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Session Title: Urban Local Bodies ( Municipalities and Municipal Corporations ) — A Historical perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "Session Title: Urban Local Bodies ( Municipalities and Municipal Corporations ) — A Historical perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 Session Title: Urban Local Bodies ( Municipalities and Municipal Corporations ) — A Historical perspective

2 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 12 Session Overview:  In this session we will discuss: the origin and evolution of urban local self government, the origin and evolution of urban local self government, the system of the same in ancient and present India. the system of the same in ancient and present India. Next

3 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 13 Learning Objectives:  The overview of this will enable the participants to understand the role and importance of urban local self government in urban society. to understand the role and importance of urban local self government in urban society. Next

4 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 14 Origin of urban local self government Development in all its possible dimensions– social, economic and political – is the cry of the day, not only in the developed countries,Development in all its possible dimensions– social, economic and political – is the cry of the day, not only in the developed countries, but especially in the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America as well, which have earned independence after the Second World War. but especially in the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America as well, which have earned independence after the Second World War. Next

5 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 15 These “New States” aspire for modernity and feel the pressing necessity of rapid national development.These “New States” aspire for modernity and feel the pressing necessity of rapid national development. Next

6 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 16 The tendency in the countries today is towardsThe tendency in the countries today is towards organizing local governments to give them sound footing, and organizing local governments to give them sound footing, and to make them play a substantial role in the process of economic and political transformation. to make them play a substantial role in the process of economic and political transformation. Next

7 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 17 The industrial revolution,The industrial revolution, new scientific and technological advancements,new scientific and technological advancements, need for social and economic changes need for social and economic changes -- are some of the causes which have generally widened the scope of the activities of the state, vis-à- vis, local governments. Next

8 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 18 The municipal government in the urban areas may be conceived asThe municipal government in the urban areas may be conceived as -- an elected political institution for local popular choice for local civic services. Next

9 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 19 It has been universally regarded as people’s government at the grass roots level in the shape of local government for the urban areas.It has been universally regarded as people’s government at the grass roots level in the shape of local government for the urban areas. Next

10 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 110 A municipality, being closest to the local community, is favourably suited toA municipality, being closest to the local community, is favourably suited to respond to diverse local needs in the most economical manner. respond to diverse local needs in the most economical manner. It enhances people’s participation and political awarenessIt enhances people’s participation and political awareness Next

11 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 111 The word ‘municipality’ denotesThe word ‘municipality’ denotes a town, city or district that has its local government, and a town, city or district that has its local government, and ‘corporation’ refers to‘corporation’ refers to a group of people elected to govern a large town or city and provide public services. a group of people elected to govern a large town or city and provide public services. Next

12 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 112 The name city or town is given to certain communitiesThe name city or town is given to certain communities  by virtue of some legal or conventional distinction and  it refers to an urban area incorporated by special or general act of state legislature. Next

13 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 113 Its charter of incorporation prescribes the extent of municipal powers and the frame of local government subject to constitutional limitation and amendment. Its charter of incorporation prescribes the extent of municipal powers and the frame of local government subject to constitutional limitation and amendment. Next

14 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 114 A municipal town is generally acclaimed to have these characteristics:A municipal town is generally acclaimed to have these characteristics: ¾ of the adult male population chiefly employed in pursuits other than agriculture;¾ of the adult male population chiefly employed in pursuits other than agriculture; not less than 3000 residents;not less than 3000 residents; an average number of not less than 1000 inhabitants to the square miles; andan average number of not less than 1000 inhabitants to the square miles; and it serves as the primary school for training in the management of the government.it serves as the primary school for training in the management of the government. Next

15 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 115 The origin of urban development dates back to the ancient age. to the ancient age.

16 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 116 The earliest of man’s settlements grew in the rich subtropical valleys of the Nile, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus and the Yellow rivers or in such well-watered islands of Crete.The earliest of man’s settlements grew in the rich subtropical valleys of the Nile, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus and the Yellow rivers or in such well-watered islands of Crete. Such areas provided favourable environmental factors making town living relatively easy.Such areas provided favourable environmental factors making town living relatively easy. Next

17 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 117 Historians believeHistorians believe  that man started relatively fixed settlement about 10,000 years ago in the Neolithic age.  evolution of the Neolithic village into a city took more than 1,500 years in the Old World from 5,000 to 3,500 B.C. Next

18 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 118 Domestication of animals and technological developments in agriculture tuned with development in transportation facilitated man’s settlement in urban places.Domestication of animals and technological developments in agriculture tuned with development in transportation facilitated man’s settlement in urban places. Next

19 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 119 This is evident fromThis is evident from  the city based settlements in Tigris-Euphrates valley around 3,500 B.C,  Sumerian Coast at Ur and in the Indus Valley at Mohenjo-daro and in the valleys of Nile. Next

20 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 120 Cities proliferated along overland trade-roots from Turkestan to the Caspian and then to the Persian Gulf and eastern Mediterranean.Cities proliferated along overland trade-roots from Turkestan to the Caspian and then to the Persian Gulf and eastern Mediterranean. Next

