Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Have you ever had that feeling or instant awareness where all of a sudden the figurative light went on and you understood something that had previously."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up Have you ever had that feeling or instant awareness where all of a sudden the figurative light went on and you understood something that had previously been confusing? Describe this moment by writing it in your notes. When you are finished, please share your story with the person next to you.
Vocabulary TermGraphic RepresentationsFormal Definition Geocentric Theory Scientific Revolution Scientific Method Rene Descartes Nicolaus Copernicus Heliocentric Theory Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Enlightenment Enlightened Despots Name: _____________________________________________ Date: ___________________
Analyzing Visuals In this next picture you will se an orrery, a device that shows the movement of the planets around the sun. What do you think the darkened room and the illuminated faces of the spectators symbolize?
Unit Essential Question How did Enlightenment ideas about government, lead to a series of revolutions in the Atlantic? Civics 1, 9-12
Lesson Essential Question How did new ways of thinking lead to remarkable discoveries during the Scientific Revolution?
Questions We Will Answer What changes led to the dawn of modern science? What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution? How did early scientists advance knowledge in biology and chemistry? How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society?
LEQ: 2012 What is the purpose of government? How do the main structures of government contrast with one another?
Dawn of Modern Science Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry Science and Society
Scientific Revolution Rooted in the Middle Ages where scholars in Europe learned about advances in the Arab World. Traditional authorities were challenged.
Everything should be doubted until it can be proven by mathematical or logical reason. I wonder why I wasn’t on the timeline. Rene Descartes
Scientific Method The Scientific Method is a set of techniques for acquiring new knowledge about the natural world based on observable, measurable evidence.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Step 1 Identify a problem Step 2 Form a hypothesis Step 3 Perform the experiment Step 4 Record the results of the experiment. Step 5 Analyze the results
Old View Geocentric Theory: The belief that the earth was the center of the universe and that the sun, moon, and planets revolved around the earth.
Aristotle - proposed the geocentric theory in 300 BCE. Ptolemy – expanded upon Aristotle’s ideas in 200 CE.
New View Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish astronomer who, during the 1500,s made observations that concluded that the sun is the center of the universe. Heliocentric Theory
The Astronomer Copernicus: Conversation With God, by Jan Matejko, 1800s
Expanding Copernicus Copernicus died in 1572 Brahe – Danish Astronomer – research was funded by the king Kepler – German mathematician - hired by Brahe Together they formed a mathematical theory from planetary measurements Elliptical orbit – proved heliocentrism
Sir Isaac Newton Combined astronomy, physics, and math Determined that gravity affects the entire universe Developed calculus
We Love Timelines! Please turn to page 166 and copy the red events onto a timeline and keep this in your notes.
What Did Newton Mean by That? "If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.”
Discoveries in Biology Andreas Vesalius William Harvey Antony van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke
Andreas Vesalius A Flemish doctor who worked in Padua, Italy. On The Working of the Human Body, 1543 A judge learned of his work and made the bodies of executed criminals available to him for dissection.
William Harvey Described and illustrated the inner working of the human heart.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope and was the first to describe the appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, and yeast.
I, François-Marie Arouet was the toast of Paris in 1700. My witty, satirical verses delighted Parisian aristocrats. But in 1717 I may have mocked the wrong man. The Duke of Orleans, who ruled France as regent until the young king Louis XV came of age, believed I made fun of him. Outraged, the Duke of Orleans imprisoned me in the Bastille prison for 11 months. While in prison, I began writing more serious works. I wrote my first play, called Oedipe, which would secure my reputation as the greatest French playwright of my time. I also completed an epic poem about Henry IV called La Henriade. But I am best known for my philosophical works, which I wrote under the pen name, Voltaire.
PhilosopherHobbesLockeRousseauMontesquieu Main WorkLeviathinState of Nature People are naturally happy The Social Contract The Spirit of Laws Idea of Government People are brutish and need government to impose order People are governed by a law of nature No person should harm another Sovereignty comes from the people Must have a Separation of Powers Preferred Government Monarchy United in one body to protect the rights of life, liberty and property Should work for the benefit of the common good, not just the wealthy few Executive, legislative and judicial branches – much like Great Britain Philosophers of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment The Age of Reason New Views on Government New Views on Society The Spread of Ideas
Warm -up If science is able to uncover the mysteries of the physical world, then is it also adequate for the study of human nature and of society? What would a women like Madame Geoffrin say?
