements for initial licensure at an out of state institution by earning a bachelors degree before beginning teaching 6. Out of state graduate degree A North Carolina public school teacher who earned a graduate degree from an out of state university and qualified for an initial license before beginning teaching 28

29 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Sources of Teachers in North Carolina: Teacher Portal Definitions (cont.) Teacher PortalDefinition 7. UNC licensure only A North Carolina public school teacher who, after earning a bachelor’s degree at any public or private institution in any state, then separately completed the education- related requirements for teacher licensure at a UNC system institution, before beginning teaching 8. Other licensure only A North Carolina public school teacher who, after earning a bachelor’s degree at any public or private institution in any state, then separately completed the education- related requirements for initial teacher licensure at a non-UNC system institution, before beginning teaching 9. Teach For America A North Carolina public school teacher who began teaching in NC after earning a bachelors degree but before completing the remaining requirements for initial licensure and did so through the Teach for America program 10. Visiting International Faculty A North Carolina public school teacher who entered teaching in NC through the Visiting International Faculty program 11. Lateral Entry A North Carolina public school teacher who entered the profession prior to completing requirements for initial licensure (Teach For America corps members excluded) 12. Unclassifiable A North Carolina public school teacher who cannot be classified into one of the portals above on the basis of available evidence 29

30 Carolina Institute for Public Policy High School Teacher Counts by Portal (<5 years exp.) Teacher PortalsAll SubjectsMathEnglish 1ScienceSocial Studies UNC Undergraduates UNC Masters NC private undergrad NC private Masters Out of state undergraduate Out of state Masters UNC Licensure only Other Licensure only Teach For America Visiting International Faculty Lateral Entry Unclassifiable

31 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Middle Grades Teacher Counts by Portal (<5 years exp.) Teacher PortalsMathReadingAlgebra IScience UNC Undergraduates UNC Masters NC private undergrad NC private Masters 5741 Out of state undergraduate Out of state Masters UNC Licensure only Other Licensure only 8811 Teach For America Visiting International Faculty Lateral Entry Unclassifiable

32 Elementary Grades Teacher Counts by Portal (<5 years exp.) Teacher PortalsMathReading UNC Undergraduate UNC Masters NC private undergrad NC private Masters1819 Out of state undergraduate Out of state Masters UNC Licensure only9296 Other Licensure only33 Teach For America4549 Visiting International Faculty Lateral Entry Unclassifiable211 32

33 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Findings presented today: Assessment of Impacts of Teacher Preparation  Teachers with fewer than five years of experience in NC classrooms  High School: Overall, Math, English I, Science, and Social Studies  Middle School: Math, Reading, Algebra I, and 8 th Grade Science  Elementary School: Math and Reading  Teacher value added models including prior test scores  Models compare gains for teachers prepared in each portal with UNC undergraduate prep programs  Additional models assess marginal effects of: – Teaching Fellows Program and Other Teacher Scholarships – NBC, Supplemental Masters, Praxis II scores  Models account for numerous variables that are beyond the control of the teacher prep programs (list updated from prior models) 33

34 Carolina Institute for Public Policy Control Variables Used in the Impact Model StudentClassroom & TeacherSchool 1.Prior test scores (reading & math) 2.Classmates prior test scores (peer effects) 3.Days absent 4.Structural mobility 5.Other between year mobility 6.Within year mobility 7.Race/ethnicity 8.Poverty 9.Parental education 10.Gifted 11.Disability 12.Currently limited English proficient 13.Previously limited English proficient 14.Overage for grade (held back or retained at least once) 15.Underage for grade (promoted two grades) 16.Grade level 1.Years of experience 2.Teaching infield 3.Number of students 4.Advanced curriculum 5.Remedial curriculum 6.Heterogeneity of prior achievement within classroom 7.Additional: Teaching Fellows & Other Teacher Scholarships 8.Supplemental Masters, NBC, Praxis II 1.School size (ADM) 2.Suspension rate 3.Violent acts per 1,000 students 4.Total per pupil expenditures 5.District teacher supplements 6.Racial/ethnic composition 7.Concentration of poverty Other factors in the model to isolate the effect of teacher portals 34


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