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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! The American Republic To 1877 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 Splash Screen

3 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Articles of Confederation Section 2 Convention and Compromise Section 3 A New Plan of Government Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.
Introduction 1

5 Chapter Objectives Section 1: The Articles of Confederation
Examine how the weaknesses of the Articles led to instability.  Explain how the Confederation Congress dealt with the western lands. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Introduction 2

6 Chapter Objectives Section 2: Convention and Compromise
Describe how the Constitutional Convention broke the deadlock over the form the new government would take.  Understand how the delegates answered the question of representation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Introduction 3

7 Chapter Objectives Section 3: A New Plan of Government
Understand the roots of the Constitution.  Explain how the Constitution limits the power of government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Introduction 4

8 Why It Matters When the American colonies broke their ties with Great Britain, they faced the task of forming independent governments at both the state and national levels. In 1788 the Constitution became the official plan of American government. Introduction 5

9 The Impact Today Created to meet the needs of a changing nation, the Constitution has been the fundamental law of the United States for more than 200 years. It has served as a model for many constitutions all over the world. Introduction 6

10 Introduction 7

11 Introduction 8

12 End of Introduction

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms
The leaders of the new United States worked to define the powers of government.  Key Terms constitution  petition  ordinance  depreciate bicameral  republic  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing Information As you read this section, re-create the diagram on page 192 of your textbook and in the ovals list the powers you think a national government should have.  Read to Learn how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to instability.  how Congress dealt with the western lands. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Government and Democracy At both state and national levels, the government of the United States tried to define its powers. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.
Phillis Wheatley Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Section 1-4

17 Thirteen Independent States
Americans needed to establish their own government and gain Britain’s respect. This brought new challenges.  The British believed the new government was weak and ineffective.  States organized their governments and adopted their own state constitutions.  The writers wanted to prevent abuses of power and also wanted to keep power in the hands of the people. (pages 192–193) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
State constitutions limited the power of the governor to avoid giving one ruler too much power.  Pennsylvania replaced the office of governor with an elected council of twelve members. (pages 192–193) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
States divided functions between the governor (Pennsylvania’s council) and the legislature.  The legislature was the more powerful branch because of the limited powers of the governor.  Most states had a bicameral, or two-house, legislature. This further divided the power.  Legislatures were popularly elected and elections were frequent.  State legislatures had many disagreements about how to make taxes fair. (pages 192–193) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

20 Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
In most states only white males who were 21 years of age could vote. They also had to either be property owners or pay a certain amount of taxes.  In some states free African American males could vote. (pages 192–193) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Thirteen Independent States (cont.) Why do you think Britain thought that the new government was weak and ineffective? Possible answer: Each state had its own government and it was hard for the states to work together. Because there was a weak central government with limited powers, it was hard for the government to rule over the states. Each state operated independently, and Britain saw this as weak and ineffective. (pages 192–193) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-9

22 Forming a Republic Americans agreed that the country should be a republic, which is a government with elected representatives.  What they could not agree on was the origin and powers of the new republic.  At first most Americans favored a weak central government with the powers being given to the states to function independently except for the power to wage war and handle relations with other countries. (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 Forming a Republic (cont.)
In 1777 the Articles of Confederation were adopted to provide for a central government.  At the time the country needed a central government to fight the war against Britain.  The Articles were America’s first constitution.  The states, though, gave up little of their power. Each state kept “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence.” (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

24 Forming a Republic (cont.)
Under the Articles of Confederation, the government, which was the Confederation Congress, had the authority to:  conduct foreign affairs  maintain armed forces  borrow money  issue currency (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

25 Forming a Republic (cont.)
The government did not have the authority to:  regulate trade  force citizens to join the army  impose taxes  Congress needed to ask state legislatures to raise money and provide troops.  The government did not have a chief executive. (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

26 Forming a Republic (cont.)
Each state had one vote in Congress.  State population did not matter, although larger, more populated states believed that they should have more votes.  States also argued about whether or not they claimed land in the West.  Maryland refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation until states abandoned their land claims.  Finally all 13 states approved the Articles on March 1, 1781. (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

