Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? Why Should I Learn English? A Czech proverb says,"Kolik jazyků znáš, tolikrát jsi člověkem.""You live a life for every new language you speak. If you know only one language, you only live once."This is what Nelson Mandela said about learning another language. "If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart."
2 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? Why Should I Learn English?Learning a language makes your thinking and communication skills stronger.English is the language most widely spoken throughout the world.It builds self-confidence.To do well in reaching a goal that China has set for all its studentsEnglish is the main language for the greatest variety of news coverage.
3 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? To go to a good college or graduate school, and perhaps study in another country.To get a good job.To build friendships with foreigners.To improve your abilities and attitudes in many positive ways.
4 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? China has entered the WTO and hosts many international eventsEnglish is the main international language for business.You may have the chance of a government career with strong English skills.To understand more about foreign cultures
5 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? 80% of computer data is stored in English, so one can use a computer to do research more effectively.English will continue to become even more important in China.In times of emergencies, like earthquakes, the language shared by international workers is English.English is the main language of diplomacy, science, International Conferences and athletics.
6 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? Role/a role model:someone students should try to be like. Ex: Prof. Wang is an excellent role model. She not only tells her students to study hard; she also studies hard herself.Self confidence/self respect:to feel good about yourself, to take a pride in what you do ;to be proud of yourself.
7 Unit 1 Why should language teachers be language learners? "Ten rules for learning English"Imagine that a young Chinese student comes to you and asks for advice about how to learn English. Based on your experience learning English, what would you tell him/her?In pairs or groups:1) Make a list of ten "golden rules" for learning English. State each as a rule. (Ex: "Regularly review vocabulary words.")2) Decide which three are the most important.3) Be ready to present your rules to the class, and explain why you felt the top three were most important.
8 Unit 2 The characteristics of a good language teacher High expectations of yourselfHigh expectations of your studentsGood preparation and planningClear learning objectivesGood organisationGood, clear communication. Good instructions.Someone who has good control of the classEncourages independent learning and skillsA motivator
9 Unit 2 The characteristics of a good language teacher Good humourWarmth, care and good relationships with the studentsDevelops the skills of the studentsAble to judge the correct level of work for the studentsGood relationships with the parents of the students
10 If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn. Unit 2 What are the most important roles of a good language teacher? Children learn what they liveIf children live with criticism, they learn to condemn.If children live with hostility, they learn to fight.If children live with ridicule, they learn to be shy.If children live with shame, they learn to be patient.If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence.If children live with praise, they learn to appreciate.If children live with fairness, they learn justice.If children live with security, they learn to have faith.If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves.If children live with acceptance and friendship they learn to find love in the world.
11 Unit 2 What is the most important role of the English teacher? Pair/Small Group Task: "The headaches we face." Obstacles blocking the path to successWhat are the main problems you face in teaching English? In pairs or groups:1) List the problems you face.2) Decide which three problems are most important, and be ready to explain why you picked these.
12 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English well? What is one reason why English is difficult for Chinese students to learn?What is the main reason why Chinese students often fail to learn English well?Do you agree with the passage? Can you think of other reasons?
13 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English? It simply takes a long time to learn any foreign language.You have to learn a new grammar system, and thousands of new words.It also takes a lot of practice to develop speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in a new language.So learning any foreign language generally takes years.
14 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English? While studying for tests may help students learn English, passing tests is not the same thing as learning English. In fact, it is possible to get good test scores without ever actually developing many usable skills in English.
15 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English? One problem with tests is that it is generally easier to test language knowledge (vocabulary and grammar) than to test English skills, so tests often encourage students to pay too much attention to studying language knowledge rather than building language skills.The greater problem is that passing tests often becomes the goal for students, rather than a step toward the goal.
16 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English well? Idea Bazaar - Ways to Study English:Study methods-tricks for effective English study is one way to bring the issue of language learning strategies into the classroom.Procedure:Think about how you study English, and write down one or more tricks (methods, etc.) that have been helpful to you in your language study.Thumbs up-thumbs down
17 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English well? Top tips for learning EnglishSongsPicture and word cards10 words a dayReal life situationsT.V. newsDVD Film/tapesSay the words/phrases out louddrills
18 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English? Small Group Activity: "Learning English - cost-benefit analysis"Imagine that you have a friend who is a 25-year old college graduate. She is a low-level official working in a state-owned company that produces electronic appliances. She studied English in university, but didn't learn very much. Now she is thinking about her future, so she comes to ask you whether you think it is worthwhile to go back to studying English.In groups:1) List reasons why she should try to improve her English.2) Also list reasons why it would not be worthwhile for her to study English.3) Decide what advice you would give her.
