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Teacher Personal Styles and Environments Student Perspectives  1.Elementary studentts like school more  2.Middle school like school less and perceive.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Personal Styles and Environments Student Perspectives  1.Elementary studentts like school more  2.Middle school like school less and perceive."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Teacher Personal Styles and Environments

3 Student Perspectives  1.Elementary studentts like school more  2.Middle school like school less and perceive less choice, interest, and enjoyment  4.Girls like school more than boys  5.Rural reported less interest and challenge and liked it less than urban  6.Gifted kids in magnet schools more challenged than GT and nonGT in regular school

4 Teacher-Control Style

5 Teacher Control Style

6  BRICKWALL  1. Punisher  2. Guilter  DICTATOR:  Classroom procedures and rules are enforced without student input Teacher STYLE leading to failure

7 JELLYFISH- Disengaged JELLYFISH- Disengaged No structure, rules, or guidelines Inconsistent responses that tend to be reactive and more punishing Inconsistent responses that tend to be reactive and more punishing  Students have complete independence over classroom management with only institutional constraints Teacher style leading to failure Teacher style leading to failure

8 BACKBONE  1. Buddy  2. Monitor  3. Manager Teacher style leading to success Teacher style leading to success Encourages students to devise their own classroom policies Encourages students to devise their own classroom policies

9 Where do Teachers’ Need for Control come from?  Collected Experiences  Educational and Work Background  Personality Traits  Views and Ideas on What Education Should Be  Views on Roles of the Teacher vs. the Student

10 Reciprocal Control View CLASSROOM Opportunities for Control Family History of Control

11 Teachers’ Perceived Feelings of Being in Control

12 SELF- EFFICACY An individual’s perception of their ability to perform a task  Kauffman and Wong, 1991 I Can!

13 HIGH SELF- EFFICACY  Allows teachers to perceive students as worthy of effort and attention!! Kauffman and Wong, 1991 I Can!

14 LOW SELF-EFFICACY  Reduced efforts or giving up entirely  Avoid challenges Kauffman and Wong, 1991 I Can’t

15 Bussing et al., 2002 Teachers Who Lack Confidence  Low: ability to set up effective behavior management plans  Lower: adjusting lessons/materials  Lowest: ability to manage classroom stress

16 Teacher Perspectives Result of past experience Modifiable with success Directly influences students’ behavior and attitudes

17 Effectiveness Questions?

18 Does structure help learning or inhibit independence? “Attainment of higher level learning objectives will not be achieved with relative ease through discovery learning; instead, it will require considerable instruction by a skilled teacher”  Brophy (1986) –in Heward, W. L. (2003)- “ Students’ minds are allowed very little freedom when specific psychological processes academic skills, and cognitive strategies are structured for them… the more structured the curriculum, the more passive become our students ” Poplin (1988) Versus

19 Self- directed learning Students take responsibility for their learning, which reduces behavior problems Works for all students, especially those with BD (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999) Development of basic knowledge and skills to levels of automatic and errorless performance Brophy (1986) –in Heward, W. L. (2003)- Versus Drill & Practice

20 Are multiple methods the answer?  A defining characteristic of a good special educator is knowledge and skill in using a variety of instructional methods  Fuchs & Fuchs (2000); Lovitt (1996)

21 Is Frequent Assessment Important?  SPED teachers indicated it is “important” to collect performance data  Greenwood & Maheady (1997) –in Heward, W. L. (2003)  Direct, objective and frequent measurement of the student performance is one of the hallmarks in Special Education  But 85% stated that they “never” or “seldom” collected and charted students performance data to make instructional decisions Versus

22 Does Praise increase or decrease Motivation? Praise, approval and other forms of positive reinforcement have positive effects on student behavior and achievement Alber & Heward (2003); Maag (2001)  Praise increases pressure to “live up to” praise w/ unrealistic expectations of future success,  establishes a power imbalance,  insults people if rewarded for unchallenging behaviors  undermines intrinsic motivation  Kohn (1993) -in Heward, W. L. (2003)  Factors that contribute to low rates of teacher praise in classroom (Heward, 2003) 1.will students will come to expect it? 2. students should learn for “intrinsic” reasons. 3.praising takes too much time 4.it is unnatural to praise Versus

23 Do we build self-esteem or achievement? Self-esteem is more likely a product of high achievement and accomplishments  Heward (2003) Teachers who worked to build student self- confidence had students with better academic performance & emotional health (Stough & Palmer, 2003) confidence had students with better academic performance & emotional health (Stough & Palmer, 2003) Versus

