Presentation on theme: "KIT – Universität des Landes Baden-Württemberg und nationales Forschungszentrum in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft INSTITUT FÜR VERKEHRSWESEN, FAKULTÄT FÜR."— Presentation transcript:
KIT – Universität des Landes Baden-Württemberg und nationales Forschungszentrum in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft INSTITUT FÜR VERKEHRSWESEN, FAKULTÄT FÜR BAUINGENIEUR-, GEO- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN www.kit.edu En Route Multimodally – The Perspective of Travelers Bastian Chlond Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT), Institute for Transport Studies
Institut für Verkehrswesen 219.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 1.Observations - Trends in Mobility Demand in the past and currently 2.Multimodality, what does this mean – Definitions and „Measurability“ – Some figures about the clientele of modes 3.Why people behave multimodally and why not? – Analyses about the characteristics of modes and their use 4.To be en route multimodally – What does this mean from the perspective of travelers? What are the challenges? 5.Conclusions Content
Institut für Verkehrswesen 319.11.2014 Bastian Chlond From the „Monomodality“ and „Captivity“ towards „Multimodality“ In the past: In which way the process went on and will proceed? versus Quelle: germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org Quelle: http://www.kabeleins.de/imperia/md/images/auto/ galerien/Themen/cabrios_50er/vw_kaefer_cabriolet_500_375_dpa.jpg
Institut für Verkehrswesen 419.11.2014 Bastian Chlond We are still observing rising car-ownership rates… …but mainly by „less“ mobile, who do not really need a car and also use other modes
Institut für Verkehrswesen 519.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Current Trends in the Use of Modes in Germany Modal-Split-Shares (trip based) Im Auftrag von Car as driver Car as passenger Public Transport Bicycle By Foot Against the (expected) trend: Slight reductions in car use - increases by the use of public transport and the bicycle Obviously the process has become a little more complex!
Institut für Verkehrswesen 619.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Characteristics of the Transport System Characteristics of individuals as travelers Characteristics of a trip / a trip chain Multi- modality Allows for the variation of modes Varies modes, has the competencies to vary and switch between different modes Within a trip / trip chain modes are varied Inter- modality Allows for the combination of modes (within a trip) Combines diffrent modes within a trip Within a trip /trip chain modes are combined (Mono- modality and Captivity) Does not allow for a variation or combination of different modes Always using the same (only one) mode monomodal OR captive Within a trip/ a trip chain only one mode is used Definitions and Differentiations Definition of the multimodal traveller: An individual who uses regularly different modes (e.g. car as driver, Public Transport and the bicycle)!
Institut für Verkehrswesen 719.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Modal Split (Trips) – Clientele of modes (Individuals) The longer the observation-period the larger becomes the share of travelers, getting in touch with more than one mode! One week of observation is catching the typical variation! Measurability of Multimodality: Longitudinal data for the definition of the clienteles of modes Share of users by mode and observation period Foot Bicycle Car as driver Car as passenger Public Transport Rail Observation period [days]
Institut für Verkehrswesen 819.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Private car as driver: ~ 2/3 of the population use the car as driver for ~ 2/3 of all trips Public Transport: ~ 1/3 of the population uses public transport for ~ 1/3 of all trips Bicycle : ~ 1/3 of the population uses the bicycle for ~ 1/3 of all trips By foot and by car as passenger : All ~ 1/3 of all trips * Based on the observation of one week! Which parts of the German population are getting in touch with which modes* and how intensive is the mode use? Quelle: MOP 1996 -2000 2006-2010 31 % 34 % 28 % 32 % „Trend“ „The Thirds Rule“ c c Total Modal Split 2/3 *2/3 = 4/9 ~ 44 % 1/3 *1/3 = 1/9 ~ 11 % 1 * 1/3 = 1/3 ~ 33 % _________________ 100 %
Institut für Verkehrswesen 919.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Classification of the German Population into Monomodals and Multimodals Monomodality and Multimodality Classification by modes used during a period of one week: ~ 60 % are „Monomodals“ ~ 40 % are „Multimodals“ “Walking” and using a “car as passenger” does not need any special competencies, is practiced by everybody and will thus not be regarded as a defining mode
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1019.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Place of work Place of home Walking distance from home Everyday activity space Commuting Regional and long- distance travel Modal behavior of multimodals by situations? Definition of market and application segments in everyday‘s travel: Market segment 1: Walking distance from home (without commuting) Market segment 2: Everyday activity space beyond walking distance Market segment 3: Commuting trips Market segment 4: Tours beyond the everyday activity space (regional and long-distance travel)
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1119.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Other use of the car (as driver) Use of the car (as driver) for commuting 19% 13% 23% 36% 3% 1% 4% Other use of PT (occasionally) Use of PT in regional or long- distance Travel (rail) Use of Public Transport for commuting 30 % 23% 25% 10% 6% 2% 3% Results: Use of cars and of public transport by multimodals The private car: A universal mode for any purpose Public Transport is applied by multimodals „specialised“ (based on data of German Mobility Panel, observation period 1 week) Public Transport: A mode for special situations But the same holds true for the bicycle, which has to be regarded as mode for special situations!
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1219.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Conclusions: The Utility and Use of Modes The car is “universal”: It can be utilized… nearly everywhere, to every destination, in every spatial framework for every purpose, for daily mobility and the more or less seldom long distance events for every weather and season, for every trip patterns and it can carry a certain amount of odds and ends… and is therefore for many people the first and only choice… All the other modes are more or less “specialists”: They have only special (i.e. restricted) cases of application, where they are “equal” or even superior to the car but have disadvantages in most other Public Transport e.g. for commuting or destinations into the city-centers the bicycle for the near range (in the case of good weather) the trains for long-distance travel... and are therefore frequently not chosen, as too complicated and costly!