19 Unit 3 Why do students fail to learn English well? The Great Debate: "Should all Chinese students be required to study English?"An enormous amount of time and energy is spent in China teaching all middle school and university students English, but many students never actually develop functional skills in the language.In groups or pairs:1) Discuss this question, and decide whether your answer is yes or no.2) Be ready to give your answer, and give at least one good reason for your answer.
20 Unit 4 What is the best way to learn English? There are different ways to develop each of the English skills students need.While there is no single best way to learn English, there are two basic rules that will help students decide what the best way is to develop each of the English language skills.
21 Unit 4 What is the best way to learn English? Rule 1: Skills are built through practice.Learning to read certainly requires knowledge of English grammar, vocabulary, and even knowledge of Western culture. But the skill of reading requires being able to put all of this together at the same time, and this can only be learned through practice.Rule 2: You learn to do what you do. Students who practice speaking English will get better at speaking English.
22 Unit 4 What is the best way to learn English? What are you good at?KnowledgeGrammarVocabularyCultureSkillsSpeakingListeningComprehensionReadingWritingPronunciation
23 Unit 4 What is the best way to learn English? Pair/Small Group Task: "Reading aloud in the morning"Most study methods are good for some things and not for others. Learners need to be able to analyze a study method to know what kinds of knowledge and skills the study method helps them gain - and what it does not help them gain.
24 Unit 4 What is the best way to learn English? In pairs or groupsAnalyze the following study methods.For each:1) List the kinds of English knowledge and skills you think this study method would help students gain.2) List kinds of English knowledge and skills you think this study method would probably not help students gain (but that students might think they were gaining).Study method 1: Reading textbook passages aloud (zao du).Study method 2: Memorizing reading passages from a textbook.Study method 3: "Crazy English."
25 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Comprehension QuestionsWhat is one of the main problems Chinese students face in English listening comprehension?1.There are simply too many new and unfamiliar words.2. You have to recognize words by hearing them instead of by reading them.3. You also have to recognize the words very quickly-listening usually doesn't allow you to pause at all.
26 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? To "know" an English word can mean different things. If a student says "I know this English word," what are at least two different possible meanings of this sentence?According to the passage, what is the best kind of material to use for practicing your English listening comprehension?
27 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Word and phrase listlistening comprehension: the skill of listening and understanding. Ex: Xiao Wang's English listening comprehension is very goodto keep right on going: to continue without stopping. Ex: I waved at the taxi, but the driver kept right on going, he didn't even slow down.The gist-the main sense of what you are listening toto get the main idea: to understand the most important idea. Ex: I didn't understand everything in this article, but I got the main idea.
28 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Which is more important to practice - speaking or listening?Obviously both are important. However, there are several good reasons for arguing that students in China especially need to focus on their listening skills. When students' listening skills are good, their speaking is likely to improve also.Listening is one of the main ways students learn more English and become comfortable with the language, so students who listen a lot generally find that their speaking also improves.
29 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Focused Listening activities are listening tasks in which you help students predict what they might hear by first giving them clues. These clues can be in the form of1) outlines;2) questions to answer; or3) forms or graphs to fill in.These clues help students focus their listening, and make listening practice easier
30 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Total Physical Response (TPR) is a "Simon Says" type of activity in which the teacher gives students instructions, and they respond by doing what the teacher asks (rather than by speaking). Because students respond with action rather than speech, they can focus their attention more fully on listening to what the teacher says (rather than having at the same time to worry about constructing an oral response).
31 Unit 5 Why is listening in English so hard? Simon SaysStand upPut your right hand in the airTouch your noseTurn aroundClap your handsShake hands with your neighbourJump up and downFace the windowFace the blackboardSit downPick up your pencilWrite your nameBalance on one legTouch your earPut both hands in the airTouch your chin with your left handTouch your elbow with your right handPick up your chair
32 Unit 6 Speaking in English Is it useful to practice speaking English with other students? Pair/Small Group Task: "Finding opportunities to speak"In China it is sometimes difficult for students to find opportunities to practice speaking English, so you need to be creative and actively make opportunities. In pairs or groups:Make a list of ways to practice speaking English. Be as creative as possible, and list as many as possible.