21 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 121 The heterogeneous peoples of the Greco-Roman world inheritedThe heterogeneous peoples of the Greco-Roman world inherited  a technological and non-material culture from Asia that helped nourish the growth of cities. Next

22 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 122 In the Greek city-state or ‘polis’ the ancient city system of administration reached its peak.In the Greek city-state or ‘polis’ the ancient city system of administration reached its peak. Next

23 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 123  In the medieval age (12th and 13th centuries) new towns were set up, and  the age witnessed a singular upsurge toward civic autonomy. Next

24 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 124  Towns in western Europe had various kinds of municipal institutions loosely grouped together under the designation ‘commune’. Next

25 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 125  The renaissance and industrialisation was a watershed in the modern urban world which witnessed a rapid growth in urban development. Next

26 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 126  More number of cities and townships came into being advent of rapid modes of transit, advent of rapid modes of transit, communications, new building materials, communications, new building materials, the automobile and rising level of per capita personal income. the automobile and rising level of per capita personal income. Next

27 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 127 Types of Municipal system  The municipal system of government today may be classified in four principal types:  the decentralised system found in federal constitutions; Next

28 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 128  the decentralized system found in unitary constitutions;  the supervisory system found under “Napoleonic’ or French-type administration; and  the integrated system found in eastern Europe. Next

29 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 129 Modern day urban planning  With the growth of more urban areas in the present day the need for proper civic administration is of paramount importance. Next

30 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 130  A modern day city or town has to look after the following needs shown in the next slide: Next

31 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 131 orderly arrangement of parts of the city orderly arrangement of parts of the city residential, business and industrial residential, business and industrial so that each part could perform its functions with minimum cost and conflict; so that each part could perform its functions with minimum cost and conflict; Next

32 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 132 an efficient system of circulation within the city and to the outside world, using to the maximum advantage of all modes of transportation; an efficient system of circulation within the city and to the outside world, using to the maximum advantage of all modes of transportation; Next

33 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 133 the development of each part of the city to optimum standards, in terms of plot size, sunlight, and green space in residential areas and parking and building spacing in business areas; the development of each part of the city to optimum standards, in terms of plot size, sunlight, and green space in residential areas and parking and building spacing in business areas; Next

34 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 134 provision of safe, sanitary and comfortable housing in a variety of dwelling types to meet the needs of all families; provision of safe, sanitary and comfortable housing in a variety of dwelling types to meet the needs of all families; Next

35 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 135 provision of recreation, schools and other community services of adequate size, location and quality; provision of recreation, schools and other community services of adequate size, location and quality; provision of adequate and economical water supply, sewerage, utilities and public services. provision of adequate and economical water supply, sewerage, utilities and public services. Next

36 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 136 Urban self government in Ancient India  The idea of local self government was present even during the grand old days of Vedic India.  The cult of “Sabha” (Popular Assembly) and mention of city administration in the ancient epics show evidence of existence of constitutional government at local level. Next

37 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 137  Kautilya’s “Arthasastra” of 300 B.C. talks of city administration by state appointed “Nagaraka” (City Superintendent) performing various civic functions  The accounts of Megasthenes, narrate performance of various civic administration and formation of local bodies like “Kudumbus” (wards). Next

38 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 138 Urban self government in British India  the present system of municipal government was by and large introduced in this country by the British Government.  Madras was the first city to be established as a municipal corporation in Next

39 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 139  Municipal Corporations were created for Calcutta and Bombay by a Royal Charter granted in  More Municipalities and Corporations were set up in different areas progressively. Next

40 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 140  Socio-political obligations chiefly led to the creation of those urban local governments to bring down pressure on the royal treasury, to bring down pressure on the royal treasury, to look after the health and well-being of the British soldiers and to look after the health and well-being of the British soldiers and to facilitate collection of taxes and revenues from the local inhabitants. to facilitate collection of taxes and revenues from the local inhabitants. Next

41 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 141  The Bengal Act X of 1842 the first municipal legislation outside the Presidency town of Calcutta. the first municipal legislation outside the Presidency town of Calcutta. replaced by the Act XXVI of 1850 as an all-India measure. replaced by the Act XXVI of 1850 as an all-India measure. Next

42 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 142  Lord Rippon’s famous Act of 1884 universally acknowledged as the harbinger of local democracy in urban India. universally acknowledged as the harbinger of local democracy in urban India. brought about fundamental changes in the municipal structure, functions and responsibilities, and brought about fundamental changes in the municipal structure, functions and responsibilities, and under this Act, all members of the Board were to be elected. under this Act, all members of the Board were to be elected. Next

43 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 143  Later, this Act was substituted by the Bengal Municipal Act 1932 which continued to be the basic guiding municipal legislation in the pre -independence era. which continued to be the basic guiding municipal legislation in the pre -independence era. Next

44 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 144 Urban self government in Post Independence India  After independence and with the inauguration of the Constitution the position of local self government institutions has assumed an increasing importance in the political and administrative set-up of the country. the position of local self government institutions has assumed an increasing importance in the political and administrative set-up of the country. Next

