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SOLAR WATER PUMPING FOR AGRICULTURE IN HADHRAMOUT A CASE STUDY OF WADI HADHRAMOUT By Salem Mohammed Bin Qadhi Professor of Mechanical Engineering – University.

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Presentation on theme: "SOLAR WATER PUMPING FOR AGRICULTURE IN HADHRAMOUT A CASE STUDY OF WADI HADHRAMOUT By Salem Mohammed Bin Qadhi Professor of Mechanical Engineering – University."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOLAR WATER PUMPING FOR AGRICULTURE IN HADHRAMOUT A CASE STUDY OF WADI HADHRAMOUT By Salem Mohammed Bin Qadhi Professor of Mechanical Engineering – University of Aden Former Dean, Faculty of Engineering – University of Aden Former Dean(Founder), Seiyun Community College – Hadhramout Consultant for : World Bank Program :Readiness for Investment for Sustainable Energy (RISE) for Yemen Ministry of Electricity and Energy &World Bank : Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program Investment Plan (SREP – IP) for Yemen -

2 CONTENTS Background PV Solar Irrigation Systems Installed in Wadi Hadhramout Comparative Study between Diesel Engine, Butane Gas and Solar PV Pumping systems Comparative Study Between Diesel Water Pumping and PV Solar Water Pumping systems in Hajjah– Yemen Statistical and Analysis of Agricultural Activities and Economics of Using Diesel Fuel for Water Pumping In Wadi Hadhramout: Area, number of farmers, number of wells and pumps and their classifications, diesel and oil quantity use, cost. Discussion and Findings from Wadi Hadhramout Argricultural Statistics and Analysis Cost Calculation for PV Solar Water Pumping To Replace Diesel Pumps

3 Sample of Other countries Experience For Solar Water Pumping, India and Morocco Bottlenecks for Large-scale Solar Water Pumping Application Lessons Learnt and recommendation from other countries experience Conclusion and Recommendations

4 Discussion and Findings from Wadi Hadhramout Argricultural Statistics and Analysis About 60 % of Population involved in agriculture farmers spend about million US Dollars for buying diesel per year. government subsidy is 81.8 million US Dollars The total expenditure in purchasing diesel and oil is about 133 million a year. Using Solar PV has a political, economic and social impact on citizens life About 81 m $,government subsidy for diesel used in agriculture in Wadi Hadhramout only. could be spent enhancing the infrastructure for agricultural activities as dams,storage facilities, scientific research in field of agriculture. Other country subsidy used for agriculture

5 Cost Calculation for PV Solar Water Pumping To Replace Diesel Pumps Details of calculation by W. H.C. M.V.F.C. Ltd Total power for the number of pumps77,613 kWp with total cost is about 54.3 m $ cost of replacement of diesel water pumps is m total annual expenditure for the purchase of diesel and oil is m $ total cost of solar powered submersible pumps is found to be 170 m $ payback period was found to be 16 months only

6 Table 1 : Details of PV Solar Irrigation Systems Installed in Wadi Hadhramout LocationName of CompanyDetails of SystemOwnersRemark Saah( km South East Seiyun) Al Wadi for Solar Energy, Seiyun Tel :No , 3 inch pipe 17 lit/sec, 25 m head Donated from Total Petroleum Cop. Madoodeh–Seiyun 3 inch pipe 17 lit/sec, 45 m head Mr.Ja'afar Bin Munaibari Al- Kathiri A pilot project by Investor, Ja'afar Al- Kathiri Al-Qatin, 50 km north Seiyun Eng. Khamis Al-Ardhi o.com o.com Tel: inch pipe 3 inch pipe 35cu.m/h, 50 m head,10 HP pump, Wp Eng.KhameesLard hi A pilot Project by investor, Eng. KhameesLadhi Al-Suwairi, 20 km east Seiyun W H C M V F ltd 5 Inch pipe, 90 cu.m/h, 50 m Farmer,Bilal For his own use for irrigation Al-Suwairi, 20 km east Seiyun W H C M V F ltd 4 inch pipe,60 cu.m/h, 55 m Head Farmer, BaharthihFor Irrigation system, replaced the Dyanna. truck diesel engine which was consuming a lot of diesel(around 100 lit/day)