27 Forming a Republic (cont.)
The Confederacy formally became the government of the United States.  The Confederation government had its weaknesses, but it won Americans their independence, expanded foreign trade, and provided for new states in the West.  It had limited authority.  It could not pass a law unless nine states voted for it.  To change the Articles of Confederation, all 13 states had to give consent. It was difficult, therefore, for Congress to pass laws when there was any opposition. (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Forming a Republic (cont.) Why did the Confederation Congress have limited authority? The writers of the Articles of Confederation did not feel that Americans wanted or needed a strong central government. They thought that giving the powers to the states would be a reasonable way to run the new government. Also, in light of their history of problems with Britain, they feared a government with too much power. (pages 193–195) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-16

29 New Land Policies The Articles of Confederation had no provision for adding new states.  Congress realized it had to extend its authority over the frontier and bring order and stability to the territory where western settlers reached almost 120,000 by the 1790s.  The Western ordinances had a large impact on Western expansion and development of the United States. (pages 195–197) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

30 New Land Policies (cont.)
In 1784 Congress divided the Western territory into self-governing districts.  When the number of people in a district reached the population of the smallest existing state, that district could apply for statehood.  In 1785 the Confederation Congress established a new law that divided the Western territories into larger townships and smaller sections.  Each smaller section would be sold at auction for at least $1 an acre. (pages 195–197) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

31 New Land Policies (cont.)
This was called the Ordinance of  Land speculators bought large pieces of land cheaply.  Another ordinance passed in 1787 was the Northwest Ordinance.  It created a Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.  It divided the lands into three to five smaller territories. (pages 195–197) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-19

32 New Land Policies (cont.)
It stated that when the population of a territory reached 60,000 citizens, that territory could apply for statehood.  Each new state would enter as an equal to the original 13 states.  It included a bill of rights to protect the settlers that guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury.  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude were permitted in the new territories. (pages 195–197) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-20

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
New Land Policies (cont.) How did the Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 open the way for settlement of the Northwest Territory? They opened the door to land speculators, who probably encouraged people to settle in the West. The ordinances also divided the land so that as soon as a smaller region reached a certain population, it could apply for statehood. The bill of rights of the Northwest Ordinance protected settlers by giving them certain freedoms. This encouraged citizens to feel more comfortable moving to a new place knowing that they were protected. (pages 195–197) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

34 Trouble on Two Fronts The Confederate government had trouble with finances, and with Britain and Spain over landholdings and trade.  Many Americans felt the country needed a stronger government to better deal with the problems.  The government had a large debt from fighting the war.  Congress had borrowed money from American citizens and foreign governments. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-22

35 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
It owed soldiers their wages. But because Congress had no power to tax, it did not have a way to raise revenue and pay off this debt.  Money was almost worthless. The paper money printed during the Revolutionary War had fallen in value, while the prices of food and other goods soared.  In Boston, for example, high prices led to food riots.  Because Congress had no power to tax, it and the states issued paper money. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-23

36 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
Because there were so many bills in circulation, the value of the money fell. No gold or silver backed these bills.  To help solve the financial problems, the Confederacy created a department of finance.  Robert Morris, a Philadelphia merchant, headed the department.  Morris proposed a plan that called for collecting a 5 percent tax on imported goods to help pay off the national debt. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

37 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
Because of Rhode Island’s opposition, the measure did not pass. A second effort also failed five years later.  The country’s financial situation worsened.  The problems with Britain concerned landholdings and trade.  British troops remained in several strategic forts in the Great Lakes region even though Britain had promised to withdraw all troops under the Treaty of Paris.  British merchants closed Americans out of the West Indies and other profitable British markets. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

38 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
John Adams went to London in 1785 to discuss these issues.  The British claimed that because Americans had not paid Loyalists for the property taken from them during the war, as agreed to under the Treaty of Paris, they were not willing to talk.  Congress recommended payment, but the states refused. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-26

39 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
The problems with Spain were worse than those with England.  Spain closed the lower Mississippi River to American shipping in 1784 in hopes of halting American expansion into their territory of Spanish Florida and lands west of the Mississippi River.  A compromise was reached with an agreement in 1786 that limited American shipping on the Mississippi.  In return for this, Spain promised to accept the border between Georgia and Spanish Florida proposed by the Americans. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-27

40 Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
Representatives from the South rejected the agreement because it did not include the right to use the Mississippi River. (pages 197–198) Section 1-28

41 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.) What do you think George Washington meant when he described the government by the words “little more than the shadow without the substance”? Possible answer: The central government was weak, he likened it to a shadow. It was there, but because its powers were limited, it did not have substance or a way to carry out its duties. (pages 197–198) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-29

42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives __ 2. a law or regulation __ 3. consisting of two houses, or chambers, especially in a legislature __ 4. a formal request __ 5. a formal plan of government C E B D A A. constitution B. bicameral C. republic D. petition E. ordinance Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-30