33 Unit 6 Speaking in English Striking up a conversation Finding opportunities to speak in EnglishImagine you are walking in the park and you see a foreign tourist. You want to practice your English so you need to strike up a conversation.List one or more strategies for starting up a conversation with the foreign touristFirst you should……Then you should…..Be willing to explain your strategy.
34 Unit 6 Speaking in English Striking up a conversation Hello, I’m very pleased to meet you.It is good to meet you. Welcome to…………My name is……. I’m a Teacher at…….Excuse me. I know that you are a visitor to……Would you be willing to spend a few moments speaking with me?Could you spare the time to speak with me?I would be very grateful if you could …..
35 Unit 6 Speaking in English Striking up a conversation May I ask your name?Why are you visiting….?Are you enjoying your visit here?Do you have family or friends here?How long will you stay here?Are you here on business or is it a social visit?May I ask you…?
36 Unit 6 Speaking in English Striking up a conversation Would you be willing to…?Could I ask you about….?I am interested in…Could you tell me about…?What do you think about……the weather/events…?Could I help you with?Is there anything that I could help you with?
37 Unit 6 Speaking in English Striking up a conversation Would you be willing to…?Could I ask you about….?I am interested in…Could you tell me about…?What do you think about……the weather/events…?Could I help you with?Is there anything that I could help you with?
38 Unit 6 Speaking in English The shopper Xiao Wang is out shopping and in a store he sees a middle aged western woman who is trying to ask the storekeeper how much an item costs. The woman looks frustrated and is using lots of sign language but the storekeeper still does not understand what she wants.Xiao Wang decides that this would be a good chance to practice his English, so he goes over, explains to the clerk what the tourist wants and then tells the tourist how much the item costs. The tourist says thank you, and then begins looking at other items in the store.Encouraged by his success, Xiao Wang asks the tourist if she would like him to acts as interpreter as she shops. The tourist however says “no, thank you” and then walks off to another part of the store.
39 Unit 6 Speaking in English The Shopper How do you think Xiao Wang might have felt when the shopper refused his offer of help?What do you think Xiao Wang expected?Why do you think the shopper refused his offer of help?List several possible explanations and then decide which seems to be the most likely.
40 Working together-one person writes-but all share ideas
41 Group analysis/discussion of one of the Encounters
42 How to conduct group work Make sure every group appoints one recorder to write down what the group decides.While groups discuss, the teacher should wander from group to group, listening in and looking at what they have written.To close, have each group briefly report their conclusions as you take notes on the board.Ask each group to report just one comment/idea at a time rather than having one group give a long report while others sit and wait.
43 Unit 6 Getting to Know You Xiao Lee has recently arrived in a western country to study English and moves into a dormitory with western graduate students. Xiao Lee is the only international student in her Hall. On the first day there is a party for all the people in Xiao Lee’s Hall of Residence. First they have a planning meeting where they all sit in a circle and introduce themselves, and when Xiao Lee says where she is from, one of the other women say, “You will have to tell us all about your country,” and the other people all agree. Xiao Lee is pleased because she wants to tell them about China. Later, when the party starts, Xiao Lee waits for people to come and talk to her about China, but instead all of the western students talk to each other, and nobody comes over to talk to Xiao Lee.
44 Unit 6 Getting to Know You How do you think Xiao Lee might have felt?What do you think she expected?Why do you think that no-one went over to talk to Xiao Lee about China?List several possible explanations and then choose those that seem to be the most likely.
45 Unit 6 Getting to Know You What could Xiao Wang have done to help herself in this situation?
46 Unit 6 Speaking in English "Make a list": (Ex: List the most beautiful places in your country.)"List reasons why ______": (Ex: List ten reasons why middle school children should -- or shouldn't -- study a foreign language.)"List advantages and disadvantages of ______": (Ex: List the advantages and disadvantages of using standardized examinations to determine who should have the opportunity to enter university.)
