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Coal Seam Gas (CSG) CSG promises prosperity & threatens environment CSG water contains millions of tonnes of salt Desalination consumes power & creates brine Qld mines will store 5 Sydney Harbours of brine Current engineering has no brine solution Bio-engineering generates energy & destroys salt PolyGenomX bio-engineering leaves no brine Government can mandate a win-win-win solution ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Coal Seam Gas (CSG) Potential cost-effective energy Potential economic stimulus Potentially abundant royalties Potential ecological disasters How? ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Salt ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
CSG Salt Water 800 ML - every day Reverse Osmosis – burns $100,000 in energy - every day – makes 2/3 rds water, 1/3 rd brine 3,600 Tonnes of salt - every day – 100 Olympic Swimming Pools a day Stored as brine, hoping for a future solution ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
4 Industry Proposed Brine Solutions 1.Investigate industrial uses – none identified 2.Inject into suitable aquifers – none found 3.Ocean outfall – Calcium salts not permitted 4.Landfill – assuming locations will be found That’s it! Arrow CSGW Management Strategy There are no brine solutions in place! ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
The Brine Numbers $2,000,000,000 investment into RO $1,100,000,000+ energy to make brine 6 years of output = 1 Sydney Harbour 30 years mine life 5 Sydney Harbours of brine stored Outback ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Brine ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Bio-engineered Solution CSG water is used to feed wetlands Wetlands of salt-tolerant Giant Reed Reed breaks down salts to zero waste – Converts all to plant matter or gas Biomass to clean energy = $1,800,000,000+ Transition wetland to high value trees Leaving the land owner a positive legacy ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Giant Reed ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Giant Reed Imported with the first fleet Non-invasive in non-river environments Sth Australian Gov research Easily contained Drought tolerant Salt tolerant Ideal for biofuel or biomass Easily transitioned to higher-value crops ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
PGX Giant Reed Numbers 100% more salt tolerant 33% greater CO2 uptake 33% faster growing 40 times greater salt breakdown 90% less area required $2billion+ energy created Zero salt waste ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
PGX Giant Reed Performance ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
PGX Sodium removal ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
PGX Photosynthesis Rates ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Mechanical Engineer’s Perspective Water is an over-burden Water is a compliance issue Water is an expense Water is a public relations risk Water is a cost-of-production More water means less profit ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
Bio Engineer’s Perspective Water is an asset – and with The right plants in The right environment with The right management and The right business model The water may be worth more than the Gas And it’s renewable! ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
A Solution Require operators to address brine before gas Mandate profitable bio-engineered solutions Require responsible optimal water use Seek to leave a positive legacy not a liability Lead for the good of all – even the miners! ©2012 PolyGenomX Limited
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