43 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Reviewing Facts Describe the country’s financial problems after the Revolutionary War. Currency had depreciated; the government could not tax to pay its war debt. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-31

44 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Why did most states limit the power of their governors and divide the legislature into two bodies? British rule made them cautious about giving too much power to single rulers or political bodies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-32

45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Predicting Consequences What effect do you think the Northwest Ordinance had on Native Americas? Native Americans were forced to fight or give up their lands and move. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-33

46 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Geography Skills Study the material on pages 194 and 195 of your textbook about the Ordinance of Then answer these questions. What present-day states were created from the Northwest Territory? How many sections are in a township? Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin were created. A township has 36 sections. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-34

47 Citizenship Imagine you are an American citizen in the 1780s
Citizenship Imagine you are an American citizen in the 1780s. Create a poster that defends the Articles of Confederation. Be sure to include reasons the Confederation Congress is needed. Section 1-35

48 End of Section 1

49 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms
The new Constitution corrected the weaknesses of government under the Articles of Confederation.  Key Terms depression  proportional  compromise manumission  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

50 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing Information As you read this section, re-create the diagram on page 199 of your textbook. In the boxes, describe the role each individual played in creating the new plan of government.  Read to Learn how the Constitutional Convention broke the deadlock over the form the new government would take.  how the delegates answered the question of representation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

51 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Groups and Institutions National leaders worked to produce a new constitution for the United States. Section 2-3

52 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.
George Washington Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Section 2-4

53 Economic Depression The United States went through a depression, or a time when economic activity slowed and unemployment increased, after the Revolutionary War.  Because Southern plantations were damaged during the war, they could not produce as much rice as prior to the war.  As a result, rice exports dropped.  Farmers could not sell the goods they grew and therefore did not have money to pay state taxes. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

54 Economic Depression (cont.)
As a result, farmers lost their lands when state officials took their farms to pay the debt they owed.  Some farmers were even jailed.  American trade fell off when Britain closed the West Indies to American merchants. As a result, currency was in short supply, and whatever was around was used to pay the war debt. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

55 Economic Depression (cont.)
The Shays’s Rebellion occurred as a result of the problems farmers suffered.  In 1787 Daniel Shays led a group of more than 1,000 angry farmers in forcing courts in western Massachusetts to close so judges could not seize farmers’ lands.  Shays led the farmers toward the federal arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, for arms and ammunition.  The farmers did not stop, even when the state militia fired over their heads and then directly at them, killing four. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

56 Economic Depression (cont.)
The uprising was over when Shays and his followers scattered.  Americans felt the impact of the Shays uprising.  Many were scared that future uprisings could occur. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

57 Economic Depression (cont.)
Slavery was a difficult issue that many people and groups began to work toward ending.  Quakers organized the first American Antislavery Society in  In 1780 Pennsylvania passed a law that provided for freeing enslaved people gradually.  In 1783 a Massachusetts court ruled slavery was illegal.  Between 1784 and 1804, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey passed laws that gradually ended slavery. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

58 Economic Depression (cont.)
In 1787 the Free African Society in Philadelphia was formed.  Some states clung to slavery, especially those south of Pennsylvania.  The plantation system relied on slavery to survive.  Yet a number of slaveholders did begin to free slaves after the war.  Virginia passed a law encouraging manumission, or freeing individual enslaved persons. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

59 Economic Depression (cont.)
The abolition of slavery divided the country.  In 1787, when state representatives met to plan a new government because they realized the Articles of Confederation were weak, they compromised on the issue of slavery.  It would take another war to resolve this issue. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

60 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Economic Depression (cont.) More than once the country has been through depressions after war. Why does a depression usually follow a war? Possible answer: After a war there are the issues of rebuilding the country, readjusting to peacetime, and addressing all the problems that a war brings. The people who served in the war have to be brought back and found work and housing. There are also economic policies, including paying off war debts, revising foreign trade policies, and establishing a strong political leadership. (pages 199–201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-12

61 A Call for Change Political leaders were divided on the issue of the type of government the country should have.  One group wanted to remain with a system of independent state governments.  The other group wanted to create a strong national government. This group called for reform of the Articles of Confederation.  James Madison and Alexander Hamilton were proponents of a strong central government. (page 201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