24 Beyda, Zentall, & Ferko, 2002 Teaching Practices with: Students w/ BD 1. Cooperative practices= 2. Information explicitness= 3. High rates of choice= 4. Support (caringness) 1. increase of on-task behavior 2. benefits BD students in sm. group settings 3.less activity & better attention 4. valued by students

25 Yes!! High Expectations The most successful EBD teachers have “high expectations for students’ academic performance and conduct”  They can also, “readily bring a student’s behavior into line with their standards and tolerance”. Reflective teachers had higher expectations Wong, Kauffman, & Lloyd, 1991 M.Daugherty et al. (2003)Wong, Kauffman, & Lloyd, 1991

26 Not Patience?  Frequent opportunities to respond, high expectations, and fast- paced instruction are especially important for students with learning and behavioral problems, because to catch up they must be taught more in less time, otherwise the gap between a normal and a disabled student becomes even greater.  Kame’enui & Simmons (1990)  Patience is a positive and valued trait in the classroom, but special education teachers often translate it into:  Slowed-down instruction  Lowered expectations for performance  Fewer opportunities to respond  Fewer in class assignments  Fewer homework assignments  Heward (2003)

27 But also Not DEMANDING!  Low tolerance for misbehavior  High standards of appropriate behavior  These teachers were also the most resistant to having a disabled student in their class Walker& Rankin (cited in Kauffman & Wong, 1991)

28 Is Emotional Climate Important?  Negative= fewer student gains  Positive= improved student self- concept and attitude toward school  Morsink, Soar, Soar, & Thomas, 1986

29 Transactional Analysis TA

30 Theory  Goal of TA: to understand clearly what took place during the transaction and how to sustain mature transactions.

31 Components of Transactions  Three ego states ( more readily understood and applied than Freudian id, superego and ego.  The Child  The Parent  The Adult

32 The Child (before the age of 5)  Impulsive, demanding, whining.  “I’m not OK and you are” (child, anxious dependency of the immature, withdrawn, depressed).  Conflict with desire to win parent approval and desire to explore, touch, and test the world.  Non-verbal - tears, quivering lip, pouting, temper tantrums, high pitched, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, downcast eyes, teasing, delight, laughter, hand-raising for permission to speak, nail-biting, nose-thumbing, squirming and giggling.  Verbal - “I wish, I want, I dunno, I gonna, I don’t care, I guess, when I grow up bigger, biggest, better, best, (and many similar superlatives).”

33 The Parent  Shaped by external events, represents lifesaving, talks with imperatives, directives, judgmental, extremes, rules, “truths” recorded from childhood, controls and nurtures  Non-verbal - furrowed brow, pursed lips, pointing index finger, head-wagging, horrified look, foot-tapping, hands on hips, arms folded across chest, wringing hands, tongue-clicking, sighing, patting another on the head.  Verbal - “I am going to put a stop to this once and for all,” “Now, always remember,” Evaluative words such as: “stupid, naughty, ridiculous, disgusting, shocking, asinine, lazy, nonsense, absurd, poor thing, poor dear, no! no!, sonny, honey, How dare you?, cute, there, Now what?, Not again!”

34 The Adult  Controls himself and the environment, can predict future incidents; thinks rationally; generalizes.  Ability to categorize and generalize. Adult tests or checks out the rules and information of the parent to see if they are right. The adult determines when the feelings of the child can be expressed and knows when to obey parent rules or child’s spontaneity  Non-verbal - Listening attentively.  Verbal - “How much, in what way, comparative, true, false, probable, possible, unknown, objective, I think, I see, it is my opinion, why, what, when, who, and how.”  “I’m OK - you’re OK” (mature adult at peace with him/herself and others)

35 Roles in Transactions  Four life positions:  1. Child rules: I’m not O.K., you are O.K.  2. Parent rules: “I’m OK and you’re not OK” (parent, criminal, psychopath, external locus of control, battered kids).  3. Desirable: I’m O.K., you’re O.K.

36 Application  Communication Disruption is the result of tension among the three inner forces.  Parent and Child rule: I’m not O.K., and others are not O.K” Everything is hopeless (suicidal, homicidal).

