2 This will aim to…Show continuity in terms of hierarchical approach, use of autocracy (but with gradients) and use of force to sustain rule.Show change in terms of liberal policies towards the people, view of leaders as “Little Fathers” and complete change with Provisional Government.
5 TSAR Chaired by Tsar, nominated officials. Drafted legislation. Council of MinistersChaired by Tsar, nominated officials.Drafted legislation.Abandoned by Al III in 1882.The SenateUntil 1905 Supreme Court.Final court of appeal, promoted manifestos and adjudicated disagreementsCommittee of MinistersPersonal Chancellery of Imperial MajestyPersonal Secretaries.Legal Advisors.Third Section.Replaced in 1861.TSARAutocratic.Controlled policy making + implementation.All accountable to the Tsar13 ministers with specific responsibilities, i.e. finance.Often conflicting.
6 Tsar – still ruled as Autocrat – Fundamental Laws of 1906. Council of MinistersMain law making body, chaired by PM (Witte). Provided material for lower chambers to debate.Implemented decisions on the Tsar’s authority.State CouncilActed as a check on the Duma, both had to agree on the nature of reforms before the Tsar could be asked. Elected by the Tsar or nominated by Zemstva, towns, churches etc.The DumaElected from range of groups to debate government affairs. Could only block legislation, not vote. Had to vote for “others” to choose those that could sit in the Duma. Tsar could, and did, disband it. Elections every 5 years.The SenateUntil 1905 Supreme Court.Final court of appeal, promoted manifestos and adjudicated disagreements
7 Chairmen: Lenin/Stalin/ Khrushchev All Russian Congress of Soviets andCentral Executive CommitteeSovnarkom – Council of People’s Commissars(ministers had specific responsibilities)Cheka – charged with fighting counter revolution.Exec = 10% of Congress and filled Politburo, Orgburo and OgburoChairmen: Lenin/Stalin/KhrushchevMembers product of chain of elections, but dominated by Bolsheviks Central Executive Committee
9 Alex II (mutton chops) Tsar Liberator – still autocrat. Refused to change after Crimea, despite failures.Reform aimed to make Russia a world power.Emancipation of the Serfs.Zemstva helped both peasants and landowners.Introduced local duma 1870.1864 legal reforms, better pay for judges and jury system.More repressive post 1866.BUT – Vera Zasulich case suggested failure.
10 Alexander III (beast) Much less liberal. 1881 Manifesto. Opposition, People’s Will, ruthlessly suppressed.Reactionary.Influenced by Pobedonostev.Believed people not ready for democracy or constitution.1881 centralised police under Minister for interior, special courts for political cases and Land Captains brought in.
11 Nicholas II (weak as a pigeon) Similar to father.1905 Duma followed by 1906 Fundamental Laws.Motivations uncertain.Russo-Japanese War, Bloody Sunday and mutiny of the Potemkin = social unrest.Duma and Zemstva flourished and pressured central government, but irritated government too.Oversaw 4 Duma (2 fired, 4th forced him to abdicate with the Progressive Bloc getting it suspended by 1915).Oversaw collapse of economy and WWI disaster.Saw increasing unrest in 1917 with strikes, marches and workers’ protests until abdication.
12 Provisional Government Abdication not expected.Self appointed – Old Guard?Shared authority with Petrograd Soviet.8 Principles of free speech, end to death penalty etc.Allowed protest groups.Economic disaster.Struggled with peasant land seizures, didn’t take initiative.Wanted decisive WWI victory.Suffered July Days and Kronstadt mutiny and Kornilov affair.Kicked out 27th Oct, Lenin had returned 7th Oct.
14 Lenin (Reptilian)Allowed Constituent Assembly elections, rejected after 1 day.Issued Decree of Land, sanctioned land grabs.Signed peace of Brest-Litovsk.Centralised control during Civil War.Tolerated moderates and debate was allowed.Opposition eradicated.Membership of Bolsheviks = privilege.10% apparatchiki (full time organisers), 30% “other administrators” and rest workers/peasants.Become detached from the grassroots.
15 Stalin (Paranoid Android) Continued democratic centralism.1936 Constitution promised greater representation for nation states in government.Argued new superstructure needed, i.e. 5 Year Plans and Collectivisation.Personalised control, accused opposition of being bourgeois.Developed cult of personality.Different versions of ideology.
16 Khrushchev (shoe-t me!) De-stalinisation through secret speech.Saw off opposition (Beria, Malenkov, Vorishilov) and idea of collective leadership.Also saw off Anti-Party Group who wanted to remove position of First Secretary.Promoted idea of thaw in repression but used MVD to maintain power.Still dismissed politicians at will, i.e. Zhukov, Bulganin.Introduced new members and removed Stalinist supporters.Virgin Land Scheme offered.Relaxed censorship and removed cult of personality.
17 Key Examples for Nature of Government What changes? Examples?What continues? Examples?