62 A Call for Change (cont.)
In September 1787, Hamilton proposed calling a meeting in Philadelphia to discuss trade issues and possible changes to the Articles of Confederation so that the union would become a nation.  George Washington finally agreed to attend the convention although at first he was not enthusiastic about revising the Articles of Confederation.  His presence lent greater significance to the meeting. (page 201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

63 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
A Call for Change (cont.) Do you think that a stronger national government was the solution to America’s problems? Possible answer: Yes, because so many issues had to be dealt with and a central government could oversee the process. The country needed a national government to oversee the state governments and work toward solving problems together. (page 201) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-15

64 The Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia beginning in May 1787 and consisted of 55 delegates, none of whom were Native American, African American, or women.  None of these groups were included in the political process. (pages 202–203) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

65 The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
Several leaders stood out–George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris, who wrote the final draft of the Constitution, Edmund Randolph, and James Madison, who became known as “Father of the Constitution” because he authored the basic plan of government that was adopted. (pages 202–203) Section 2-17

66 The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
George Washington presided. The basic rules were:  each state had one vote on all issues  a majority vote was needed to finalize decisions  delegates from at least 7 of the 13 states were required for meetings to be held  delegates met behind closed doors so they could talk freely  Two plans of government were proposed– the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. (pages 202–203) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

67 The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
The Virginia Plan, proposed by Edmund Randolph from Virginia, called for a two-house legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a court system.  The people would elect members of the lower house.  The lower house would choose members of the upper house.  In both houses, the number of representatives would be proportional to the population of each state.  A state with a smaller population would have fewer representatives than a state with a larger population. (pages 202–203) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-19

68 The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
The New Jersey Plan, proposed by William Paterson, modified the Articles of Confederation.  It kept the one-house legislature with one vote for each state.  Congress would now have the powers to set taxes and regulate trade.  Congress would elect a weak executive branch with more than one person. (pages 202–203) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-20

69 The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
Disagreement between the delegates occurred. Do you think the Virginia Plan or the New Jersey Plan would have created the type of government that was needed at the time? (pages 202–203) Section 2-21

70 Compromise Wins Out The delegates decided that simply revising the Articles of Confederation would not solve the problems.  They voted to plan a national government based on the Virginia Plan, but they had to work out several issues:  how the members of Congress were to be elected  how state representation would be determined in both houses (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-22

71 Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
whether or not enslaved people were to be counted as part of the population, which would affect the number of representatives for some states  whether or not to ban slavery  The Great Compromise was the agreement used to resolve the representation issues. (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-23

72 Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed the plan. It said that:  There would be a two-house legislature.  In the lower house, or House of Representatives, the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state’s population.  In the upper house, or Senate, each state would have two members.  The way to count enslaved people would be determined by the Three-Fifths Compromise. (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-24

73 Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
Each enslaved person was to count as three-fifths of a free person for taxation and representation. So every five enslaved people would equal three free people.  This broke the great debate that divided large and small states.  Another compromise plan to resolve the issue of slavery said that Congress would not interfere with the slave trade until  Beginning that year, Congress could limit the slave trade if it chose to. (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-25

74 Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
The Northerners, who wanted to abolish slavery throughout the nation and had already banned the slave trade in their states, compromised with the Southern states that considered slavery and the slave trade essential to their economies.  George Mason of Virginia proposed a bill of rights to prevent the new government from abusing its power, but it was defeated. (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-26

75 Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
Most of the delegates felt that the Constitution already provided adequate protection of the people’s rights.  On September 17, 1787, after four months of discussion and planning, the delegates met to sign the document.  All but three delegates signed.  The Confederation Congress sent the approved draft for state consideration.  Nine of the thirteen states were needed for the Constitution to be approved. (pages 203–205) Section 2-27

76 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Compromise Wins Out (cont.) Why do you think Mason’s plan for a bill of rights to be included in the Constitution was defeated? Possible answer: The delegates were focusing on planning a strong national government and not necessarily focusing on an individual bill of rights. They believed that they had adequately planned for protecting individuals by listing the powers of the government. They could not foresee that the Constitution later was criticized because it was lacking a bill of rights and that in 1791 the Bill of Rights would be added to the Constitution. (pages 203–205) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-28

77 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the freeing of some enslaved persons __ 2. agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants __ 3. to be the same as or corresponding to __ 4. a period of low economic activity and widespread unemployment B A. depression B. manumission C. proportional D. compromise D C A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-29