47 Unit 6 Speaking in English "Prepare directions": (Ex: Prepare a list of directions for how your foreign teacher should bargain at the market. Or: Make a list of suggestions on how to choose a good bicycle)."Decide whether or not___": (Ex: Decide whether or not middle school students should be allowed to date.)
48 Unit 6 Speaking in English "Rank/prioritize": (Ex: In order of importance, rank China's ten greatest heroes.)"Decide whether you agree or disagree with (a statement)" (Such as "It should be against the law to not wear a seatbelt when riding in a car.")
49 Unit 6 Speaking in English "Make a plan": Ex: Plan the ideal three-day local vacation trip for your English teacher."Solve a problem": Ex: A foreign teacher is interested in world news but can't understand TV news programs in China. What suggestions do you have as to how she/he can find out about world news while in China?
50 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Word and phrase listrealistic: to be possible, something that can actually happen. Ex: We can hope to live a long time, but it is not realistic to hope to live foreto speak with (an accent): to have (an accent). Ex: Peter speaks English with a German accent.ver.
51 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Activity: "Being a mimic"One of the most important ways to improve your pronunciation is by learning to be a good mimic; in other words, learning to listen carefully and copy the way your teachers pronounce English. (The way children learn to pronounce their native language is by listening to their parents and then mimicking what they hear.)
52 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Jazz ChantsRepetitionlearned responsestrong rhythms-The rhythm is the glue that holds the chant together- the language “sticks” in your head and so aids learning.a clear steady beatchoral chanting.effective and funa good way to model and then repeat.
53 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? MethodThe essential element in presenting a chant is to maintain a clear, steady beat and rhythm.Review the chant-the cultural context, the situation.Model the chant. Suggest that they tap out the rhythm with a pencil or tap the table with their fingers as they listen to the chant.Choral chanting-take one line or section at a time depending on the ability of the class. Practice any parts, pronunciation that the students have difficulty with.Group or individual chanting. Act out the chant if necessary or helpful.Personalize the chants-substitute their own names, situations etc.Exercises based on the chants.
54 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? 1. Departure and return homeHave a wonderful trip!Don’t forget to call mewhen you get back.Don’t worry, I will.Don’t forget to call me.Don’t worry I won’t.Don’t worry, I won’t.
55 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Tongue TwistersYou've no need to light a night-light On a light night like tonight, For a night-light's light's a slight light, And tonight's a night that's light. When a night's light, like tonight's light, It is really not quite right To light night-lights with their slight lights On a light night like tonight.
56 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Tongue TwistersRed lorry, yellow lorry, red lorry, yellow lorry.Which witch wished which wicked wish?The two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel.
57 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Tongue TwistersA pleasant place to place a plaice is a place where a plaice is pleased to be placed.
58 Unit 7 Should I try to pronounce English like a native speaker? Should I try to have a British accent or an American one?The accent taught in most English textbooks in China is a standard British accent called "received pronunciation" or "RP"This accent is also called the Queen's English or BBC English. This accent is widely known and respected throughout the world, so it is a good accent to have.
59 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Word and phrase liston the whole: in general. Ex: There are some parts of this book that are boring, but on the whole it is quite interesting.to convey: to communicate, to carry. Ex: He didn't say that he was happy, but the smile on his face conveyed his joy.to result in: to cause, to make something happen. Ex: Her long hours of English study resulted in good test scores.
60 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? to give the impression that: to cause (someone) to think that something is true. Ex: The bored look on his face gave me the impression that he didn't like the movie.to judge (A) by (B): to use B as a way to decide whether or not A is good. Ex: You can't always judge a book by its cover.to be taken seriously: to be respected and paid attention to. Ex: If you want your employer to take you seriously, you will have to work harder.
61 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? "What is the hardest thing in English grammar?"Survey several of your classmates, asking them what they think the hardest thing in English grammar is.Ask them to give you specific examples for each point they make. Be ready to report your findings to the class.
62 Gender: Confusing ‘he’ and ‘she’. Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Common Errors in Grammar and Word UseGender: Confusing ‘he’ and ‘she’.The spoken forms of ‘he’ ‘she’ and ‘it’ are all the same in Chinese. Chinese speakers find difficulty in applying the rule consistently.e.g. ‘She is a good Director. His films are very good.’I’ve a brother and she’s working in a factorTenses and TimeChinese and English speakers express the concept of time very differently.e.g. ‘My brother left home since nine o’clock’.I’ve seen her two days ago.I found that the room is empty.
