2Lesson 1 – Civilization in Sumer 92-Advances in FarmingSumer, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, depended on agriculture.Developed innovations for large-scale farmingSumerians built dikes, or dams to control river floodingThe built canals to bring water to the fields in dry season.-They had a division of labor so everyone could help share a big job.
392 – Innovations - New ways of doing things. 93 – Division of Labor – The sharing of a large job so that each worker does only part of it.93 – Surplus – The amount of a product that is left needs have been met.
494-Government in Sumer- In each city-state one person, the en, ruled as king.- The Sumerians had a monarchy (governing system ruled by a king or queen)- The en held absolute authority, complete control.- They created the worlds first known bureaucracy (a governing group made up of non-elected officials).
594 – Monarchy – A governing system ruled by a king or a queen. 94 – Absolute Authority – complete control95 – Bureaucracy – a governing group made up of nonelected officials.
6What form of government did the Sumerians have? Monarchy
795 – Writing and Other Innovations - __________became the world’s first __________SumerianWritten languageNumbers & pictographs- They used ____________________ on wet clay- Eventually came to use __________, wedge-shaped writing. Used for __________ or __________cuneiformwordssounds- One innovations of the writing is being able to __________, they were then able to have the ____________________ (iku=acre).Keep recordsMeasuring system- Another innovation was developing a __________ divided into 12 months (28 day cycle)calendar- They also built the first __________, first to mix copper and tin to make __________ and __________, also invented the ____________________ to help them form bowls, vases and jars from clay.sailboatsBronze toolsweaponsPotter’s wheel
9What innovations did the Sumerians develop for measure? Standard units for area, the acre, and for volume, the quart; a calendar for months and years.
10Important government officials 96 – Divisions in Society- People belonged to different ____________________Social Classes- Highest (or ruling) Class made up of the __________, _________________________, __________ and __________. Also included their families.KingImportant government officialspriestswarriors- Next was the __________– less important government officials, craft workers, farming supervisors, merchants, doctors, carpenters, potters or bricklayers.Middle Class- The lowest was the ____________ – made up of ___________ and __________(most slaves were prisoners of war)Working ClassFarm workersslaves- Slaves were not always slaves for life…those who owed debt could gain their freedom when the ____________.Debt was paid
1196 – Social Classes – grouping people of the same level of importance in their society. 96 – Merchant – a person who buys and sells or trades goods.
12What were Sumer’s Social Classes? Ruling ClassMiddle ClassWorking Class
13Lesson 1 Review Complete number 3 – 5 Sumerian Innovations Complete this chart with what you have learned about innovations in Sumer:Sumerian InnovationsFarmingGovernmentOther
14Lesson 2 – Conquests & Empire Building 98-Sargon the GreatEarly empires were built by conquest.Sargon conquered the Sumerians and built the world’s first empire.He then ordered that every boundary pillar and city wall be brought down.The lands united by Sargon became known as the Akkadian Empire.He developed a standing army (an army with paid, full-time soldiers).He is remembered because his empire lasted more than 200 years after his death.
1598 – Conquer – take over99 – Empire – consists of the vast lands and varied people that come under the control of a single government99 – Standing Army – an army with paid, full-time soldiers
16100-The Rise of BabylonLeaders in the Sumerian city-state of UR rebelled against Akkadian rule and brought an end to it.Eventually, the Amorites gained control of southern and central Mesopotamia.The Amorite empire was named for its capital city Babylon. Called now, the Babylonian Empire.Kings created a system of taxation…officials traveled to collect tax among the empire.
17100 – Taxation – where people are made to pay for the running of their government.
18Rulers of the Babylonian Empire Who were the Amorites?Rulers of the Babylonian Empire
19Compare & Contrast Akkadian Empire Babylonian Empire Both Had laws Began 2350 B.C.Were empires namedfor their capital cityBegan 1900 B.C.First empire in worldCapital was BabylonEstablished by SargonHad a system of taxAkkad was capitalIncluded Sumeriancity-statesCentralized gov.Governed underOne central authorityKept a standing armyRuler appointedOfficials to governConquered city-statesBattles caused endof empireLasted about 300 yrsLasted more than 200 yrs
20101 – The Code of HammurabiMost important innovation was the centralized government-the national government maintains power.Hammurabi created a set of laws for the Babylonian empire known as the Code of Hammurabi.Hammurabi based his code laws on older collections of Sumerian and Akkadian laws.The Code consisted of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life.Code was carved into stone and placed in public location.