78 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Reviewing Facts Explain what caused Shays’s Rebellion. What was one effect? Farmers wanted the government to help them. Possible effects: some farmers were killed; support grew for government; support for revision of Articles was increased. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-30

79 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Groups and Institutions How did the Great Compromise satisfy both the small and the large states on the question of representation? In the House of Representatives, seats are based on a state’s population; in the Senate, each state has two seats. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-31

80 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Summarizing Information You are asked to write a 30-second news broadcast to announce the agreement made in the Great Compromise. What would you include in the broadcast? Information about the role of Roger Sherman, the two-house legislature, and the Three-Fifths Compromise would be included. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-32

81 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Picturing History Examine the images that appear on pages 202 and 204 of your textbook. What do they show? Where are they located? Why are these places important in the nation’s history? Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is shown. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed here. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-33

82 Government Create a political cartoon that illustrates the view of either the Northern states or the Southern states on how enslaved people should be counted for representation. Section 2-34

83 End of Section 2

84 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms
The United States system of government rests on the Constitution.  Key Terms Enlightenment  judicial branch  checks and balances  ratify  Federalist  Antifederalist  amendment federalism  article  legislative branch  executive branch  Electoral College  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

85 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing Information Re-create the diagram on page 207 of your textbook. In the boxes explain how the system of checks and balances works.  Read to Learn about the roots of the Constitution.  how the Constitution limits the power of government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

86 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Civic Rights and Responsibilities The Constitution outlines the responsibilities and the limits of the three branches of the national government. Section 3-3

87 Rising Sun chair, Constitutional Convention
Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Section 3-4

88 Roots of the Constitution
The Framers of the Constitution had studied government, history, and politics.  Many ideas in the Constitution came from the study of European political institutions and political writers.  The Enlightenment also influenced the delegates.  The British system of government and British ideas and institutions influenced the Framers of the Constitution. (pages 207–208) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

89 Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
The English found ways to limit the power of the monarch beginning in the 1200s.  The English Parliament controlled funds.  The English bill of rights guaranteed individual rights, and the judicial system oversaw that these rights were protected.  These ideas were included in the original Constitution except for the Bill of Rights, which was added a few years later.  The Framers took ideas about people and government from European writers of the Enlightenment. (pages 207–208) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

90 Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
The Enlightenment promoted knowledge, reason, and science as the way to improve society.  Ideas of John Locke, an English philosopher, included the belief that all people have natural rights, including life, liberty, and property and that government is an agreement, or contract, between the people and the ruler.  The Constitution was a contract between the American people and their government, and it protected the people’s natural rights by limiting the power of the government. (pages 207–208) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

91 Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
The French writer Baron de Montesquieu believed that a separation and balance of powers should exist. Also, the powers of government should be clearly defined and limited.  The Framers provided for a specification and a division of powers.  They also provided for a system of checks and balances to make sure that no one part would gain too much power. (pages 207–208) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

92 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Roots of the Constitution (cont.) Why did the Framers of the Constitution use the ideas of the Enlightenment and the British system of government to help them write the American Constitution? The Framers had studied European political systems, were familiar with the British Parliament system, and valued the ideas of the writers from the Enlightenment. They used ideas from their studies because they wanted to create a new government that would include all the necessary aspects but that would also avoid mistakes of the past. (pages 207–208) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-9

93 The Federal System The Federal System divided powers between the national (federal) government and the states. It created shared powers, a distinctive feature of the United States government.  The federal government had the powers to tax, regulate trade, control the currency, raise an army, and declare war.  The state governments had the power to pass and enforce laws and regulate trade within their borders.  They could also establish local governments, schools, and other institutions affecting the welfare of their citizens. (pages 208–209) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

94 The Federal System (cont.)
Shared powers by the federal and states included the power to tax and to build roads.  The Constitution became the supreme law of the land, the final authority.  No state could make laws or take actions that went against the Constitution.  Federal courts based on the Constitution would settle disputes between the federal government and states. (pages 208–209) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

95 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Federal System (cont.) Why do you think the Framers created a federal system with shared powers? Possible answer: The Framers probably felt that certain powers needed to be carried out by both the federal and state governments. Thus we have federal and state taxes and federal and state highways. (pages 208–209) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-12

96 The Organization of Government
The federal government is divided into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.  The legislative, or lawmaking, branch is made of the House of Representatives and the Senate.  Powers include collecting taxes, coining money and regulating trade, declaring war, raising and supporting armies, and making all laws needed to fulfill its functions given to it by the Constitution. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-13

