Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

TRIBALS IN INDIA AND THEIR RIGHTS Fr. James Mascarenhas, S.J. Vishwa Mandal Sevashram, Shirpur, Dhule Dt., Maharashtra 9 th. September 2008.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "TRIBALS IN INDIA AND THEIR RIGHTS Fr. James Mascarenhas, S.J. Vishwa Mandal Sevashram, Shirpur, Dhule Dt., Maharashtra 9 th. September 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRIBALS IN INDIA AND THEIR RIGHTS Fr. James Mascarenhas, S.J. Vishwa Mandal Sevashram, Shirpur, Dhule Dt., Maharashtra 9 th. September 2008

2 WHO ARE THE TRIBALS Tribals are different from other people. Tribals are different from other people. They live mostly in compact areas They live mostly in compact areas They are hardly a part of the mainstream They are hardly a part of the mainstream They have their own system and life style based on mutual trust and decision by consensus. They have their own system and life style based on mutual trust and decision by consensus. On the whole, honesty rules their lives On the whole, honesty rules their lives

3 Who are the SCHEDULED Tribes ? - Primitive Traits - Geographically isolated - Distinct culture - Shyness of contact with community at large - Economically backward Communities are notified as ST under Article 342 of the Constitution based on the following Characteristics

4 CONFUSION!! Tribals stand for Honesty and straight forwardness, religiosity, community feeling, hospitality, tradition etc The mainstream has a different set of values and principles from those of the tribals. Tribals stand for Honesty and straight forwardness, religiosity, community feeling, hospitality, tradition etc The mainstream has a different set of values and principles from those of the tribals. Hence Hence confusion of tribals when they come into contact with mainstream…. confusion of tribals when they come into contact with mainstream…. their own value system is used against them…. their own value system is used against them….

5 Denied of their basic human rights... One can be said to enjoy human rights if one has the minimum of entitlements to live with human dignity. One can be said to enjoy human rights if one has the minimum of entitlements to live with human dignity. The tribals certainly do not have this!!! The tribals certainly do not have this!!!

6 Basic rights denied… Right to livelihood to meet the basic human needs, TO LVE WITH DIGNITY, to have a say in the political process, rights to quality education, right to health, right to freedom and right to preserve culture and habitat. Right to livelihood to meet the basic human needs, TO LVE WITH DIGNITY, to have a say in the political process, rights to quality education, right to health, right to freedom and right to preserve culture and habitat.

7 Government has done little for them... Tribals account for almost 8.2 per cent of the total population, which is MUCH higher than the population of the other minority groups in India. Yet the government has done little for the empowerment of these people who continue to be exploited.. Tribals account for almost 8.2 per cent of the total population, which is MUCH higher than the population of the other minority groups in India. Yet the government has done little for the empowerment of these people who continue to be exploited..

8 Most Marginalized… Today tribals are among the most marginalized in society. They are dominated, exploited and controlled by the MAINSTREAM. Today tribals are among the most marginalized in society. They are dominated, exploited and controlled by the MAINSTREAM. Consequently they are those who are most deprived of human rights. Consequently they are those who are most deprived of human rights.

9 Methods used to marginalize tribals 1. Political: The fact that they have a weak and inexperienced leadership is taken advantage of. The fact that they have a weak and inexperienced leadership is taken advantage of..

10 Methods used to marginalize tribals.... 2. Political ……. Weak Leadership …. a. Even in reserved constituencies tribals cannot win on their own strength b. Tribal issues remain regional issues and so tribal matters are often neglected.

11 Methods used to marginalize tribals... 3. Lands: a. Tribals lands are being grabbed a. Tribals lands are being grabbed - by government for dams etc - by government for dams etc - by companies (SEZ…) - by companies (SEZ…) - by rich moneylenders (loans…) - by rich moneylenders (loans…) Tribal lands are slowly and steadily passing on to the rich. Without land there will be no tribal community. Tribal lands are slowly and steadily passing on to the rich. Without land there will be no tribal community. Tribals are seen as a ROADBLOCK to development. Tribals are seen as a ROADBLOCK to development.