37 Personal Style Translated to Teaching

38 Some things to ask ourselves… Which role do we play MOST of the time? The director role? Weitzman, E (1992)

39 Some things to ask ourselves… The rescuer teacher role? Weitzman, E (1992)

40 Some things to ask ourselves… Ruled by time role? Weitzman, E (1992)

41 Some things to ask ourselves… The responsive teacher role? Weitzman, E (1992)

42 Some things to ask ourselves… The passive teacher role? Weitzman, E (1992)

43 Some things to ask ourselves… The entertainer role? Weitzman, E (1992)

44 Some things to ask ourselves… Are entertaining or direction a child with his own agenda? Weitzman, E (1992)

45 Some things to ask ourselves… Are we using a director role with a passive child? Weitzman, E (1992)

46 Some things to ask ourselves… The rescuer role with a reluctant child? Weitzman, E (1992)

47 References  Beck, C.R. (2001). Matching teaching strategies to learning style preferences. The teacher educator, 37,  Beyda, S.D., Zentall, S.S., & Ferko, D.J.K. (2002). The relationship between teacher practices and the task- appropriate and social behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. Behavior disorders, 27,  Bussing, R., Gary, F.A., Leon, C.E., Garvan, C.W., & Reid, R. (2002). General classroom teachers’ information and perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral disorders, 27,  Greene, R.W. (1995). Students with ADHD in school classrooms: Teacher factors related to compatibility, assessment, and intervention. School psychology review, 24,  Johnson, L.J. & Pugach, M.C. (1990). Classroom teachers’ views of intervention strategies for learning and behavior problems: Which are reasonable and how frequently are they used? Journal of special education, 24,  Kehle, T.J., Bray, M.A., Theodore, L.A., Jenson, W.R., & Clark, E. (2000). A multi-component intervention designed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior. Psychology in the schools, 37,  Mrug, S., Hoza, B., & Gerdes, A.C. (2001). Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Peer relationships and peer-oriented interventions. New directions for child and adolescent development, 91,  Quigney, T.A. & Studer, J.R. (1999). Using solution-focused intervention for behavioral problems in an inclusive classroom. American secondary education, 28,  Reid, R. (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effective methods for the classroom. Focus on exceptional children, 32,  Stormont, M. & Stebbins, M.S. (2001). Teachers’ comfort and importance ratings for interventions for preschoolers with AD/HD. Psychology in the schools, 38,  Zentall, S.S. & Stormont-Spurgin, M. (1995). Educator preferences of accommodations for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Teacher Education and Special Education, 18,

48 References  Beck, C.R. (2001). Matching teaching strategies to learning style preferences. The teacher educator, 37,  Beyda, S.D., Zentall, S.S., & Ferko, D.J.K. (2002). The relationship between teacher practices and the task-appropriate and social behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. Behavior disorders, 27,  Bussing, R., Gary, F.A., Leon, C.E., Garvan, C.W., & Reid, R. (2002). General classroom teachers’ information and perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral disorders, 27,  Greene, R.W. (1995). Students with ADHD in school classrooms: Teacher factors related to compatibility, assessment, and intervention. School psychology review, 24,  Johnson, L.J. & Pugach, M.C. (1990). Classroom teachers’ views of intervention strategies for learning and behavior problems: Which are reasonable and how frequently are they used? Journal of special education, 24,  Kehle, T.J., Bray, M.A., Theodore, L.A., Jenson, W.R., & Clark, E. (2000). A multi-component intervention designed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior. Psychology in the schools, 37,  Mrug, S., Hoza, B., & Gerdes, A.C. (2001). Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Peer relationships and peer-oriented interventions. New directions for child and adolescent development, 91,  Quigney, T.A. & Studer, J.R. (1999). Using solution-focused intervention for behavioral problems in an inclusive classroom. American secondary education, 28,  Reid, R. (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effective methods for the classroom. Focus on exceptional children, 32,  Stormont, M. & Stebbins, M.S. (2001). Teachers’ comfort and importance ratings for interventions for preschoolers with AD/HD. Psychology in the schools, 38,  Zentall, S.S. & Stormont-Spurgin, M. (1995). Educator preferences of accommodations for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Teacher Education and Special Education, 18,