97 The Organization of Government (cont.)
Headed by the president the executive branch carries out the nation’s laws and policies.  The duties of the president include being commander in chief of the armed forces and conducting foreign policy.  In the Electoral College, each state chooses electors to cast their votes for the president and vice president.  The president and vice president serve a four-year term. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-14

98 The Organization of Government (cont.)
The judicial branch, or court system, consists of the Supreme Court and lower courts.  The courts hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and disputes between states.  The system of checks and balances, a distinctive feature of the United States government, maintains a balance of power. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

99 The Organization of Government (cont.)
It is a system that keeps one branch from becoming more powerful than another.  Each branch has roles that limit the others.  Both houses of the legislature must pass a bill for it to become a law.  The president can check Congress by vetoing a bill.  The judicial branch checks the Congress by making sure the laws it passes do not conflict with the Constitution. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-16

100 The Organization of Government (cont.)
Congress can check the president by overriding the veto, but two-thirds of both houses must vote for the bill.  The judicial branch checks the president by making sure his decisions and actions are legal.  The judicial branch decides whether or not decisions or actions by the legislative branch are legal.  The president appoints Supreme Court justices, but the Senate checks by approving the appointments. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

101 The Organization of Government (cont.)
The Constitution created a nation in which the people could choose their officials and the officials answered to the people, not the states. (pages 209–211) Section 3-18

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Organization of Government (cont.) More than 200 years later, the Constitution still stands as the supreme law of the land. Do you agree that Americans showed the world that it was possible for this new form of self-government to work? Possible answer: The Constitution was and still is a document arrived at by astute political leaders who took much pain to create what they hoped would be a way to maintain the ideals of freedom and liberty that Americans had fought so hard for. The Constitution provided the backbone for the new self-governing country to run efficiently and grow into the world’s strongest power today. (pages 209–211) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-19

103 The Constitutional Debate
Before the Constitution could go into effect, 9 of the 13 states had to ratify it.  A great debate took place, with Americans discussing arguments for and against the Constitution.  State legislatures set up special ratifying conventions.  Rhode Island was the only state that did not call a convention because its leaders opposed the Constitution from the beginning. (pages 211–212) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-20

104 The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
Federalists supported the Constitution. George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay supported the Constitution.  Madison, Hamilton, and Jay wrote the Federalist Papers, a collection of essays explaining and defending the Constitution.  The Antifederalists opposed ratification.  They wrote a series of essays known as the Antifederalist Papers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-21

105 The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
They believed that the new Constitution would take away the liberties Americans had fought to win, create a strong central government, and ignore the will of the states and the people.  They wanted a bill of rights.  The debate exposed each group’s fears.  The Federalists feared disorder without a strong federal government and looked to the court to create a national government capable of maintaining order. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-22

106 The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
The Antifederalists feared oppression more than disorder.  They worried that the government would be run by a small educated group of people that would hold the power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-23

107 The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
Which group would you have sided with and why? Section 3-24

108 Adopting the Constitution
The Constitution was ratified by all states, despite opposition.  Delaware was the first to ratify on December 7,  New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify on June 21,  New York and Virginia, the two largest states, had not yet ratified.  Both states had strong Antifederalist groups, and their support was necessary to promote the future of the new government. (page 213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-25

109 Adopting the Constitution (cont.)
Virginia ratified at the end of June 1788 after being told the Constitution would have a bill of rights added to it.  New York narrowly ratified in July 1788, North Carolina in November 1789, and Rhode Island in May  Celebrations took place in hundreds of American towns and cities.  The Constitution was finally ratified, and the new nation had a new government.  A bill of rights was added in 1791. (page 213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-26

110 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Adopting the Constitution (cont.) Why do you think all the states ended up ratifying the Constitution, despite opposition to it? Possible answer: As the majority of states ratified, the remaining states of New York, Virginia, North Carolina, and Rhode Island knew that the Constitution could go into effect but would be more effective if they also voted to ratify. These four states may not have wanted to be left out and probably voted to ratify so that the country would begin as a united nation, believing in the ideals they fought for and becoming a self-governing country. (page 213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-27

111 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. an addition to a formal document such as the Constitution __ 2. the sharing of power between federal and state governments __ 3. a special group of voters selected by their state legislatures to vote for the president and vice president __ 4. a part of a document, such as the Constitution, that deals with a single subject E A. Enlightenment B. federalism C. article D. Electoral College E. amendment B D C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-28