63 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Common Errors in Grammar and Word UseArticlesThere are no articles in Chinese and therefore Chinese speakers find it hard to use them.They may omit the article:‘Let’s make fire’, ‘I can play piano’. XOr insert unnecessary ones:‘He finished the school last year’, ‘‘He was in a pain’. XOr confuse the use of the definite and indefinite articles:‘She is a tallest girl in the class’ X‘He smashed the vase in the anger’. X
64 Countable and uncountable nouns Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Common Errors in Grammar and Word UseCountable and uncountable nounsThe English concept of countability is hard to grasp.For example, furniture, equipment, luggage, news etc. can all be counted to the Chinese way of understanding.This leads to errors such as:‘Let me tell you an interesting news.’‘She as brought many luggages with her.
65 Progressive aspect causes difficulty Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Common Errors in Grammar and Word UseProgressive aspect causes difficulty‘ What do you read?’ for ‘What are you reading?’I sit here for a long time for- I have been sitting here for a long time.Adjectives and verbs are frequently identical in Chinese.Thus the verb ‘to be’ tends to be dropped when followed by predicative adjectives.‘I busy’, ‘She very happy’.I am busy. She is very happy.
66 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Common Errors in Grammar and Word UseParts of speechParts of speech in Chinese are not always formally distinguished. The same word may often serve different structural functions. It is easy to confuse related words such as ‘difficult’ and ‘difficulty’ in terms of their parts of speech or to appreciate the fact that certain functions in a sentence can only be fulfilled by words from certain classes:‘She likes walk’, ‘It is very difficulty to convince him’.I have not son.
67 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Situation:Xiao Wang is taking an English class which is taught by a Western teacher. Xiao Wang's teacher never lectures on grammar; instead the class usually consists of conversations in pairs or large group discussions of cultural issues.Today, Xiao Wang was confused about how to use "the" and "a" in English, so in class she asked the teacher to explain. However, instead of explaining, she said: "I generally prefer not to explain grammar rules. Tell me what you want to say and I will tell you how to say it correctly."Why do you think the teacher refused to explain?List several possible explanations and then choose several which seem most likely.
68 Some possible interpretations: Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy?The English TeacherSome possible interpretations:The teacher avoids explaining grammar because she doesn't know how to explain grammar very well (and doesn't like it very much).The teacher doesn't think grammar is important. The teacher's main goal is to build students' communication skills, so she focuses more on communication and fluency than on grammar.
69 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? The English TeacherThe teacher refuses to give long explanations because she thinks they will slow down the lesson.She feels her method is more efficient.The teacher thinks the students rely too much on memorizing grammar rules, so tries to encourage them to figure out rules for themselves.
70 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? Dictogloss is a listening exercise in which you read a short passage to students and have them write down what you say.Unlike Dictation, however, in Dictogloss you read the whole passage to students several times at a fairly natural pace rather than stopping after each sentence.Students then work together in groups to reconstruct the passage. Because they cannot copy down every word, as they would in Dictation, Dictogloss forces students to use their knowledge of grammar as they reconstruct the passage.
71 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? The Lantern Festival falls on the 15th day of the first lunar month, usually in February or March. Lanterns of various shapes and sizes are hung in the streets. Children will hold self made lanterns or bought lanterns. Guessing the lantern riddles is an essential part of the Festival. Lantern owners write riddles on a piece of paper and stick them on to the lanterns. If you can solve the riddle then you may pull out the paper and check your answer with the owner of the lantern. If you are correct then you will receive a small gift.In the daytime there may be performances such as a dragon lantern dance, a lion dance or a land boat dance. There may be stilt walking. At night there may be firework displays.People eat rice dumplings during the festival. These can be boiled, fried or steamed.
72 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? The parts of speechEvery name is called a noun,As field and fountain, street and town.In place of noun the pronoun standsAs he and she can clap their hands.The adjective describes a thingAs magic wand and bridal ring.The verb means action, something done-To read, to write, to jump, to run.How things are done, the adverbs tell,As quickly, slowly, badly, well.