45 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 145 Urban self government in Post Independence India  A Central Council of Local Self- Government was established under Article 263 of the Constitution by a Presidential order in September,  This provided a forum for discussion of policy and programmes on local self government. Next

46 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 146 Constitutionalising the ULBs  A wave of decentralization of service delivery to local governments gathered momentum in the 1990s, including countries like Albania, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Ethiopia, Malawi, Madagascar, Philippines, South Africa, Uzbekistan Uganda and Zambia. Next

47 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 147 Constitutionalising the ULBs  India also implemented a countrywide experiment with decentralisation to urban local governments with the passage of 74th Constitutional Amendment in Next

48 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 148  The 74th Amendment Act, 1992 inserted Articles 243 P to 243 ZG, for uniform compliance throughout the country. Next

49 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 149  the major features of Articles 243 P to 243 ZG are: a) Granting ULBs constitutional status; a) Granting ULBs constitutional status; b) Ensuring free, fair and regular elections; b) Ensuring free, fair and regular elections; c) Keeping terms fixed; c) Keeping terms fixed; d) Identifying a list of 18 subjects to come under the jurisdiction of the ULBs as enumerated in the Twelfth Schedule; d) Identifying a list of 18 subjects to come under the jurisdiction of the ULBs as enumerated in the Twelfth Schedule; Next

50 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 150 e) Setting up of a State Finance Commission once in five years to review ULB financial position and make suitable recommendations for fund distribution to ULBs; e) Setting up of a State Finance Commission once in five years to review ULB financial position and make suitable recommendations for fund distribution to ULBs; f) Independent State Election Commission to supervise preparation of electoral rolls and control electoral process; f) Independent State Election Commission to supervise preparation of electoral rolls and control electoral process; Next

51 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 151 g) Proportionate reservation of seats and offices of Chairpersons at all levels for SC and ST, with one third reserved for SC/ST women; g) Proportionate reservation of seats and offices of Chairpersons at all levels for SC and ST, with one third reserved for SC/ST women; h) One third of total seats and chairperson offices reserved for women; h) One third of total seats and chairperson offices reserved for women; i) The centrality of Ward Committees to decentralise governance. i) The centrality of Ward Committees to decentralise governance. Next

52 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 152  Article 243W enjoins the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government. the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government. Next

53 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 153  Such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Municipalities with respect to: the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the 12 th Schedule. the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the 12 th Schedule. Next

54 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 154  Thus, the 74th Constitutional Amendment consolidated social gains conceived in establishing the ULBs throughout the country and social gains conceived in establishing the ULBs throughout the country and imposed a political uniformity on the structure and working of the third tier. imposed a political uniformity on the structure and working of the third tier. Next

55 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 155 Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal This part is to be adopted as per Sate specific scenario  Modernisation in the system of Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal started in the late seventies. Next

56 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 156 Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal This part is to be adopted as per Sate specific scenario  The State Government constituted an Urban Development Strategy Committee which recommended, inter alia: bringing uniformity in the development programmes of the municipalities and corporations, bringing uniformity in the development programmes of the municipalities and corporations, optimum utilisation of local resources, optimum utilisation of local resources, Next

57 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 157 giving precedence to the development of the poorest section of the society, giving precedence to the development of the poorest section of the society, decentralisation of development schemes entrusting the local bodies to draw the schemes for civic services and execution thereof. decentralisation of development schemes entrusting the local bodies to draw the schemes for civic services and execution thereof. Next

58 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 158  Besides, the five-point programme followed by the State Government included inter alia: holding civic elections of all the urban local bodies at fixed regular intervals, holding civic elections of all the urban local bodies at fixed regular intervals, establishing development in the urban infrastructure, efficiency, modernisation and transparency, establishing development in the urban infrastructure, efficiency, modernisation and transparency, Next

59 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 159  There are 117 municipalities, 6 municipal corporations and 3 notified area authorities in West Bengal.  Municipal Corporations are located in: Kolkata Kolkata Howrah, Howrah, Silliguri, Silliguri, Assansol, Assansol, Chandernagore, Chandernagore, Durgapur Durgapur Next

60 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 160 Budget provision and expenditure of Urban Local Bodies in West Bengal (Rs. in Crores) Next

61 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 161 The percentage of over all expenditure is illustrated in the following graphs: (Rs. in crores) YearBudget Estimate Actual Expenditure Savings(+)/ Excess(-) Percentage of Over all Expenditure (+) (+) (+) Next

62 Training Module on 'Audit of ULBs' Session 162 Analysis of Financial performance  Subject to availability of data, a performance study on the working of ULBs may be made through an interesting analysis of allotment, vis- à-vis, actual expenditure under different heads, as shown below by way of illustration, say for the year : Heads Allotment (Rs in crore.) Actual Expenditure (Rs. in crore) Savings (+)/ Excess (-) % age of Savings/Exce ss Salaries500525(-) 25(-) 5 Sewerage5035(+) 15(+) 30 Sanitation5030(+) 20(+) 40 Water supply200150(+) 50(+) 25 Health care10070(+) 30 Solid Waste Management (+) 150(+) 50


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