112 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5. movement during the 1700s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society A A. Enlightenment B. federalism C. article D. Electoral College E. amendment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-28

113 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Reviewing Facts What influence did John Locke have on American government? Locke wrote that government is based on a contract between the people and the ruler. The Framers viewed the Constitution as a contract protecting the people’s natural rights by limiting the government’s power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-29

114 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Civic Rights and Responsibilities Why did the Framers of the Constitution believe that a division of powers and a system of checks and balances were necessary in a government? The division of powers and a system of checks and balances were necessary to keep any one branch from gaining too much power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-30

115 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Finding the Main Idea What do you think was the most important reason for establishing a strong central government under the Constitution? Possible answer: A strong central government could address issues that affected the nation as a whole. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-31

116 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Political Cartoons Study the political cartoon on page 213 of your textbook. Then answer the questions that follow. What do the pillars represent? How do the last two pillars appear? The pillars represent the states that ratified the Constitution. They are rising to join the other states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-32

117 Citizenship Refer to the Bill of Rights on pages 244–245 of your textbook. Collect photographs from newspapers or magazines that illustrate the freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. Put your photos on a poster titled “Pictures of Liberty.” Section 3-33

118 End of Section 3

119 Chapter Summary 1

120 Chapter Summary 2

121 End of Chapter Summary

122 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. to give official approval to __ 2. a special group of voters selected by their state legislatures to vote for the president and vice president __ 3. the branch of government that makes the nation’s laws __ 4. consisting of two houses, or chambers, especially in a legislature __ 5. a formal plan of government B F D C A A. constitution B. ratify C. bicameral D. legislative branch E. executive branch F. Electoral College Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

123 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. the branch of government, headed by the president, that carries out the nation’s laws and policies E A. constitution B. ratify C. bicameral D. legislative branch E. executive branch F. Electoral College Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 2

124 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. The strengths of the Articles of Confederation were that it could conduct foreign affairs, issue currency, borrow money, and maintain armed forces. The weaknesses were that it could not regulate trade, make soldiers join the army, or impose taxes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

125 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What was the Three-Fifths Compromise? A slave counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of taxation and representation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

126 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What powers did the Constitution leave in the hands of the state governments? State governments had all powers not specifically granted to the Federal government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

127 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts Why did some states want a bill of rights added to the Constitution? They did not think that the Constitution, as written, protected individual rights. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

128 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts How does the system of checks and balances work? Each branch has a role that limits other branches. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

129 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Groups and Institutions Were the people who attended the Constitutional Convention representative of the American public? Explain. No; women, African Americans, and Native Americans were not included. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

130 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions Why was a system of checks and balances built into the Constitution? It was included to keep any one branch from dominating the government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

131 Geography and History Activity
Study the map below and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

132 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History Activity How many miles long and wide was a township? A township was six miles long and wide. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

133 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History Activity How many miles long and wide was a section? A section was one mile long and wide. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

134 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History Activity How many acres were in a section? A section was 640 acres. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

135 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Standardized Test Practice Directions: Choose the best answer to the following multiple choice question. Each of the states enacted constitutions in the late 1700s. All state constitutions A established equal rights for all persons living in the state. B set up legislative and executive branches of state government. C granted women the right to vote. D agreed that states would be supervised by the federal government. Test-Taking Tip Eliminate answers that don’t make sense. For example, equal rights for all (choice A) is a fairly new concept. During the 1700s, women and enslaved people had few rights. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 14

136 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
How many total essays were included in The Federalist Papers? 85 essays were included in The Federalist Papers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 15

137 End of Chapter Assessment

138 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Republic to 1877 Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to History Online

139 Curriculum Connection 2
Science As the Constitutional Convention drew to a close, delegates saw the demonstration of a possible new form of transportation. Meeting at the Delaware River on August 11, they boarded a steam-powered boat built by John Fitch and rode along at 3 mph (4.8 kph). Curriculum Connection 2

140 Curriculum Connection 3
Science Modern technology has helped preserve the Constitution document. It is scanned by electronic scanners frequently to detect any minor changes in the ink or parchment. These periodic measurements enable curators to detect if any deterioration has taken place that is invisible to the human eye. Curriculum Connection 3

141 Voting in New Jersey under that state’s constitution, “any person” who met certain property qualifications could vote. Many women used that provision to vote until the state legislature took away that right in 1807. Did You Know 1

142 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Signing the Constitution Philadelphia Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. Did You Know 2

