Presentation on theme: "Review Questions for New Government and the Rise of Political Parties Be prepared for a Reading Quiz on Wednesday on Political Parties BIG TEST on this."— Presentation transcript:
Review Questions for New Government and the Rise of Political Parties Be prepared for a Reading Quiz on Wednesday on Political Parties BIG TEST on this Friday!
After the Constitution was written…. Washington was elected President by unanimous vote Washington set a precedent (example) by appointing a cabinet of advisors John Adams was the first Vice President Alexander Hamilton was Secretary of the Treasury Thomas Jefferson was the first Secretary of State Henry Knox the first Secretary of War
Major Points of Hamilton’s Plan National government consolidate and pay all state war debts Create a National Bank Imposing tariffs on imported manufactured goods Tax on Distilled Spirits – (Whiskey Tax)
Why did Jefferson oppose Hamilton’s plan? Jefferson held a strict interpretation of the Constitution – he said there was nothing in the Constitution that allowed for the creation of a National Bank
What part of Constitution used by Hamilton to create the bank? Article One: 1.8 – Powers granted to Congress 1.818 – To make laws necessary for carrying out powers – (called the “elastic clause”) The writers of the Constitution made the Constitution so that it would be flexible over time So Hamilton used this “elastic” clause
Why did southerners oppose Hamilton’s plan? Southerners opposed tariffs because they imported manufactured goods from other countries Tariffs are taxes on imported goods
Why was the Whiskey tax unpopular with farmers? Farmers used whiskey AS MONEY, in other words, they traded whiskey for clothing and shoes for their children Farmers did not have money to pay the tax Many farmers could not transport crops to markets far away, so they turned their grain into whiskey for easier transport and sale
Washington’s reaction to Whiskey Rebellion Washington sent troops to put down the rebellion Question about government: This action by the government showed that the new government under the Constitution worked
What were the three major points of Washington’s Farewell Address? 1. U.S. should stay neutral and avoid alliances with other countries Government should be based on morality Avoid forming political parties – they are dangerous – they cause people to work for the interest of the party rather than the public good
In spite of Washington’s warning, political parties did develop…
Fill in your Charts regarding Political Parties Federalist Party Leader? Alexander Hamilton (and later John Adams) Type of Gov’t: Strong Central Government Power in hands of the wealthy Economy based on industry, shipping and trade Loose interpretation of Constitution Favored England Democratic-Republican Party Leader? Thomas Jefferson Type of Gov’t: small central government with more power to states Power in hand of the people (farmers the backbone of the country) Economy based on farming Strict interpretation of Constitution Favored France
Question 3: Debt was the problem facing the nation. 4. Another problem facing the nation? Global politics – France and Britain (England) were at war – It was hard for the U.S. to remain neutral and stay on good terms with both nations – this proved impossible.
Question 5: Which country did each party support? Federalists? Supported neutrality. Q6: They did not support the Revolution going on in France – they felt it was a bad influence on people here. (Think Shay’s Rebellion…) Democratic Republicans supported France – they believed the French Revolution would create a government closer to the new government in the U.S.
Q7: What fears did the French Revolution bring up for Federalists? Federalists feared the ideas of the French Revolution – that the people should be in control
Q8: Why did Congress pass the Naturalization, Alien and Sedition Acts? If the French Revolution was successful – it would spread dangerous ideas of rebellion to America. Whiskey Rebellion – farmers revolted when the government passed a tax on making and selling Whiskey – Washington had to send troops to put that down
Q9: Define: Naturalization Act: required 14 years residency for immigrants could become U.S. citizens Alien Act: allowed the government to remove foreigners deemed “untrustworthy.” Sedition Act: limited free speech – When Democratic Republicans criticized John Adams and the Federalists in the newspapers, using the Sedition Act, news publishers and writers were arrested and jailed
Q 10: How did Jefferson and his followers view these Acts? Jefferson and the DR’s saw these laws as: 1. Abuses of power on the part of the government 2. Violations of the Constitution and its Bill of Rights
Q. 11. Why were the K and V resolutions written? These resolutions were written in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Questions 12: What did these resolutions say? These resolutions said that if a state believed a federal law to be unconstitutional, it did not have to obey or enforce it. Q 13: This idea that states can decide not to obey a federal law became known as the doctrine of nullification.
Q: 14: Define: Doctrine of Nullification If states believe a federal law is unconstitutional, they may choose not to obey or enforce that law. Yes, many agricultural states (southern and slave-holding) would often cling to this idea that states did not have to obey laws they felt were unconstitutional.
Q15: When did the Federalist Party fade from power? With the end of the War of 1812, the Federalists faded from power for good. The Whig Party took its place.
Q 16: The U.S. Constitution is founded on a ______ government. Answer? Limited government and the rule of law Q17: Briefly describe: The government must obey the laws
Q 18: Which group or body of people elects the President? The President is elected by the Electoral College However: Keep in mind that we have a representative government, where the people elect representatives to speak for them. This is evident in the Congress: House of Representatives – based on population Senate – based on equal representation
Q 19: How has the U.S. become more democratic? People no longer have to own property to vote. Several amendments have been passed to allow groups of people to vote who could not previously.
Q. 20: Why did the framers insist on Separation of Powers? The framers did not want one branch of government to become too powerful – so the three branches share power and can check the powers of the other branches.
Q. 21 Three branches Legislative – Article One Executive – Article Two Judicial- Article Three CongressPresidentSupreme Court Passes lawsCommands the military Interprets the laws passed Can declare warCan veto lawsCan declare laws unconstitutional TAX LAWS START IN THE HOUSE OF REPS Power of Judicial Review - Marshall
Q. 22: What are checks and balances? Each branch has certain ways to “check” or balance the power of the other branches to make sure no one branch becomes too powerful.
Q 23: What are some of the major checks and balances that come up? The most common ones that come up are: The Senate has to approve the President’s appointments to cabinet positions and to the Supreme Court Judicial Review – the Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress or actions of the President unconstitutional Presidents can veto laws passed by Congress
Q 24: Define: Federalism This is when government power is shared between the various levels of government The National Government State Governments Local Governments State Governments Local Governments
Judicial Review 1803 John Marshall wrote this decision in 1803 and it established the power of the court to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional. Marbury vs. Madison