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Educational Psychology Draw and discuss the significant aspects of the model of the teaching/learning process presented in class (or discussed in one of.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology Draw and discuss the significant aspects of the model of the teaching/learning process presented in class (or discussed in one of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Psychology Draw and discuss the significant aspects of the model of the teaching/learning process presented in class (or discussed in one of the required readings), giving specific examples of the types of variables considered in educational psychology. Describe relationships among variables you discuss. Part II Developed by: W. Huitt, 1999

2 Categories of Variables Context Factors outside of the classroom that provide the environment for the teaching and learning process Input Qualities/characteristics of teachers and students that they bring with them to the classroom experience Classroom Processes Teacher and student behaviors in the classroom as well as some other variables such as classroom climate and teacher/ student relationships OutputMeasures of student learning taken apart from the normal instructional process

3 Model of the Teaching/Learning Process The third major category of variables, Input, refers to descriptions of teachers and students prior to their coming into the classroom. There are again two important subcategories: Teacher Characteristics and Student Characteristics.

4 Some important subcategories of teacher characteristics include Of course, there are many more possible subcategories, but these seem to be the most important. the teacher's values and beliefs, knowledge, thinking and communication skills, performance skills, and personality. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

5 The most important teacher characteristic (in terms of predicting how well teachers will perform in the classroom as well as student achievement) seems to be the teacher's values and belief or more particularly Teacher Efficacy (Ashton, 1984). This variable is a measure of the teacher's belief that students can learn and that he/she can teach. Ashton, P. (1984, Sept/Oct.) Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm for effective teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

6 Proctor (1986) has developed a model of the teaching/ learning process that highlights the role of teacher expectations. Proctor, C. (1984, March). Teacher expectations: A model for school improvement. The Elementary School Journal, Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

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8 Another important set of teacher characteristics includes the teacher's knowledge with respect to: the content domain (knowledge of subject matter to be taught), human growth and development (theories, topics, and stages), learning theory (behavioristic, cognitive, humanistic, social cognition), and the teaching/learning process (concepts and principles as well as their application in formal and informal environments). Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

9 As you have already had a course in human growth and development, this course is designed to review that area and provide additional instruction in two others: learning theory, and the teaching/learning process. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

10 In the state of Georgia, a teacher's knowledge is evaluated through the completion of college-level courses and passing the appropriate Praxis II test administered by the Educational Testing Service. At VSU, a teacher's thinking and communication skills is evaluated by successfully completing specific English courses as well as upper division core classes. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

11 Performance skills are measured through a requirement of student teaching and an annual evaluation using the Georgia Teacher Observation Instrument (GTOI). Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

12 While there is no single personality that seems to make the "best" teacher, it is certainly a variable that has attracted a lot of interest. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process One measure of personality that has become popular in education circles is the Keirsey Temperament Scale (a version of the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator).

13 There are a wide variety of Student Characteristics that have been related to classroom behavior and student achievement. In general, research has shown that when time available for learning (a context variable) is held constant, as it is in most learning environments in the United States, then a student's intelligence or academic ability is the best student characteristic variable that will predict student achievement. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

14 However, researchers such as Bloom and his colleagues (e.g, Anderson & Block, 1977; Bloom, 1971)* have shown that when time to learn is allowed to vary, a student's prior knowledge is a better student characteristic to predict student achievement. * Anderson, L., & Block, J. (1977). Mastery learning. In D. Treffinger, J. Davis, & R. Ripple (eds.), Handbook on teaching educational psychology. New York: Academic Press. * Bloom, B. (1971). Mastery learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, Inc. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

15 It is not difficult to see why this might be the case. Intelligence is a measure of one’s speed to learn; when time is held constant, those who learn faster learn more. When time is allowed to vary, and speed is no longer as important, then most students can learn all required content. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

16 This issue of "time to learn" is very important. If we truly believe that everyone can learn and that it is important to learn, then it would seem we would make a greater effort to provide the appropriate time to learn. However, if we believe that ability is more important and that only the most capable individuals can learn all we want them to learn, then the present system will continue to produce a result that verifies that expectation. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

17 Other student characteristics that have been found to be important include: Study habits, Age, Sex/Gender, Motivation, Learning Style, Cognitive development, Socioemotional development, Moral and character development, and Race/Ethnicity. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

18 In fact, the list of important student characteristics is so long entire books have been written on them. A good example is Bloom, B. (1983). Human characteristics and school learning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Model of the Teaching/Learning Process


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