143 The oldest person to sign the Constitution was Benjamin Franklin (81)
The oldest person to sign the Constitution was Benjamin Franklin (81). The youngest person was Jonathan Dayton (26). Did You Know 2a

144 Philadelphia took great efforts to give the delegates a quiet atmosphere during the convention. The city went so far as to cover the paved road around the hall with dirt to reduce noise. Did You Know 2b

145 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Presidential Term The Constitution Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. Did You Know 3

146 One of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention suggested that a presidential term last 15 years. In 1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt came the closest to fulfilling this idea. Roosevelt took office in 1933 and died in office 12 years later. Did You Know 3a

147 The Constitution is stored at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C. During the daytime, pages one and four of the document are displayed in a bullet-proof case. At night the pages are lowered into a vault behind five-ton doors that can withstand a nuclear explosion. The entire Constitution is displayed for only one day a year, September 17, which is the anniversary of its signing. Did You Know 3b

148 The Bald Eagle The bald eagle became America’s national symbol in 1872
The Bald Eagle The bald eagle became America’s national symbol in Benjamin Franklin suggested the turkey as the national bird. The American bald eagle, Franklin claimed, was “a bird of bad moral character…and often [full of lice].” Franklin stated, “The turkey is…a much more respectable bird, withal a true original native of America.” WWWW? 1

149 Senatorial Terms The people now elect senators, but unlike the president, senators have no limit on the number of terms they can serve. In recent years citizens have debated setting term limits for senators. Some people feel that having a limited term of activity would encourage senators to work harder for the people they represent. WWWW? 3

150 Land Speculator The Latin specula, which means “watchtower,” is part of the etymology of speculator. It could be said that a speculator’s attempts to second-guess the future are like trying to see far away from the top of a watchtower. You Don’t Say 1

151 Making Comparisons Why Learn This Skill?
Suppose you want to buy a portable compact disc (CD) player, and you must choose among three models. You would probably compare characteristics of the three models, such as price, sound quality, and size, to figure out which model is best for you. When you study American history, you often compare people or events from one time period with those from a different time period. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. SkillBuilder 1

152 This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook.
Making Comparisons Learning the Skill When making comparisons, you examine two or more groups, situations, events, or documents. Then you identify similarities and differences. For example, the chart on this page compares two documents, specifically the powers each gave the federal government. The Articles of Confederation were implemented before the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. SkillBuilder 2

153 This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook.
Making Comparisons Learning the Skill When making comparisons, you first decide what items will be compared and determine which characteristics you will use to compare them. Then you identify similarities and differences in these characteristics. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. SkillBuilder 3

154 This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook.
Making Comparisons Practicing the Skill Analyze the information on the chart on the right. Then answer the following questions. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. SkillBuilder 4

155 Making Comparisons Practicing the Skill
1. What items are being compared? The powers of the federal government as identified in the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution are being compared. 2. Which document allowed the government to organize state militias? The United States Constitution allowed for the organization of militias. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. SkillBuilder 5

156 Making Comparisons Practicing the Skill
3. Which document allowed the government to coin money? Regulate trade? Both documents allowed the government to coin money. The United States Constitution regulated trade. 4. In what ways are the two documents different? The Constitution specifies powers that are not named in the Articles. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. SkillBuilder 6

157 Making Comparisons Practicing the Skill
5. In what ways are the two documents similar? Both documents give the federal government the power to declare war and make peace, coin money, manage foreign affairs, and establish a postal system. This feature can be found on page 206 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. SkillBuilder 7

158 The Power of the Constitution
Objectives After viewing “The Power of the Constitution,” you should:  Understand that Benjamin Franklin had reservations about the Constitution.  Recognize that people’s biases and opinions can affect their decisions.  Recognize that creating and signing the Constitution, despite its perceived flaws, was a critical step in the birth of this new country. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of The American Republic to 1877 video. Video 1

159 The Power of the Constitution
Discussion Question What problems did Franklin see with gathering a group of men together “in order to achieve the object of having joint wisdom”? Men bring with them their prejudices, passions, errors in judgment, and self-interests. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Video 2

160 The Power of the Constitution
Discussion Question Did Franklin consider the Constitution to be a perfect document? No, but he thought it was as good as it could be under the circumstances. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Video 3

161 Maps and Charts 1

162 Why It Matters Transparency

163 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Daily Focus Skills 1

164 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Daily Focus Skills 2

165 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Daily Focus Skills 3

166 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
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167 End of Slide Show


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