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Evaluating and improving teaching

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluating and improving teaching"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluating and improving teaching
Developing oneself as a teacher using innovative teaching methods and strategies to establish constructive and positive relations with all students in guiding them in their development of critical, analytical thinking and problem solving abilities.  Gordon Suddaby -

2 Rationale We need to start from a position of knowing how well we are teaching: Poor evaluation, whether of students or of staff, renders an unfair judgement and fails to reveal shortcomings in performance. Good evaluation on the other hand provides decision makers with the information necessary for informed choices and teachers with useful feedback for improvement. Centre, 1993, p.1 Gordon Suddaby -

3 Evaluating teaching Two broad purposes;
Evaluation for improvement, i.e. Quality enhancement leading to development and improvement of learning, teaching etc Evaluation for accountability i.e Quality assurance regarding performance with respect to promotion, competence, assurance for stakeholders etc Gordon Suddaby -

4 Vocabulary Formative: Provides feedback which is used during the [teaching] process for improvement. It is continuous, diagnostic, remedial, and low stakes. Summative: ...used after [the teaching] process has been completed. Grading and accountability are major outcomes. It is terminal, finite, descriptive and high stakes. After Scriven, 1967. Gordon Suddaby -

5 Activity 5 In small groups identify the university processes involving decision-making about you that requires evaluative information about your teaching What aspects of your teaching provides that information? What (if any) further information could/should be provided? How and by whom? How valid and reliable do you think the information is? Gordon Suddaby -

6 Something to think about...
In what may as well be starkly labelled smug satisfaction, an amazing 94% [of college instructors] rate themselves above average teachers and 68% rate themselves in the upper quartile of teaching performers. K. Patricia Cross Gordon Suddaby -

7 Activity 6: Universities are generally interested in teaching...
to ensure quality, effectiveness, and accountability to provide recognition and reward to bring about improvement. ... Activity: In groups, identify the mechanisms by which these outcomes are achieved at Bilkent. For each mechanism reflect on how effectively it achieves its purpose Gordon Suddaby -

8 So the question for you as a teacher is...
How do you know you are teaching well? Or How well you are teaching? And How might you improve? Gordon Suddaby -

9 Activity 7 Rule a column down the middle of a piece of paper
On the left hand side list things that you believe you have done well when teaching On the right hand side for each indicator, map the evidence you have that supports the point What evidence do you use to know things haven’t gone well? Gordon Suddaby -

10 Some thoughts about evaluating teaching...
When evaluations are used for promotion and tenure, the accepted rule is that no single evaluation should be considered adequate for decision making Theall and Franklin, p.94, 1991 Use multiple sources of data if you are serious about improving teaching Cashin, p.93, 1992 It is wise to be circumspect about using student ratings to make judgments on teaching quality and to recognise their complications as well as their virtues. Ramsden, p.229, 1992 Gordon Suddaby -

11 But there are options We can change the focus from
“what is the quality of your teaching” To “how can we use evidence gathered from student feedback and other forms of information to improve teaching?” Berk (2005) has listed 12 ways as a starter to which I will add two more; Small Group Instructional Diagnosis and Classroom Assessment Techniques. Gordon Suddaby -

12 12 sources of evidence(Berk, 2005)
Student ratings Peer ratings Self-evaluation Videos Student interviews Exit and Alumni ratings Employer ratings Administrator ratings Teaching scholarship Teaching awards Learning outcome measures Teaching portfolios Gordon Suddaby -

13 Peer ratings Peer ratings of teaching performance and materials is the most complementary source of evidence to student ratings. It covers those aspects of teaching that students are not in a position to evaluate. Student and peer ratings, viewed together, furnish a very comprehensive picture of teaching effectiveness for teaching improvement. Peer ratings should not be used for personnel decisions. Gordon Suddaby -

14 Self Evaluation Self-evaluation is an important source of evidence to consider in formative and summative decisions. Faculty input on their own teaching completes the triangulation of the three direct observation sources of teaching performance: students, peers, and self. Gordon Suddaby -

15 Videos If faculty are really committed to improving their teaching, a video is one of the best sources of evidence for formative decisions, interpreted either alone or, preferably, with peer input. If the video is used in confidence for this purpose, faculty should decide whether it should be included in their self evaluation or portfolio as a “work sample” for summative decisions. Gordon Suddaby -

16 Student ratings Student ratings is a necessary source of evidence of teaching effectiveness for both formative and summative decisions, but not a sufficient source for the latter. Considering all of the polemics over its value, it is still an essential component of any faculty evaluation system. Gordon Suddaby -

17 Student interviews The quality control circle is an excellent technique to provide constant student feedback for teaching improvement. The group interview as an independent evaluation can be very informative to supplement student ratings. Exit interviews may be impractical to conduct or redundant with exit ratings, described in the next section. Gordon Suddaby -

18 Exit and Alumni interviews
Although exit and alumni ratings are similar to original student ratings on the same scale, different scale items about the quality of teaching, courses, curriculum admissions, and other topics can provide new information. Alumni ratings should be considered as another important source of evidence on teaching effectiveness. Gordon Suddaby -

19 Employer ratings Employer ratings provides an indirect source of evidence for program evaluation decisions about teaching effectiveness and attainment of program outcomes, especially for professional schools. Job performance data may be linked to individual teaching performance, but on a very limited basis. Gordon Suddaby -

20 Administrator ratings
Administrator ratings is typically based on secondary sources, not direct observation of teaching or any other areas of performance. This source furnishes a perspective different from all other sources on merit pay and promotion decisions. Gordon Suddaby -

21 Teaching scholarship Teaching scholarship is an important source of evidence to supplement the three major direct observation sources. It can easily discriminate the “teacher scholar” and very creative faculty from all others for summative decisions. Gordon Suddaby -

22 Teaching Awards As a source of evidence of teaching effectiveness, at best, teaching awards provide worthwhile information only on the nominees, and, at worst, they supply inaccurate and unreliable feedback on questionable nominees who may have appeared on ‘Law and Order’. The merits of teaching awards should be evaluated in the context of an institution’s network of incentives and rewards for teaching. Gordon Suddaby -

23 Learning outcome measures
Learning outcome measures should be employed with extreme caution as a source of evidence for faculty evaluation. It’s safer to use in conjunction with the direct data sources described previously for program improvement. Gordon Suddaby -

24 Teaching portfolio As a collection of many of the previous sources and them some, the teaching portfolio should be reserved primarily for summative decisions to present a comprehensive picture of teaching effectiveness to complement the list of research publications. Gordon Suddaby -

25 Small Group Instructional Diagnosis
Developed by Clark in 1979 Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID) is a form of classroom research which focuses on student learning. It is a formative process enhancing learning and is a safe, non-threatening and transparent mechanism liked by students and staff. It is orally-based, involving concensus and involves little time with a quick turn-around. Gordon Suddaby -

26 Classroom Assessment Activities (including fast feedback tools)
Classroom assessment techniques drawn from Angelo and Cross (1996). These tools are Learner Centred, Teacher directed, Mutually beneficial, Formative, Context-specific and Ongoing. Gordon Suddaby -

27 CAT examples The Minute Paper The Muddiest Point Directed paraphrasing
Application cards Gordon Suddaby -

28 The proof of the pudding...
If we are teaching well, the obvious outcome would be in student learning. One of the major challenges we face is that of effectively ‘measuring’ student learning. i.e. We are talking about effective assessment! Gordon Suddaby -


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