Presentation on theme: "Ms. Gewecke Unit 2 Government. What form of government do we have here in the United States? Democracy: Rule by the people; power changes hands through."— Presentation transcript:
Ms. Gewecke Unit 2 Government
What form of government do we have here in the United States? Democracy: Rule by the people; power changes hands through voting. Two Types of Democracy Direct Representative
Direct Democracy ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Every citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making. 2. Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a broad base of support and loyalty. 3. Individual liberties are protected. 1. Only works when a small number of people are involved. Ability to gather all citizens in one place is necessary. 2. Decision making involving all citizens is time- consuming. All citizens give input, debate, etc... Government in which all citizens have equal power in decision making.
Representative Democracy Government in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Citizens are involved in decision making through their representatives, lobbying, and voting. 2. Representatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs of their constituents. 3. More likely that all elements of the population are represented. 1. Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please everyone may cripple system. 2. Representatives may not always agree with those they represent. 3. Lack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives. 4. Generally, reps are educated and more-capable citizens who can devote time needed to solve complex problems.
Autocracy Rule by one; usually does not have to answer to the will of the people ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. People may be united in their loyalty since there is no competition for trust and affection. 2. In an emergency, a ruler can move quickly to take action. No time is lost in debate or discussion. 1. People are afforded little or no individual liberty. Civil rights may be trampled on. 2. A ruler’s policies suit their own needs. Needs of the people may be neglected. 3. Decision making has a narrow base - can be flawed, wrong, dangerous, and not fully supported by the people.
Oligarchy Form of government in which the power is in the hands of a few persons or small group (who have the combined power of an autocracy.) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Decisions can be made relatively quickly. 2. May provide expert leadership while avoiding the danger of one-person rule. 3. In theory, they are the most qualified members of society. 4. Members of the oligarchy listen to each other - they work together to rule. Same as Autocracy (Needs and wants of the people are not necessarily considered.)
Authoritarianism: Government with a concentration of power in a leader or elite group that has NO constitutional obligation to the people. Governments that Limit/Can Limit Civil Rights Totalitarianism: Government in which the power to rule embraces all matters of human concern (politics, society, culture); force is usually used to enforce the government’s policies. What’s the difference between the two? Not Much!! However, authoritarian governments have existed in which the needs of the people have been a priority to the leadership.
Dictatorship: the arbitrary rule by an individual that is not constitutionally responsible to the people or their elected representatives. Governments that Limit/Can Limit Civil Rights
A dictatorship, authoritarian government, and a totalitarian government are very similar by definition. In our society, we tend to think of people like Hitler, Stalin and Hussein when we talk about dictators. Would authoritarian, totalitarian and dictatorships be classified as autocracies, oligarchies or democracies?
Who are some recent dictators? Muammar Gaddafi, Libya Kim Jong Il, North Korea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Equatorial Guinea
Who are some recent dictators? Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran Raul Castro, Cuba Hugo Chavez, Venezuela /current-dictators/
Some Examples of Autocratic Governments Monarchy: a form of government based on the rule of a single person who is normally chosen by hereditary succession; king or queen Absolute Monarchy: the king or queen has complete authority and control over the government and the population
Legitimate Autocracy: rule is passed down from generation to generation through a peaceful succession of power A monarchy is an example of a Legitimate Autocracy!
Banana Republic: country in which a series of illegitimate autocracies have taken control If a legitimate autocracy is defined by a peaceful succession of power generation after generation, what do you think an Illegitimate Autocracy is? Illegitimate Autocracy: power is seized by means of force.
Coup D’état a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics; especially : the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group Historical Examples of a Coup D’état? 1979 – September 29: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo overthrows Francisco Macias Nguema July 16th: Sadam Hussein overthrows Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr Jun 30th: Omar Hassan Ahmad al- Bashir overthrows Ahmed al-Mirghani
Some examples of autocratic governments (cont.) Feudalism: a medieval form of social, economic and political organization in which a king or queen gave noblemen land in return for military service and forces. The noblemen allowed serfs to live on and farm the land in return for most of the goods produced; overall, the king or queen has control King or Queen Noblemen Serfs Control Military forces and supplies Goods produced Land Safe place to live
Some examples of Oligarchic Governments Aristocracy: government based on the rule of the privileged class; social elite such as noblemen Plutocracy: government based on the rule of the wealthy class Theocracy: government based on the rule of religious leaders
Some examples of Oligarchic Governments Fascism: a political regime that exalts the nation and sometimes race above the importance of the individual; strong central authority is usually symbolized in a dictatorial leader who enforces strict regimentation and uses violence to defeat any opposition. Adolf Hitler was the dictatorial leader of the Nazi Party, a fascist regime, in Germany from the early 1930s to 1945.
Terms related to Democratic Governments Republic: (basically the same as a representative democracy); a form of government characterized by popular sovereignty Popular Sovereignty: the belief that all political power ultimately rests with the people A government in which the people directly exercise their power by debating and voting on every issue is a __________________. A government in which the people elect representatives who hold the decision making power is a ____________________.
Terms related to Democratic Governments Constitution: a document that specifies the laws and principles under which a government operates; defines which level of government has which powers What are the levels of government referred to here? Constitutional Monarchy: a king or queen has the powers granted to them by the country’s constitution King or Queen Elected Representatives Powers defined by a constitution
A very, very, very, brief look at and comparison of Capitalism, Socialism and Communism What is capitalism? First, it’s NOT a form of government!! It is an economic system Based on: private ownership of the means of producing goods and services competition Often referred to as the Free Enterprise or Private Enterprise system
More on Capitalism... The means of production, distribution and exchange (factories, mines, stores, farms, railroads, airlines, banks) are privately owned and managed. Competition is the “lifeblood” of the system. Competition (in its purest form): involves providing the best possible product at the lowest possible price Using this definition of competition, does the U.S. have a pure capitalist system?
The United States has a system that is commonly referred to as a Mixed Economy. Mixed Economy: economic system in which both private enterprise and regulation play important roles What are some examples of how our national, state and local governments regulate our economy? Antitrust Laws Pure Food and Drug Laws Regulation of Pollution Investment Regulations Zoning Ordinances
When an economic system is based on the public ownership of the means by which goods and services are produced, distributed, and exchanged, it is called Socialism rejects the ideas of private ownership, competition, and profit (the opposite of competition) Socialism
Most modern-day socialists follow a doctrine of democratic socialism: an economic system managed by democratically elected leaders The government plays the dominant role in regulating the economy, thereby eliminating class differences and fluctuations in the market
Communism An extreme form of socialism with an authoritarian government that rests on the idea of collective ownership and control of property and the means of production; all individuals are expected to contribute to society according to ability and all receive from society according to need. Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto, which spelled out why he believed a communist system like this would eliminate class differences.
While Marx believed that a “collective ownership” was essential, former Soviet Union leader and founder, Vladimir Lenin altered the concept of communism. allowed for a strong centralized government that would control the economy the government was not a “collective” - it was an example of totalitarianism believed that a revolution was necessary to overthrow capitalism