Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia. Lesson 1 – Civilization in Sumer 92-Advances in Farming - Sumer, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, depended on agriculture. -Developed."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 1 – Civilization in Sumer 92-Advances in Farming - Sumer, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, depended on agriculture. -Developed innovations for large-scale farming -Sumerians built dikes, or dams to control river flooding -The built canals to bring water to the fields in dry season. -They had a division of labor so everyone could help share a big job.
92 – Innovations - New ways of doing things. 93 – Division of Labor – The sharing of a large job so that each worker does only part of it. 93 – Surplus – The amount of a product that is left needs have been met.
94-Government in Sumer - In each city-state one person, the en, ruled as king. - The Sumerians had a monarchy (governing system ruled by a king or queen) - The en held absolute authority, complete control. - They created the worlds first known bureaucracy (a governing group made up of non-elected officials).
94 – Monarchy – A governing system ruled by a king or a queen. 94 – Absolute Authority – complete control 95 – Bureaucracy – a governing group made up of nonelected officials.
What form of government did the Sumerians have?
95 – Writing and Other Innovations - __________became the world’s first __________ - They used ____________________ on wet clay - Eventually came to use __________, wedge-shaped writing. Used for __________ or __________ - One innovations of the writing is being able to __________, they were then able to have the ____________________ (iku=acre). - Another innovation was developing a __________ divided into 12 months (28 day cycle) - They also built the first __________, first to mix copper and tin to make __________ and __________, also invented the ____________________ to help them form bowls, vases and jars from clay.
What innovations did the Sumerians develop for measure?
96 – Divisions in Society - People belonged to different ____________________ - Highest (or ruling) Class made up of the __________, _________________________, __________ and __________. Also included their families. - Next was the __________– less important government officials, craft workers, farming supervisors, merchants, doctors, carpenters, potters or bricklayers. - The lowest was the ____________ – made up of ___________ and __________(most slaves were prisoners of war) - Slaves were not always slaves for life…those who owed debt could gain their freedom when the ____________.
96 – Social Classes – grouping people of the same level of importance in their society. 96 – Merchant – a person who buys and sells or trades goods.
What were Sumer’s Social Classes?
Lesson 1 Review Complete number 3 – 5 Complete this chart with what you have learned about innovations in Sumer: Sumerian Innovations FarmingGovernmentOther
Lesson 2 – Conquests & Empire Building 98-Sargon the Great -Early empires were built by conquest. - Sargon conquered the Sumerians and built the world’s first empire. - He then ordered that every boundary pillar and city wall be brought down. - The lands united by Sargon became known as the Akkadian Empire. - He developed a standing army (an army with paid, full-time soldiers). - He is remembered because his empire lasted more than 200 years after his death.
98 – Conquer – take over 99 – Empire – consists of the vast lands and varied people that come under the control of a single government 99 – Standing Army – an army with paid, full- time soldiers
100-The Rise of Babylon - Leaders in the Sumerian city-state of UR rebelled against Akkadian rule and brought an end to it. - Eventually, the Amorites gained control of southern and central Mesopotamia. - The Amorite empire was named for its capital city Babylon. Called now, the Babylonian Empire. - Kings created a system of taxation…officials traveled to collect tax among the empire.
100 – Taxation – where people are made to pay for the running of their government.
Who were the Amorites?
101 – The Code of Hammurabi - Most important innovation was the centralized government-the national government maintains power. - Hammurabi created a set of laws for the Babylonian empire known as the Code of Hammurabi. - Hammurabi based his code laws on older collections of Sumerian and Akkadian laws. -The Code consisted of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life. - Code was carved into stone and placed in public location.
101 – Centralized Government – national government maintains power. 101 – Code – a set of laws written down in a clear and orderly way. 101 – Principle – important belief.
What is the principle of an eye for an eye?
102 – The Hittites and the Kassites - The Kassites were among the people who conquered Mesopotamia after the Babylonian Empire collapsed. - Then the Hittites came and attacked Babylon. -The Chariots that the Hittites used made it possible for them to move quickly and with force…which made it easy to capture Babylon. - After the Hittites left with everything they wanted, the Kassites were finally able to conquer Babylon. - Rule lasted for more than 500 years. - By adopting the laws, religion and literature of the conquered peoples, they continued the long heritage of Babylonian civilization.
103 – Chariots – carts drawn by horses and used to carry soldiers in battle.
What event allowed the Kassites to conquer Babylonon?
Lesson 2 Review Complete numbers 1 -6
Lesson 3 – Later Empires 106 – The Assyrian Empire -The Assur people learned warfare from their neighbors, the Hittites. -Their Army was a fearsome army due to the innovations they used from the Hittites. -The army was organized by assigning specialized jobs to the soldiers. -Skilled chariot drivers carried archers -Cavalry fought on horseback. -There were also foot soldiers -By early 700s B.C., Assyrian army was largest and most destructive standing army ever seen. Because of this, they attacked and destroyed Babylon. -Assyrians ruled the largest empire in the world at that time.
What did the Assyrians learn from the Hittites?
106 – Warfare – Skill in war
108 – Assyrian Achievements -Built the worlds first system of paved roads. -Developed the first postal system. -Built large monuments carved with scenes of life in the Assyrian Empire. -First to make locks that opened with keys -First to use magnifying glass. -Some people they were the first to have pluming and flush toilets along with running water to their city. -One of the first libraries -Divided lands into territories and local leaders governed these territories and reported back to the king.
What innovations helped to unite the people of the Assyrian Empire?
108 – Decree – An official order or a decision made by a ruler. 109 – Territory – A large division of a country.
109 – Glorious Nineveh -King Sennacherib made Nineveh the capital of the Assyrian Empire. -The capital of Nineveh became a beautiful city with wide boulevards, large squares, parks, and gardens. -The kings palace was covered with stone reliefs. -They built temples for their many gods. -At it’s largest, Nineveh was enclosed by a wall that stretched 7.5 m miles around the city. -In time, the city was destroyed and the mighty Assyrian Empire fell to the people of Medes.
How did Nineveh change after becoming the Assyrian Capital?
109 – Reliefs – Wall carvings that stand out from the surface of the building. 109 – Scribe – A person who wrote things for others.
110 – The New Babylonian Empire -Free of the Assyrians, Babylon became the center of civilization once again. -The rebuilt city of Babylon became the empire’s capital. -Nebuchadnezzar was one of the empire’s best-known kings that ruled for 44 years. He is remembered for his building projects (palace, temples & a ziggurat monument later known as the Tower of Babel, and what is now known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon). -A short time after Nebuchdnezzar died, Nabonidus gained control of the New Babylonian Empire. -Eventually, Nabonidus was forced to surrender his land to Persia.
By what two names do people today know Nebuchadnezzar’s Empire?
Lesson 3 Review Complete numbers 1-4 HW - Complete the Performance – Draw a Building Plan (your building should be appropriate for the period in history and include innovations that were used at that time…no modern day technology.
Achievements/ Accomplishments Created worlds first beauracracy Eastern Shore of the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf Waterfront living Fertile Soil along river banks Dry & Hot Monarchy Rich food growing areas between rivers Tigris River Euphrates River For good fertile soil between rivers...good for crops Worlds 1 st civilization (city-state) Writing system Sailboats 12 month calendar based on Lunar cycles The wheel Plow Potter’s Wheel Mesopotamia LocationLandscapeClimate GovernmentResources Origin Major Sea