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8 Table 3 : Comparative Study Between Diesel Water Pumping and PV Solar Water Pumping systems Energy Source Diesel Engine Set(with 100 YR/lit) Diesel Engine Set( with (260 YR/lit) Solar PV System Efficiency30 % 100% Energy Required220 kWh Fuel Energy Content9.29 kWh/lit Fuel Consumed/day35.00 litre Cost per unit, USD $/ litre Fuel cost per day, USD $ Fuel cost per month, USD $ Years Cost Fuel cost, USD $ Assume pump replacement after 10 years, replacement cost = 4000

9 Cost of fuel Deliveries per refilling,(10%) times inverter replacement for 20 years, replacement cost = Engine servicing,Replacement parts, (15%) Accessories = Initial Cost, replacement after 10 years period Initial Cost = Total Cost. USD $ Cost per cubic meter,USD$ Cost per cubic meter in YR For 20% Tax duties Reduction and 40% incentive on PV system: Cost per cubic meter,USD$ Cost per cubic meter in YR 20% Tax Reducttion ( 0.03 $ per c.m, OR 6.48 YR) 40% incentive Reduction ( $ per c.m, OR 4.84 YR)

10 Table 4:Statistics Of Agricultural Activity and Economics of Diesel Fuel Used for Watr Pumping in Wadi Hadhramout DescriptionStatisticsUnit Overall Agricultural area201330Acre Cultivable area96420Acre Cultivated area52000Acre Number of farmers affiliated with agricultural associations 7650Farmer Number of farmers non-affiliated with agricultural associations 2295Farmer Total number of farmers9945Farmer Total number of agriculture dependent population69615individual Total number of artesian wells2218Well Total number of open wells Well Total number of pumps used in the Wadi4592Pumps

11 Number of Electric Pumps with avrg 37 kW42Pumps Cost of monthly power for pumps Dollars Number of diesel pumps,66HP221 Fuel diesel used for pumps per month44200Liter Cost of fuel monthly616744Dollars Cost of 4932 oil used monthly9749Dollars Number of diesel pumps,32 HP497Pump Fuel diesel used for pumps per month Liter Cost of fuel monthly672684Dollars Cost of 4685 oil used monthly9261Dollars

12 Number of diesel pumps,22 HP1500Pump Fuel diesel used for pumps per month Liter Cost of fuel monthly Dollars Cost of 4685 oil used monthly22544Dollars Number of diesel pumps,(16 -20) HP1322Pump Fuel diesel used for pumps per month Liter Cost of fuel monthly996112Dollars Cost of 4685 oil used monthly38236Dollars Number of diesel pumps,(12 -16) HP1010Pump Fuel diesel used for pumps per month Liter Cost of fuel monthly591906Dollars Cost of 4685 oil used monthly30036Dollars

13 TOTALS Total amount of fuel used for all kinds of diesel pumps mentioned above annually 109,878,120Liter Total amount of fuel value used for all kinds of diesel pumps mentioned above annually 51,106,102Dollars Total amount of oil value used for all kinds of diesel pumps mentioned above annually 109,827Dollars Considering government subsidy for diesel =160 YR/liter, total amount of government subsidy for diesel used for agricultural pumps annually(about Eighty Two Million US $) 81,769,764Dollars GHG CO2 Emission Cost/ year, US dollar3,186,455Dollars

14 From Table 4: About 60 % of Population involved in agriculture farmers spend about million US Dollars for buying diesel per year. government subsidy is 81.8 million US Dollars the total expenditure in purchasing diesel and oil is about 133 million a year. Using Solar PV has a political, economic and social impact on citizens life About 81 m $,government subsidy for diesel used in agriculture in Wadi Hadhramout only. could be spent enhancing the infrastructure for agricultural activities as dams,storage facilities, scientific research in field of agriculture. Other country subsidy used for agriculture(e.g.Morocco)

15 Cost Calculation for PV Solar Water Pumping To Replace Diesel Pumps Details of calculation by W. H.C. M.V.F.C. Ltd Total power for the number of pumps 77,613 kWp with total cost is about 54.3 m $ cost of replacement of diesel water pumps is m total annual expenditure for the purchase of diesel and oil is m $ total cost of solar powered submersible pumps is found to be 170 m $ payback period was found to be 16 months only