12 Methods used to marginalize tribals... 3. Land …… b. Poor Irrigation for ST lands. Irrigation facilities for the meagre lands that they have, are very poor. This leads to a poor economic condition. Irrigation facilities for the meagre lands that they have, are very poor. This leads to a poor economic condition. As a result - As a result - Tribals are Forced to adopt subsistence agriculture Tribals are Forced to adopt subsistence agriculture

13 Methods used to marginalize tribals... 4. Poor Education Literacy is universally recognized Literacy is universally recognized as the most powerful instrument as the most powerful instrument of social change of social change

14 MARGINALIZATION OF TRIBALS... 4. POOR EDUCATION... THE BEST EDUCATION THE TRIBAL CHILDREN RECEIVE IS OFTEN OF VERY POOR QUALITY. VERY POOR QUALITY. Now the quality of education is on the decline. Now the quality of education is on the decline. As a result they are not able to compete for jobs. As a result they are not able to compete for jobs.

15 YearGeneral PopulationSTs MaleFemale Total MaleFemaleTotal 199164.1339.2952.240.6518.1929.6 200179.9654.28 65.38 59.1734.7647.10

16 Methods used to marginalize tribals... 4. Government Schemes Even many Government Schemes seem to elude the normal tribal. Even many Government Schemes seem to elude the normal tribal. Any government scheme normally designed for the average district, village (land, population…registration… education… ) which is not a reality where tribals are concerned. Any government scheme normally designed for the average district, village (land, population…registration… education… ) which is not a reality where tribals are concerned. The greater the variance from the average district, the greater the disadvantage. The greater the variance from the average district, the greater the disadvantage.

17 Marginalization of Tribals … 5. Attitude of Administration: 5. Attitude of Administration: The administration must support, encourage, bring out the full potential…. - NOT OVERPOWERING CONTROL. - NOT OVERPOWERING CONTROL. But overpowering control is what is happening. Tribals are not being allowed to grow.

18 Marginalization of Tribals … 5. Tribal areas are far flung. Unwillingness of efficient officals to be posted to these areas…. Incentives not given… 6. Attitude of Administration… Punishment postings…. Tribal welfare departments also are often controlled by non tribals… Anger… no sympathetic and helpful attitude A number of vacancies… Very little government accountability in these areas… most tribals don’t dare to question…most money going down the drain…

19 Marginalization of Tribals … 6. Attitude of Administration… IN BRIEF: The attitude of government officals Is not only not positive BUT even not neutral. It often borders very much on the negative.

20 Marginalization of Tribals … 7. Reservation of Jobs for tribals Hardly 1% of the tribal’s are in jobs. Hardly 1% of the tribal’s are in jobs. The National Commission for Schedule Castes and Tribes states that there is a backlog to the tune of 65-70 per cent in all categories of employment. The current debate on reservation in jobs and universities for tribal people remains unaddressed in this tribal policy. The National Commission for Schedule Castes and Tribes states that there is a backlog to the tune of 65-70 per cent in all categories of employment. The current debate on reservation in jobs and universities for tribal people remains unaddressed in this tribal policy.

21 8. Unity of Tribals broken by politics and political paries.

22 Marginalization of Tribals … 9. Other Concerns / issues 9. Other Concerns / issues Government’s Lack of awareness regarding distinct problems of STs & often clubbing them with other disadvantaged groups. Government’s Lack of awareness regarding distinct problems of STs & often clubbing them with other disadvantaged groups. Poor infrastructure leading to low capacity of the economy in tribal areas to effectively absorb institutional finance. Poor infrastructure leading to low capacity of the economy in tribal areas to effectively absorb institutional finance. Inaccessibility of tribal areas and tough terrain, mostly forests. Inaccessibility of tribal areas and tough terrain, mostly forests. Food scarcity in spite of surplus food production Food scarcity in spite of surplus food production

23 Marginalization of Tribals … 10. Other concerns / issues (contd….) Non adoption of TSP approach by various Ministries/ States. Non adoption of TSP approach by various Ministries/ States. Inability of States to contribute 50 % in Centrally Sponsored schemes. Inability of States to contribute 50 % in Centrally Sponsored schemes. At the present rate of accelerated economic growth, especially infrastructure development in the country vis-à-vis the Tribal Areas, the gap is widening at a much faster rate. At the present rate of accelerated economic growth, especially infrastructure development in the country vis-à-vis the Tribal Areas, the gap is widening at a much faster rate.