49 Reference Alber, S. R., & Heward, W. L. (2001). Teaching students to recruit positive attention: A review and recommendations. Journal of Behavioral Education, 10, (4), Beyda, S. D., Zentall, S. S., & Ferko, D. J. L. (2002). The relationship between teacher practices and the task- appropriate and social behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. Behavior Disorders, 27, Deno, S. (2003). Developments in Curriculum-Based Measurement. The journal of Special Education, 13, (3), Ford, N., & Chen, S. Y. (2001). Matching/mismatching revisited: An empirical study of learning and teaching styles. British Journal of educational Technology, 32, (1), 5-22 Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The Journal of Special Education, 36, (4), Horner, R. H., & Carr, E. G. (1997). Behavioral support for students with severe disabilities: Functional assessment and comprehensive intervention. The Journal of Special Education, 31, (1), Maag, J. W. (2001). Rewarded by punishment: Reflections on the disuse of positive reinforcement in schools. Exceptional Children, 67, (2), Poplin, M. S. (1988). The reductionistic fallacy in learning disabilities: Replicating the past by reducing the present. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, (7), Poplin, M. S. (1988). Holistic/Constructivist principles of teaching/learning process: Implications for the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, (7), Simplicio, J. S. C. (2000). Teaching classroom educators how to be more effective and creative teachers. Education, 120, (4), Stecker, P. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2000). Effective superior achievement using curriculum-based measurement: The importance of individual progress monitoring. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, (3), Stough, L. M., & Palmer, D. J. (2003). Special thinking in special settings: A qualitative study of expert special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 36, (4), Swanson, H. L., & Sachse-Lee, C. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of single-subject-design intervention research for students with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, (2), Weitzman, E. (1992). Learning Language and Loving It. Ontario: Hanen Center Publication. Zentall, S. S. & Smith, Y. N. (1992). Assessment and validation of the learning and behavioral style preferences of hyperactive and comparison children. Learning and Individual Differences, 4, Zentall, S. S. & Stormont-Spurgin, M. (1995). Educator preferences of accommodations for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Teacher Education and Special Education, 18,

50 SOURCES Beyda, S. D., Zentall, S. S., & Ferko, D. J. (2002). The relationship between teacher practices and the task-appropriate and social behavior of students with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 27 (3), 236=255. Brand, S., Dunn, R. & Greb, F. (2002). Learning styles of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: who are they and how can we teach them? The Clearing House, 75 (5), Bruneau-Balderama, O. (1997). Inclusion: making it work for teachers, too. The Clearing House, 70, Bussing, R., Gary, F. A., Leon, C. E., Garvin, C. W., & Reid, R. (2002). General classroom teachers’ information and perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 27 (4), Daniels, V. (1998). How to manage disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30 (4),

51 Daugherty, M., Logan, J., Turner, M., & Compton, D. (2003). Associations among preservice teachers’ psychological traits and classroom performance ratings. The Teacher Educator, 38 (3), Ferguson, D. L. (1995). The real challenge of inclusion: confessions of a ‘rabid inclusionist.’ Phi Delta Kappa, 77, Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Thousand, J. (2003). What do special educators need to know and be prepared to do for inclusive schooling to work? Teacher Education and Special Education, 26 (1), Hall, P. S. & Hall, N. D. (2003). Building relationships with challenging children. Educational Leadership, 61 (1), Heward, W.L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The Journal of Special Education, 36 (4), Johnson, L. J. & Pugach, M. C. (1990). Classroom teachers’ views of intervention strategies for learning and behavior problems: which are reasonable and how frequently are they used? Journal of Special Education,24, Lessen, E. & Frankiewicz, L. E. (1992). Personal attributes and characteristics of effective special education teachers: considerations for teacher educators. Teacher Education and Special Education, 15 (2),

52 Meister, D. G. & Jenks, C. (2000). Making the transition from preservice to inservice teaching: beginning teachers’ reflections. Action in Teacher Education, 22 (3), Meister, D. G., & Melnick, S. A. (2003). National new teacher study: beginning teacher’s concerns. Action in Teacher Education, 24 (4), Peter, D., Allan, J., & Horvath, A. (1983). Hyperactive children’s perceptions of teachers’ classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 20, Peterson, R. (2003). Teaching the Social Curriculum: School Discipline as Instruction. Preventing School Failure, 47 (2), Stough, L. M. & Palmer (2003). Special thinking in special settings: a qualitative study of expert special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 36 (4), Vace, N. N., & Bright, G. W. (1999). Elementary preservice teachers’ changing beliefs and instructional use of children’s mathematical thinking. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30, Weiss, M. P. & Lloyd (2003). Conditions for co-teaching: lessons from a case study. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26 (1), Marzano, R. J. & Marzano J. S. (2003). Building Classroom Relationships. Educational Leadership, 61 (1), 6-70.


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