73 Unit 8 Which is more important – fluency or accuracy? The preposition shows relationAs in the street or at the station.Conjunctions join in many waysSentences, words, or phrase and phrase.The interjection cries out ‘Hark!’I need an exclamation mark!Through poetry we learn how eachOf these make up the parts of speech.Three little words you often seeAre articles- a, an and the.
74 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Word and phrase listis appropriate for: is good for, suits. Ex: Sweaters are too hot to wear in the winter, but they are appropriate for winter.to look up (words): to find words (in the dictionary). Ex: If you want to know what this word means, look it up in the dictionary.____ alone: just, only. Ex: Exercise alone won't make you slim; you also need to eat less.to encourage (a habit): to cause someone to develop (a habit). Ex: Watching too much television encourages laziness.tends to be: usually is, often is. Ex: For some reason, girls tend to be better at learning language than boys are.
75 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Word and phrase listto fall into (a habit): to develop a (bad) habit. Ex: People who always stay up late often fall into the habit of getting up very late.to come to dislike: to begin to not like. Ex: At first I thought Albert was a nice person, but later I came to dislike him.just as ______, ______: (Used for comparing two similar things.) Ex: Just as flowers need sunshine on order to grow, children need sunshine in order to be happy.
76 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Look up a word when:It is a new word in the titleIt occurs lots of timesIt appears in the title and is very importantYou can’t guess the meaningit does not appear in the glossaryit is a special or technical wordOtherwise:Underline or highlight unknown wordsJot them down in a note book-then look them up later.
77 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Small Group Task: "When should I use the dictionary?"Imagine that a university student comes up to you at an English corner, and he wants to improve his extensive reading skills in English. He knows he shouldn't stop to look up every new word in the dictionary, but he doesn't know how much he should use his dictionary and when.
78 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Skimming is a way of quickly looking over an article or book to get a rough idea of what it is about. Skimming is not the same thing as fast reading; instead, it is selective reading of a few parts of a text. In real life, people often skim to decide whether or not they want to read something. In class this is a useful pre-reading exercise before reading an article or a book.1.Choose a passage for students to skim.2) Tell students their goal is to very quickly get a rough idea of what the text is about..
79 Unit 9 What is the best way to develop reading skills? Then give them the following instructions:a. Read any titles or sub-titles.b. Read the first few lines of the first paragraph.c. Read the first line of one or two paragraphs on each page.d. Read a few lines from the conclusion.e. Look at any pictures or illustrations
80 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? Word and phrase listequivalent: equal to something else, have the same value as something else. Ex: One US dollar is equivalent to approximately 8 Chinese yuan.connotation: a good or bad feeling associated with a word. Ex: Americans consider independence very important, so for Americans the word "reliance" has a bad connotation
81 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? What is the best way to study vocabulary?What is the best way to learn the proper usage of new vocabulary?How do students in China usually go about studying vocabulary?
82 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? Make listsLearn 10 new words each dayLearn words according to spelling patterns or letter stringsFlash cardsPartner work-test each otherPut the new words into a sentence/silly sentence/phrase
83 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? Say it out loudVisualisationLink new words together into a storyAntonyms and synonyms-learn the opposites/put them into a sentenceModel a sentence-students then repeat it and give an alternativeCrosswords and word searchesSongs
84 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? Put new words together into a silly storyWords that are the same grammar type e.g. adverbsAdd some letters to make a new word e.g. apple/pineapple -melon/watermelonCopy the word out many times
85 contagious asthma bracelet sketch cosmetics reservation Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? New vocabularycontagiousasthmabraceletsketchcosmeticsreservation
86 Unit 9 Vocabulary New vocabulary contagious –infectiousasthma - breathing difficultiesbracelet – decorative bangle worn on the wristsketch – draw a picturecosmetics – make up worn on the facereservation – a booking
87 Unit 9 Vocabulary New vocabulary aerobicsitineraryembroideryduplicaterecreationpantomime
88 New vocabulary aerobics – keep fit, exercise to music itinerary – schedule/diary entries/plansembroidery – sewing with thread to make a pictureduplicate – a copy, to imitaterecreation – a sport/past time/a hobbypantomime – a theatre performance for children and families
89 Unit 10 Vocabulary What is the best way to build vocabulary? It is a good idea to have students memorize a short simple phrase or sentence that correctly uses the new word. (For learning usage, it is better to memorize phrases or even sentences instead of just individual words.)Students should review their new word list day after day until they can quickly and accurately remember what the new words mean and how to use them, even after not having seen the word for a day or more.