24 Democracy sides with the strong. If things continue, as they are now: TRIBALS WILL ONE DAY BE STRANGERS IN THEIR OWN LAND.

25 IS THERE ANY HOPE??? YES YES

26 WHAT SHOULD WE DO??? Best way is to START FROM TRIBALS THEMSELVES. Starting from THEIR FEELING OF HELPLESSNESS…. THINKING SHOULD BE CHANGED. THINKING SHOULD BE CHANGED. CONFIDENCE NEEDS TO BE CONFIDENCE NEEDS TO BE BOOSTED. BOOSTED. TRIBALS NEED TO BE ORGANIZED AND TRIBALS NEED TO BE ORGANIZED AND STRENGTHENED. STRENGTHENED.

27 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???... 1. Start with SELF HELP GROUPS. IN A PLANNED, POSITIVE MANNER IN A PLANNED, POSITIVE MANNER This infrastructure will help THEM TO BE CONSCIENTIZED …. strengthen them to fight for their rights and demand them.

28 WHAT SHOULD WE DO??? Create social awareness… Create social awareness… Oganize trainings in human rights, law, government schemes etc. Make them aware of: Oganize trainings in human rights, law, government schemes etc. Make them aware of: a. Basic constitutional and legal rights as Indian citizens a. Basic constitutional and legal rights as Indian citizens b. Forest Rights Act b. Forest Rights Act c. MREGA. c. MREGA. d. Right to Information d. Right to Information

29 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 2. Create social awarness... 2. Create social awarness... e. Attrocities Act e. Attrocities Act f. Latest developments f. Latest developments regarding the 9 Right to Food regarding the 9 Right to Food Schemes and the Orders of the Schemes and the Orders of the Supreme Court regarding them. Supreme Court regarding them. g. Local Rights g. Local Rights Unless they know their rights they will not be able to demand them

30 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 3. Organize federations of SHGs at a higher level. 3. Organize federations of SHGs at a higher level. A wide network will be created… A wide network will be created… they will then get better organized. This will strengthen them greatly and they will have a bigger say. People will respect them more. they will then get better organized. This will strengthen them greatly and they will have a bigger say. People will respect them more.

31 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 4. Education of tribals: Ultimately it will be education that will make a big difference. We need to give tribals, quality education. It may not be possible to open many schools. But we have a number of boardings all over the country. Here we can really ensure that tribals get high class quality education.

32 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 4. Education of tribals…… We need to make our Christian institutions self sustaining, job oriented and responsive to the needs of the tribals. Making them sports oriented will also pay rich dividends.

33 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 4. Land Records: Land record keeping in tribals areas is poor. The actual position is not reflected. Land record keeping in tribals areas is poor. The actual position is not reflected. Importance of land records to be explained to people. They should learn to hold on to land in the legal sense. Importance of land records to be explained to people. They should learn to hold on to land in the legal sense.

34 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 5. Strengthen the Economy of the tribals to break the vicious circle of poverty.: a. Tribal land output is only one third of what the a. Tribal land output is only one third of what the production of the land should be. They live on fertile land, but there is never enough food in their stomachs. Tribals by and large, depend on agriculture and forest for sustenance production of the land should be. They live on fertile land, but there is never enough food in their stomachs. Tribals by and large, depend on agriculture and forest for sustenance i. A lot of improvement of fields can be done at government cost – MREGA. i. A lot of improvement of fields can be done at government cost – MREGA. ii. Trainings in agriculture could be given with very little investment. ii. Trainings in agriculture could be given with very little investment..

35 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 5. Strengthen the Economy of the tribals to break the vicious circle of poverty…… iii. Ensure that they take advantage of agricultural schemes available There are 2727 specific and general There are 2727 specific and general government schemes in every district. government schemes in every district. We can’t compete with the government in terms of resources. We should learn to access them.

36 WHAT SHOULD WE DO???...... 5. Strengthening the economy of tribals…. B. Start Income Generation Activities with government and Bank aid: Income generation activities could help to break the vicious circle of poverty. Income generation activities could help to break the vicious circle of poverty.

37 WHAT ELSE SHOULD WE DO???......


Download ppt "TRIBALS IN INDIA AND THEIR RIGHTS Fr. James Mascarenhas, S.J. Vishwa Mandal Sevashram, Shirpur, Dhule Dt., Maharashtra 9 th. September 2008."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google