16 OTHER COUNTRIES EXPERIENCE FOR SOLAR WATER PUMPING First :Experience of India : a)The Indian experience of SPV pumps in agriculture sector is being replicated at farmers field with more than 7000 SPV pumps at the one program in different states of India. The experience of the ongoing and completed projects makes a compelling business case for this sector to go ahead and a project of 3 million solar pumps could be implemented b)Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) signed on 27 March 2014 an agreement for 10,000 SPV Water Pumping System in another program. Aim is due to lack of grid power electricity, high cost per kWh and un availability.(TOR for the agreement is published in the website). Ministry will provide 40% of the system cost as subsidy limited to Solar water pumping system having solar module capacity up to 5kWp, routed through Commercial banks. 20%of the cost of the pumping systems will be beneficiary contribution and remaining amount will be extended as loan by the banks at nominal rate of interest to the beneficiary Duration 2 Years

17 Second :Experience of Morocco For PV Solar Water Pumping a)Literature reports estimate about 300 or more PV Solar Water pumping system have been installed up todate. in Morocco. b) Kingdom of Morocco operates a farvourable policy towards renewable energy technology For example, foreign suppliers of PV panels and modules can be exonerated from import taxes.

18 The exoneration include components not specifically to PV such pumps and wirings etc. Also the government offers several incentives for foreign investment. C ) During 2014 Morocco government has invested 400 million Dirham (47.8 US Dollars) for supporting farmers to replace butane fuel pumps by Solar PV pumps. The aim is to reduce the subsidized butane consumption.T he payback period for this fund is 3 years. This investment will be paid from the subsidy paid by the government to the butane gas fund

19 Bottlenecks for Large-scale Solar Water Pumping Application Lessons Learnt and recommendations from other countries experience Training of farmers/users is essential marketing and awareness training are a must throughout the supply chain Financing high initial investment is still mayor barrier - The unit cost is substantially higher for PV pumps as compared to the corresponding values for diesel or electric pumps, if no subsidy is available. partnerships between key actors including rural financial institutions, product and service suppliers, consumer groups etc. are essential commercialization is essential for sustainable market growth, yet subsidies or other means of government support are needed till competitive prices are reached lack of awareness among and interest in lending institutions and micro credit institutions access to affordable financing is crucial for rural customers - lacking availability of micro-credits ==> facilitate micro financing repayment obligations to financial institutions are difficult to meet incentivize usage/energy savings instead of capital subsidy cost effectiveness, high reliability and quality assurance necessary

20 further R&D and technology development needed - efficiency improvements for solar cells and pumps. standardization and quality control need to be improved availability of spare parts, blocked pump foot valves and broken modules are the most common technical issues large variation in products available on the market (both cost and quality wise) misuse of the PV system for lighting and TV seems to be irresistible danger of theft (esp. lease financed cases) lack of ownership and system protection when system is not owned System design is important -Matching PV system, ground water pump and water distribution system, Power demand: required discharge flow, total head and pump,efficiency (depending on type of pump and depth of available water source

21 Government support needs to be more market oriented should be less bureaucratic with lesser documentation and streamlined procedures to obtain incentives - more user friendly other options of financial incentive (e.g. accelerated depreciation, micro- finance,...) should be considered multiple use of systems should be permitted Sales & Maintenance Network intermediaries need to achieve an attractive share infrastructure for after sales service needs to be established until the last mile, service networks not in place due to high costs for manufacturers network for market promotion needs to be build long-term maintenance is costly Durability and availability of products and spare parts (e.g. switches) – it is not always possible to find the most suitable PV arrays, motors and pumps to match both site conditions and each other

22 CONCLUSION In Yemen enough sunlight is available along with clean sky almost all through the year, there is need to encourage the nonconventional energy systems like SPV pumps in agriculture sector. The key barrier to the large-scale dissemination of SPV water pumps is the high capital cost of these systems to the farmers compared to the conventional pumps. As farmers do not face the real costs of operating the conventional pumps, their incentive to switch to SPV pumps should initialized very soon. Beside this urgent step, solar pumping system should be promoted through FUNDING Mechanism in term of making available of package of capital and interest subsidy to the user farmers for agriculture