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1319.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 13 Factors, relevant for the Public Transport - Car Multimodality Drivers: >Place of living: Size of city supply and quality of Public Transport >Place-of-work: Quality of connection by public transport >Commuting by Public Transport Existence of a season ticket allows for using Public Tramsport also for other purposes >Higher education levels more mobile / variation of destinations >Parking-situation difficult at place-of- work Obstacles: >Place-of-work: Parking is all too easy >Housholds of families / children in the household >Easy access to a car and usability >Parking >Travelspeeds in comparison to other modes Multimodality as an outcome when does Public Transport is more likely to be chosen instead of a car... Beckmann et al. 2005
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1419.11.2014 Bastian Chlond What does real „multimodality“ means (from the perspective of the users)? Conventional Private Car “Universal” A set of each other complementing solution for every “specialists” purpose The weaknesses of the „specialized“ modes of the ecomobilty are compensated by their complementarity However to make use of these alternatives and for a multimodal behavior complex strategies and high competence levels are required („cost of transactions to vary modes are considerable“) PT Cycle By Foot Car- Sharing
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1519.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Differents levels and devlopments in different age classes! Trends in modes use, who are the peers? „New“ Multimodality Quelle: MOP %
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1619.11.2014 Bastian Chlond How does the modern „multimodality“ work? Why the young adults? What are the driving forces for this development? To act „successfully“ multimodal, the variation and the flexible use of modes must be organized without efforts and any additional cost of transaction! ICT („The New Apps“) / the (mobile) Internet/ Smartphones allow for and facilitate successful multimodal behaviors! Emerging of new mobilty services and their distribution and markets („Multitasking“ in Public Transport) The supply of new services creates an own specific demand and is finding its markets The development and use by the young adults can be considerd as „spearhead“ of the new multimodality www.stadtmobil.de Internationales Verkehrswesen, dvv 2012
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1719.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 1. Challenge: Cost structures for multimodal travellers (system- side) Car: High fixed cost against (declining) and reasonable marginal cost Fixed cost is the „price“ for universality and flexibility Public Transport: Either a flatrate… ….or single ride tickes (usually extremely and prohibitivly) expensive Multimodal car-owners („classical“) are charged manifold not really an attractive option… To behave multimodally with a car available has to be regarded as comparably expensive and thus not attractive! Mobility- cost Mileage travelled always by car Single-ride- tickets Season- Pass „multimodal“
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1819.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 2. Challenge: Transaction-cost and requirements (user and system-side) Multimodality has to be regarded up to now as very costly and complex (system-side)! Time efforts for collecting the information… Time for booking and the purchase of tickets … Time and efforts for changing between modes … Time lost for waiting… The change itself (physically and mentally)… Increase of efficiency can be achieved by habitualisation (user) commuting trips trip patterns with certain levels of repetition… „New“ multimodality shows the way (for the user and the system-side) Additional potentials for more multimodal behaviors are visible…
Institut für Verkehrswesen 1919.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 3. Challenge: Missing Competencies and Experiences (user-side) Travellers need „multimodal competencies“ For Public Transport Which information can, from whom and from where? How to book? Which services qualities and supply can I expect in which situations? How can I use Public Transport in another city? Which ticket is the right one? Which ticket and fare is looking to be „appropriate“? …and for the bicycle It is necessary to be physically able to use a bicycle It is necessary to be able to participate in urban traffic without risking traffic safety problems many „keys“ are required (real as well as virtual „keys“, e.g. how to book or rent a bicycle with advanced systems… How can we overcome these challenges ? roth-cartoons.de www.lachschon.de www.fussvelo. wordpress.com
Institut für Verkehrswesen 2019.11.2014 Bastian Chlond 4. Challenge: Providing the ecomobility user-friendly (system-side) Public Transport complex fare-systems only to be understandable and usable by experts… costly… the unexperieneced user is „left alone“… „the placement of existing services“ is insufficient Cycling: The Infrastructure is frequently insufficient – a change is ferquently not attractive Frustration if networks are incomplete or relevant links are missing or even have safety deficits For parking a bicycle In public space around the place of living At interchanges Many deficits can and must be solved by the providers! www.warenkontor.de www.kvv.de
Institut für Verkehrswesen 2119.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Conclusions – How more multimodal behavior can be achieved? Missing competencies (and experiences) of potential users are confronted with an unsufficient presentation of existing travel options! The complexity of multimodal travel behavior is in conflict with the postulation for an „easy“ mobility! (The private car has to be understood as benchmark!) The transport system has to be attuned to the users as travellers: The (once-in-a-while) use of the specialised modes must be eased! The switching between modes / varying modes has to be achievd without „transaction efforts and cost“ The once-in-a-while user can be attracted and made a regular customer !
Institut für Verkehrswesen 2219.11.2014 Bastian Chlond Conclusions The framework for the competition between modes has to be adapted the motivate for a change in everyday‘s mobility! Push & Pull-measures as usual practice Management of Parking… Privilegees for multimodals and multimodal mobility… To allow for switching between modes / varying modes without „transaction efforts and cost“ Apps / ICT can provide for solutions which usually can otherwise only be achieved with an immense effort of staff! Fair Pricing Systems and One-Stop-Shops Smartcards with C-I-C-O-Function and always choosing the best price for the customer for all, everything and everywhere The provision has to be understood as a public task on a regional level not to be done by private operators … To educate and motivate for multimodality… helping with these (damned ) apps! www. spt.co.uk
KIT – Universität des Landes Baden-Württemberg und nationales Forschungszentrum in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft INSTITUT FÜR VERKEHRSWESEN www.kit.edu Thank you for your attention! Dr.-Ing. Bastian Chlond firstname.lastname@example.org