Dimensions for evaluating democratic institutions. Normative Positive Defining presidential, parliamentary, and mixed democracies How do they work? Implications of executive-legislative relations for policies and stability of democracy.
Protection of liberty Protection of minorities Decisiveness, especially under stress Credibility of commitments Stability Quality of democracy Representativeness Accountability Rent-seeking and corruption
Public versus private goods Broad versus targeted programs and expenditures The extent of redistribution Budget deficits Size of government as a share of GDP
Protection of liberty, prevention of tyranny.
Some issues: ▪ Madison and Hamilton: Ambition should counteract ambition ▪ But tyranny in parliamentary democracies? ▪ Too much power in hands of president? Russia? Too easy to fall into authoritarianism?
Some issues: ▪ Uncertainty about coalitions ▪ Decree authority ▪ Gridlock
Stability of democracy. What did you learn in the readings?
Stability of democracy. What did you learn in the readings? Why do presidential democracies fail? Gridlock, divided government ▪ Why do presidential systems end up with divided government?
Stability of democracy. What did you learn in the readings? Why do presidential democracies fail? Gridlock, divided government ▪ Why do presidential systems end up with divided government? ▪ Geography ▪ Balancing
The disciplining role of the no-confidence procedure What incentives do individual members of the legislature face?
Is there a problem with presidential democracy, or perhaps a problem with multi- party presidential democracy?
The “quality” of democracy What did Bagehot say? Accountability Responsiveness
What kinds of countries choose presidentialism?
Moments when demands for strong leadership are overwhelming. Constitutions written by “strongmen” (De Gaul, Yeltsin). History of military involvement in politics. Large and diverse countries?