23 Hourly variations of temperature and solar radiation for a day in summer (July) And a day in winter (January) in Seiyun. Seiyun

24 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTRODUCING SOLAR WATER PUMPING IN WADI HADHRAMOUT FOR AGRICULTURE Quickly introducing several PV Solar Water Pumping Pilot Units by the government and International Agencies for spreading awareness among farmers and beneficiaries as this new technology is very suitable to meet the demand for power to operate the water pumps. Wadi Hadhramout and other governorates in this critical time are suffering from constant shortage and unavailability of diesel fuel for agriculture diesel pumps. This problem of diesel fuel is having a negative impact on farmers which has led to major disaster resulting in damaging many crops,which exacerbated the loss of farmers and discourage them from working and expansion in agriculture and forcing many of them to leave farming profession. A rough estimate by Agricultural Farmers Association in Wadi Hadhramoutand some other agricultural regions that is about 50% of farmers stopped farming since this crisis starts..

25 To switching to PV Solar pumps should be initialized and encouraged by the government very soon. There must be an urgent solution set by the government for the existing problem crisis of agriculture resulting from high diesel price and the unavailability. The government should support farmers through providing them with financial partial subsidy, soft loans, customs' duty and tax exemption,and technically know how to enable them owning good quality Solar PV Water Pumping System as has been in many countries with same conditions. While discussing with the farmers, association in Wadi Hadhramout,some farmers are ready to share the cost provided they get soft loans without interest, and ready to give any necessary required guarantees for paying back these loans.

26 There should be a standard and approved specifications for any solar pumping system to be supplied to the farmers or any system imported to the country. These specification should be initialized and approved by specialized technical committee. Introducing the drip irrigation system, using water storage tanks and encouraging cultivation by using the green houses in agriculture, will lead to many benefits such as water conservation, energy saving and increasing the production, less labour effort. Etc. The government should carefully study the fuel diesel subsidy, on the basis of what has been calculated and analyzed, This subsidy should go to support farmers for owning solar water pumps to replace the diesel pumps as soon as possible as well finding urgent well studied solutions to cover the needs of farmers who constitute a large sector of the population and provide the country and citizens with secure source of food.

27 جدول رقم (5): عدد الحائزين الزراعيين والمساحات الكلية والصالحة والمحصولية حسب مصادر الري لعام 2013 م و 2002 م ( المرجع : الإحصاء الزراعي – وزارة الزراعة ) المسلسل المحافظات عددالحائزين الزراعيين. No of Agri Holders المساحة الكلية Total.Are a المساحة الصالحة Cultivatb le المساحة المحصوليه Crops Area No. Governor ates Well20 02 wells الحديده87,486327,107314,777354,250 28, AL- Hodeidah 2صنعاء88,905144,900136,596174,640 59, Sana'a 3ذمار111,969113,734103,296125,304 17, Dhamar 4اب177,61456,44553,224101,802 7, Ibb 5تعز155,50564,06758,11786,997 12, Taiz 6مأرب14,450116,59288,88643,318 9, Mareb 7حجه98,292147,076136,815136,078 5, Hajjah 8البيضاء34,77874,95669,52036,523 13, AL-Baida

28 8البيضاء34,77874,95669,52036,52313,591AL-Baida 9صعده49,11350,72640,72144,14032, Sa’adah 10المحويت44,69827,44321,72631,5561, AL- Mahweet 11لحج55,57031,80426,39037,25014, Lahej 12أبين28,44965,07160,75744,1906, ِAbyan 13حضرموت40,15954,42251,71548,4547, Hadramout 14الجوف28,638109,24590,97250,76218, AL- Jawf 15شبوه22,57858,52449,37325,54214, Shabwah

29 16المهره3,4673,9733,3682,9111, AL- Maharah 17عدن5163,0132,8341, Aden 18عمران69,395121,487107,098104,11910, Amran 19الضالع36,68015,08914,00915,79614, AL-Daleh 20الامانه7,7259,3178,7257,2306, Sana'a City 21ريمة35,99414,49313,51927, Raimeh الإجمالي 1,191,98 1 1,609,48 4 1,452,43 8 1,499, , Total

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36 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION


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