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An Introduction to Nuclear Energy Awakening 2012 January 7, 2012 Kiawah Island, South Carolina Branko Terzic Executive Director, Deloitte Center for Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Nuclear Energy Awakening 2012 January 7, 2012 Kiawah Island, South Carolina Branko Terzic Executive Director, Deloitte Center for Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Nuclear Energy Awakening 2012 January 7, 2012 Kiawah Island, South Carolina Branko Terzic Executive Director, Deloitte Center for Energy Solutions Deloitte Services LP Deloitte Center for Energy Solutions 1

2 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. 2 Welcome Welcome to the World of Energy

3 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2010 (quadrillion Btu) Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved.

4 Power System Overview

5 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor: Making Steam 5

6 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. World electricity use is expected to more than double by 2030, with Americans and Chinese as the biggest consumers; the fastest growth will occur in developing countries. 6

7 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Growing need for additional baseload and other capacity Electricity demand in 2025 will be 45% greater than today To maintain current electric fuel supply mix would mean building: Nuclear reactors (1,000 MW) Renewables (100 MW) Natural gas plants (400 MW) Coal-fired plants (600 MW) Source: 2006 Annual Energy Outlook, EIA

8 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. According to the United States Energy Information Administration, from 1990 to 2005 our output of greenhouse gases rose by 17 percent, with most coming from residential sources. On average, an individual American’s contribution is 24.5 metric tons of greenhouse gases a year and growing. Combined, they account for percent of the world’s total even though we make up only 5 percent of the world’s population. 8

9 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Electricity Production 9

10 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. 10 Nuclear power emits no gases because it does not burn anything; it provides 73% of America’s clean-air electricity generation, using fuel that is tiny in volume but steadily provides an immense amount of energy.

11 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. What is the significance of this in everyday life? 11 To make the amount of electricity needed to keep a single 100-watt light bulb on for a year, you'd have to burn 876 pounds of coal, about 350 pounds of natural gas, 508 pounds of oil, or.0007 pounds of uranium enriched to 4 percent.

12 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. 12

13 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. One pellet of uranium the size of the tip of your finger produces as much energy as 1,780 pounds of coal 13

14 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Safer than most expect 14

15 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. A large coal-fired plant produces ten times as much solid waste in one day, much of it hazardous to health. The retired fuel from 40 years of U.S. reactor operation could fit in a single football field, it amounts to 77,000 tons. Annual waste from one typical reactor could fit in the bed of a standard pickup. 15

16 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Global Nuclear Developments Total Global Nuclear Top 10: USA 104, France 58, Japan 54, Russia 32, S. Korea 20, Germany 17, Canada 18, Ukraine 15, China 12, Spain 8 Global Nuclear New Construction 59 - China 24, Russia 10, S. Korea 6, India 5, Japan 2 USA 2 ….others 1 Global Number Planned 149 News developments post March 11, 2011 Japanese reactor Incident Germany ‒ October 2010 Merkel government indicates lives for nuclear plants to be extended (NYT 6/2/11) ‒ May 30, 2011 Merkel government orders nuclear plants be phased out by 2022 (NYT 6/2/11) Switzerland ‒ June 8, 2011 government decides to phase out all 5 nuclear plants by 2034 (WSJ 6/9/11) India ‒ June 9, 2011 Chairman of India’s AEC confirms continuation of nuclear programs (NYT 6/9/11) Italy ‒ June 1, 2011 Constitutional Court allows referendum on nuclear for Monday June 13, 2011 ‒ One year moratorium on plans for new nuclear ‒ Had four but after 1986 referendum closed all 1990 DATA FROM MIT ENERGY REPORT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 2011 or as cited 16

17 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. U.S. Nuclear U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power 104 civilian nuclear reactors in the U.S. supplying 20% of electric energy, economic regulation by state PSC, FERC or federal agency (TVA) Two new units under construction, SCANA and Southern Company Six new license applications for new construction at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which regulates construction, operation and safety ‒ APV license not approved as filed ‒ Congress has authorized a financial guarantee program ‒ Applications for loan guarantees have been made No federal long-term storage facility available for spent fuel rods, Yucca Mountain site to be reconsidered 17

18 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. U.S. Nuclear Relicensing – life extension NRC has relicensed 61 reactors, no denials NRC reports 13 reactors awaiting relicensing Balance (104-73) 31 not applied Pending in 2011 are 9 reactors at 5 plants Nuclear Loan guarantees $18 Billion, $8.3 B awarded to Southern Vogtle 18

19 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Japan Nuclear Industry Japan and Nuclear Power Total of 54 civilian nuclear reactors in the Japan ‒ Nuclear power plants are designed to automatically shut down when there is a problem ‒ A total of 11 went off line due to earthquake of which 6 went off line at Fukushima Daiichi ‒ 5 GE Mark One type boiling water reactors (23 of 104 in USA) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station ‒ Has a total of 6 nuclear units numbered #1-#6 ‒ of these 5 were shut down ‒ 3 had explosions (#1, #2, #3) ‒ 1 experienced a hazardous fire (#4) Other Japan nuclear units cold shut down due to earthquake at Fukushima, Onagawa, Tokai 19

20 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. 20 Nuclear power’s carbon dioxide emissions throughout its life-cycle and while producing electricity are about the same as those of wind power. In the U.S. 104 nuclear reactors annually prevent emissions of 682 million tons of CO2. Worldwide over 400 power reactors reduce CO2 emissions by 2 billion metric tons a year.

21 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Locations of Nuclear Facilities in U.S. 21

22 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Reactor Types PRW—Pressurized Water Reactor—does not boil, but uses the pressure of the water to heat a secondary source of water that generates electricity. Most popular (accounts for 65% of reactors world wide). Considered a light water reactor. BRW—Boiling Water Reactor—boils water (coolant) that makes steam to turn turbines. Conducive to internal contamination. Also considered a light water reactor. RBMK—Graphite-moderated pressure tube boiling-water reactor similar to BWR but uses graphite and oxygen. Complex and difficult to examine. CANDU—Canadian Deuterium Uranium—Doesn’t use enriched fuel. Has lots of tubes and internal contamination issues. Magnox—Gas cooled reactor. Cooled with carbon dioxide or helium, and uses natural uranium. (UK and France). AGR—Advanced Gas-cooled—also cooled with carbon dioxide or helium. Uses enriched uranium. (UK). Fast Breeder—high temperature gas reactor. Uses U235, U238, and Plutonium 239. Very dangerous because it uses liquid sodium in the primary circuit and is inflammable with air and explosive with water. 22

23 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Issues today with nuclear power 1.Uncertain construction scheduling and cost issues. First of new generation nuclear power plants under construction in Finland is over budget and late. 2.Very high capital cost (but low fuel costs) compared to alternative of natural gas or coal fueled power plants. 3.Uncertain future disposition of spent nuclear fuel. The federal government has failed to build a repository as required by federal law and as funded by the nation’s electricity consumers. A few states have laws denying application for nuclear construction until spent fuel facility is built. 4.Opposition in some communities to nuclear power based on radiation and other safety risks. 5.Opposition among some communities to nuclear power based on concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons technology under guise of civilian nuclear power programs. 23

24 Questions? Thank you! Branko Terzic Office

25 Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. About Deloitte Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee, and its network of member firms, each of which is a legally separate and independent entity. Please see for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited and its member firms. Please see for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries. Certain services may not be available to attest clients under the rules and regulations of public accounting. Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limitedwww.deloitte.com/aboutwww.deloitte.com/us/about


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