21101 – Centralized Government – national government maintains power. 101 – Code – a set of laws written down in a clear and orderly way.101 – Principle – important belief.
22What is the principle of an eye for an eye? The punishment for an injury is the same injury.
23102 – The Hittites and the Kassites The Kassites were among the people who conquered Mesopotamia after the Babylonian Empire collapsed.Then the Hittites came and attacked Babylon.The Chariots that the Hittites used made it possible for them to move quickly and with force…which made it easy to capture Babylon.After the Hittites left with everything they wanted, the Kassites were finally able to conquer Babylon.Rule lasted for more than 500 years.By adopting the laws, religion and literature of the conquered peoples, they continued the long heritage of Babylonian civilization.
24103 – Chariots – carts drawn by horses and used to carry soldiers in battle.
25What event allowed the Kassites to conquer Babylonon? The Hittites robbed Babylon and left it in a weekend condition.
27Lesson 3 – Later Empires 106 – The Assyrian Empire The Assur people learned warfare from their neighbors, the Hittites.Their Army was a fearsome army due to the innovations they used from the Hittites.The army was organized by assigning specialized jobs to the soldiers.Skilled chariot drivers carried archersCavalry fought on horseback.There were also foot soldiersBy early 700s B.C. , Assyrian army was largest and most destructive standing army ever seen. Because of this, they attacked and destroyed Babylon.Assyrians ruled the largest empire in the world at that time.
28What did the Assyrians learn from the Hittites? How to make iron weapons and how to use chariots.
30108 – Assyrian Achievements Built the worlds first system of paved roads.Developed the first postal system.Built large monuments carved with scenes of life in the Assyrian Empire.First to make locks that opened with keysFirst to use magnifying glass.Some people they were the first to have pluming and flush toilets along with running water to their city.One of the first librariesDivided lands into territories and local leaders governed these territories and reported back to the king.
31What innovations helped to unite the people of the Assyrian Empire? A system of paved roads; postal system; local government.
32108 – Decree – An official order or a decision made by a ruler. 109 – Territory – A large division of a country.
33109 – Glorious NinevehKing Sennacherib made Nineveh the capital of the Assyrian Empire.The capital of Nineveh became a beautiful city with wide boulevards, large squares, parks, and gardens.The kings palace was covered with stone reliefs.They built temples for their many gods.At it’s largest, Nineveh was enclosed by a wall that stretched 7.5 m miles around the city.In time, the city was destroyed and the mighty Assyrian Empire fell to the people of Medes.
34How did Nineveh change after becoming the Assyrian Capital? Nineveh became a beautiful city of gardens and palaces.
35109 – Reliefs – Wall carvings that stand out from the surface of the building. 109 – Scribe – A person who wrote things for others.
36110 – The New Babylonian Empire Free of the Assyrians, Babylon became the center of civilization once again.The rebuilt city of Babylon became the empire’s capital.Nebuchadnezzar was one of the empire’s best-known kings that ruled for 44 years. He is remembered for his building projects (palace, temples & a ziggurat monument later known as the Tower of Babel, and what is now known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon).A short time after Nebuchdnezzar died, Nabonidus gained control of the New Babylonian Empire.Eventually, Nabonidus was forced to surrender his land to Persia.
37By what two names do people today know Nebuchadnezzar’s Empire? Neo-Babylonian Empire;New Babylonian Empire
38Lesson 3 Review Complete numbers 1-4 HW - Complete the Performance – Draw a Building Plan (your building should be appropriate for the period in history and include innovations that were used at that time…no modern day technology.
39Mesopotamia Created worlds first beauracracy Monarchy Eastern Shore of the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian GulfWaterfront livingFertile Soil along river banksDry & HotLocationLandscapeClimateMonarchyMesopotamiaRich food growing areas between riversGovernmentResourcesWorlds 1st civilization (city-state)Writing systemSailboats12 month calendar based on Lunar cyclesThe wheelPlowPotter’s WheelFor good fertile soil between rivers...good for cropsTigris RiverEuphrates RiverAccomplishmentsAchievements/OriginMajor Sea