90 English Slang words wiped out two left feet ace Rhyming slang e.g. up the apples and pears-up the stairsPlates of meat-feetwiped outtwo left feetace
91 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Write down 5 adjectives that you would use to describe Chinese culture.
92 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? • What do you think are the most important things students should learn about foreign cultures?• What is the best way to learn about a foreign culture?
93 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Survey: "That strange Western culture"Survey several classmates, asking them to name several things that they find strange or difficult to understand about Western culture. Be ready to report your findings - and be sure you can explain what your classmates told you.
94 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Survey: "That strange Chinese culture"Survey several classmates, asking them to name several things they think foreigners (Westerners) would find difficult to understand or accept about Chinese culture. Be ready to report your findings.
95 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Is communication between people of different cultures really different from communication between people of the same culture?In one sense, yes. People who share the same culture can usually understand each other much better than people who are from different cultures, so the "gap of understanding" is usually much greater in intercultural communication. This makes it especially important for people to be careful in how they communicate.
96 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Shared knowledgeShared valuesShared perspectivesShared beliefsShared behaviourGeneralisations and stereotypesStereotypes are dangerous as they may trick us into believing that knowing a few stereotypes is the same thing as understanding another culture.
97 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? English Culture An Individualist culture-emphasis is on the needs of the individualThe need for personal space/privacyIndependence/self relianceHigh achievement/careerTake credit and responsibilty for what they have achievedTry to place limits on the power of people in authorityEqualityDe-emphasize differences in rank and power by creating an appearance of equality
98 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? English Culture Inability to accept complimentsReluctance to answer personal questionsA clear and firm distinction between your private and your public lifeWesterners tend to speak directly-plainly and openly- they ‘get to the point’ (perhaps more common in men than in women)Tolerant of behaviour that does not conform to cultural norms-accept a wide range of views and valuesFamily relationships-care of elderly/independence of the young.
99 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Chinese Culture A Collectivist culture-view themselves as members of a group-family/work unit/-consider the needs of the group to be more important than the needs of the individualObligation to help others in their groupGenerosityShared values-The host cultureModestyTend to communicate in a way that is more indirect and subtleHigh degree of conformity is expected-a clear consensus as to what is/is not acceptable behaviour. Pressure to conformChina’s long history and cultureHolistic medicineRelationships with the worldSelf respect, dignity and ‘face’ are perhaps more important in Chinese culture.
100 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? A western Manager has been told by the company that she has to reduce staff by firing one of two technicians. Both have been with the company for 5 years and their work performance is equal.A is from the local town, is easy to work with, has good friends in the company-including the manager. His wife has a long term illness and cannot work so the family depend on him financially. He has a BA DegreeB comes from another part of the country, is very difficult to get along with and knows few people in the company. He is single and so has no family financial obligations. He has a Masters Degree.Which of these two technicians would the westerner consider firing?
101 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? EthnocentrismWe tend to use the norms of our own culture as standards when we judge the behaviour of people from other cultures.We need to try to understand the world from other cultural perspectives.We are often not even aware of the cultural assumptions that we make.
102 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? The Critical Incident Exercise:Write a critical incident story, perhaps based on a real incident that occurred between Chinese and foreigners.
103 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? "Intercultural communication" is communication between people from different cultural backgrounds; for example, communication between Chinese and Americans.Intercultural communication tends to be more difficult than communication between people who share the same culture, and learning to communicate well with foreigners is not an easy thing to do.
105 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Rule 1: Be careful, and don't jump to conclusions too quickly.Rule 2: Try to see things from the foreigner's perspective.Is it possible that this foreigner means something different than what I think? If so, what could it be?Rule 3: Always keep trying to learn more and understand better.
106 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Word and phrase listto jump to conclusions:to form an opinion too quickly (often an incorrect one). Ex: The weather is cloudy, and it looks like it might rain tomorrow. But let's not jump to any conclusions, instead, let's watch the weather report.to see things from the foreigner’s perspective:to look at things the same way someone else does, to see them from the same viewpoint. Ex: I don't agree with what you did, but I can see things from your perspective so I think I understand why you did it.