Enlightenment Reason could be used to solve all human problems Era full of possibility and optimism Age of Reason 1600s
Thomas Hobbes’ Beliefs People are selfish and greedy Government is necessary for order Social Contract: People should give up some freedoms in exchange for peace
Thomas Hobbes After living through the English civil war, I became convinced that society needed a strong central authority to control and contain the natural barbarism of humans.
Does This Relate to You? Think/Pair/Share: What is one freedom that you give up in exchange for order or safety from the United States’ government?
John Locke’s Beliefs People are naturally happy, tolerant, and reasonable All people are born equal with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property State of Nature The purpose of government is to protect those rights
What Would Locke Say? According to Locke, what should citizens do if the government fails to protect those rights? Did you say that citizens should overthrow the government?
I believe that under ideal conditions, people live according to a law of nature. Because people could interpret the law differently, they needed an authority to enforce it. John Locke
Read Like a Historian Read/Pair/Share – Page 178 How do Hobbes and Locke differ on their views of human nature?
Rousseau’s Beliefs People are born basically good and are corrupted by society. Government should work for the benefit of the common good, not the wealthy few. Would you like to see a picture of me with my “homies?”
The titans of Enlightenment: Voltaire, Rousseau, and Franklin.
Montesquieu’s Beliefs The best government will have a separation of power. Power must be divided among the executive, legislative (parliament), and judicial (courts) branch.
New Views on Society Religious tolerance Women’s rights Economic systems
Voltaire Attacked injustice with his wit Used his pen to defend principles he held dear Made many enemies Continued struggle for justice, religious tolerance and liberty
Diderot and the Encyclopedia Took him 27 years to complete 28 volumes The Encyclopedia was attacked by the church and the government Spread Enlightenment ideas across Europe and to North America
Mary Wollenstonecraft Rejected the view that women should only receive enough education to be a wife or a mother Argued that if men and women had equal education, that they would be equal in society
Adam Smith’s Beliefs Business should take place in a free market Laissez-faire economic system was best
Enlightenment Spreads Philosophers appealed to monarchs for change Monarchs became known as enlightened despots
Prussia Frederick II – wanted to rule by absolute power and to build a strong military Enlightened to abolish torture, establish elementary education, reduce censorship, and practice religious tolerance
Russia Catherine II – dreamed of establishing order in Russia while supporting education and culture Corresponded with Voltaire and Diderot Wanted to free the serfs, but she knew the wealthy would not support that
Austria Joseph II – Ambitious reformer Eliminated torture and the death penalty Provided free food and medicine for poor citizens Granted religious tolerance to Jews and Protestants Abolished serfdom and paid them for their labor
Why Didn’t the Enlightenment Thinkers Work Together?
The American Revolution LEQ: How did Enlightenment ideas lead to revolution, independence, and a new government for the colonies?
My leadership was crucial to an American victory in the Revolutionary War. When I took command of the American forces in 1775, I faced the daunting task of leading an army of untrained militia men against one of the world’s strongest military forces. Thankfully my leadership skills won me the loyalty of my troops. I enforced strict discipline, but I also demanded better food, clothing, and pay for them from the Continental Congress. I knew that if I looked after my soldiers’ needs, they would be better prepared to defeat the British army.
From December 1777 to June 1778 our Continental Army camped at Valley Forge, a hilltop near Philadelphia. Here we endured a harsh winter, very little food, and disease. Despite these hardships, those of us who survived, left Valley Forge more unified and disciplined.
The British formally recognize the U.S. as independent. Americans gained all land east of the Mississippi How do we unify? The Articles of Confederation Treaty of Paris
The Articles of Confederation Created by the framers Government had no power to tax Government could not negotiate with foreign nations How is this type of a government supposed to govern?
The Constitution James Madison negotiated the main points. Took four months to write this document Oldest written constitution still in use today Created a federal system of government – Certain powers held by federal gov’t and others by state gov’t.
George Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia from May to September 1787.
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