107 The Encounters-short stories Critical incident exercises start with a short story describing a encounter between two different cultures-an encounter in which there is some kind of problem or misunderstanding.There are different possible explanations for what may have gone wrong.A range of possibilities are considered when considering the behaviour of people from other cultures.There is no ‘right ‘explanation of the situation.
108 EncountersEncounters builds students awareness of how they go about interpreting the behaviour of foreigners.They encourage the habit of stopping to consider alternative possible explanations of puzzling or problematic behaviour on the part of foreigners, rather than jumping to wrong conclusions.
109 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Pair/Small Group Task: "Why didn't she want my help?"This summer at your school there is a short-term English training course being offered by several Western teachers, and you have been assigned to be one of the assistants for the program. The Western teachers have not been in China before, and don't speak any Chinese, so your duty is to help them with daily life issues, and to generally serve as a host while they are in China. It is also your duty to make sure that they remain safe and well while they are in China.
110 "Why didn't she want my help?" During a break between classes, you overhear Jane, one of the older Western teachers, say that she needs to buy some T-shirts. You offer to go out shopping with her this afternoon, but Jane says, "No thank you" and then rushes off to class.The next day, you overhear the students talking about how Jane got lost yesterday when she went off alone to a market on the other side of the city to shop for T-shirts.
111 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? In pairs or groups, do the following:1) First, decide how you would feel when you heard the students talking about Jane.2) Then think of several possible explanations for why Jane turned down your offer to take her shopping. (There is no single right answer, but there are a number of likely possibilities.)3) Talk with your teacher about this situation, and see what she/he thinks of the explanations you suggest.
112 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Who should pay for the meal?Who pays?Marie is an American exchange student who has recently come to China to study. A Chinese friend met her in town and after a while invited her to go for dinner.They went to a small restaurant nearby and they each had a meal of noodles. The Chinese friend felt that as she was new to the town that she should pay for the meal and that she should treat her to the meal. The Chinese girl paid for the meal.However Marie, the American student was not happy and wanted to pay for her own meal. The Chinese student kept refusing to take her money and finally Marie agreed but she still did not seem to be very happy about the arrangement.The Chinese friend found the experience a little awkward and unpleasant. She did not have that good feeling that she usually had when she treated her Chinese friends to a meal.
113 Who should pay for the meal? Why did the American student feel so strongly that she should pay for her own meal?
114 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Banquets Xiao Wang works for a Chinese Company and has been given the responsibility of making arrangements for Mr. Smith, a westerner who will visit the company for a week. Xiao Wang arranges all the meals for Mr. Smith and makes sure that there is always plenty of food at each of the meals.Mr. Smith says that he enjoys the meals, but after three days of these banquets he starts to get annoyed with Xiao Wang for some reason. He says that he likes to make his own decisions about what to eat, at least some of the time and that he doesn’t like being served more food than he can eat at each meal.He becomes more unhappy and annoyed and Xiao Wang cannot understand this and begins to feel that he should be more appreciative of all the efforts that he has made for him. He thinks that Mr. Smith is being ungrateful.
115 The BanquetsWhy are there these problems between Mr. Smith and Xiao Wang?How could this misunderstanding have been avoided?
116 Unit 11 Why study culture along with English? Other Discussion Questions:• Why do you think Westerners feel it is impolite to ask how much money someone makes?• Why do you think Westerners feel privacy is so important?• Why do you think Westerners place so much emphasis on the idea of intellectual property rights?
117 Unit 13 How can I continue to improve my English skills? How do you plan to continue studying English after you finish this English course?Be ready to report one interesting idea.
118 Unit 13 How can I continue to improve my English skills? As a result of being in this course, have you gained any new ideas that might be useful in your teaching in China?List any new ideas and also ways in which the ideas might need to be modified for your classroom.
119 Unit 13 How can I continue to improve my English skills? Pair/Small Group Task: "Language learning: Time and opportunity"In pairs or groups, discuss three questions:1) How much time do you have on the average day to study English, especially time when you are not exhausted?2) What opportunities can you create to use English outside teaching?3) Which kinds of English study do you like enough that you will do them even when you are tired and busy?