Presentation on theme: "Ms. Gewecke Unit 2 Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Ms. Gewecke Unit 2 Government Government FormsMs. GeweckeUnit 2Government
2What form of government do we have here in the United States? Democracy: Rule by the people; powerchanges hands through voting.Two Types of DemocracyDirectRepresentative
3Government in which all citizens have equal power in decision making. Direct DemocracyGovernment in which all citizens have equal power in decision making.ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. Every citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making.1. Only works when a small number of people are involved. Ability to gather all citizens in one place is necessary.2. Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a broad base of support and loyalty.2. Decision making involving all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give input, debate, etc...3. Individual liberties are protected.
4Representative Democracy Government in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power.ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. Citizens are involved in decision making through their representatives, lobbying, and voting.1. Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please everyone may cripple system.2. Representatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs of their constituents.2. Representatives may not always agree with those they represent.3. More likely that all elements of the population are represented.3. Lack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.4. Generally, reps are educated and more-capable citizens who can devote time needed to solve complex problems.
5Autocracy ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Rule by one; usually does not have to answer to the will of the peopleADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. People are afforded little or no individual liberty. Civil rights may be trampled on.1. People may be united in their loyalty since there is no competition for trust and affection.2. A ruler’s policies suit their own needs. Needs of the people may be neglected.2. In an emergency, a ruler can move quickly to take action. No time is lost in debate or discussion.3. Decision making has a narrow base - can be flawed, wrong, dangerous, and not fully supported by the people.
6Oligarchy ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Form of government in which the power is in the hands of a few persons or small group (who have the combined power of an autocracy.)ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. Decisions can be made relatively quickly.Same as Autocracy(Needs and wants of the people are not necessarily considered.)2. May provide expert leadership while avoiding the danger of one-person rule.3. In theory, they are the most qualified members of society.4. Members of the oligarchy listen to each other - they work together to rule.
7Governments that Limit/Can Limit Civil Rights Totalitarianism: Government in which the power to rule embraces all matters of human concern (politics, society, culture); force is usually used to enforce the government’s policies.Authoritarianism: Government with a concentration of power in a leader or elite group that has NO constitutional obligation to the people.What’s the difference between the two?Not Much!! However, authoritarian governments have existed in which the needs of the people have been a priority to the leadership.
8Governments that Limit/Can Limit Civil Rights Dictatorship: the arbitrary rule by an individual that is not constitutionally responsible to the people or their elected representatives.
9A dictatorship, authoritarian government, and a totalitarian government are very similar by definition. In our society, we tend to think of people like Hitler, Stalin and Hussein when we talk about dictators.Would authoritarian, totalitarian and dictatorships be classified as autocracies, oligarchies or democracies?
10Who are some recent dictators? Muammar Gaddafi, LibyaKim Jong Il, North KoreaTeodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo,Equatorial Guinea
11Who are some recent dictators? Hugo Chavez,VenezuelaRaul Castro, CubaAyatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran
13Some Examples of Autocratic Governments Monarchy:a form of government based on the rule of a single person who is normally chosen by hereditary succession; king or queenAbsolute Monarchy:the king or queen has complete authority and control over the government and the population
14A monarchy is an example of a Legitimate Autocracy! rule is passed down from generation to generation through a peaceful succession of powerA monarchy is an example of a Legitimate Autocracy!
15If a legitimate autocracy is defined by a peaceful succession of power generation after generation, what do you think an Illegitimate Autocracy is?Illegitimate Autocracy: power is seized by means of force.Banana Republic: country in which a series of illegitimate autocracies have taken control
16Coup D’étata sudden decisive exercise of force in politics; especially : the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small groupHistorical Examples of a Coup D’état?1979 – September 29: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo overthrows Francisco Macias NguemaJuly 16th: Sadam Hussein overthrows Ahmad Hassan al-BakrJun 30th: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir overthrows Ahmed al-Mirghani
17Some examples of autocratic governments (cont.) Feudalism: a medieval form of social, economic and political organization in which a king or queen gave noblemen land in return for military service and forces. The noblemen allowed serfs to live on and farm the land in return for most of the goods produced; overall, the king or queen has controlKing or QueenLandMilitary forces and suppliesControlNoblemenSafe place to liveGoods producedControlSerfs
18Some examples of Oligarchic Governments Aristocracy: government based on the rule of the privileged class; social elite such as noblemenPlutocracy: government based on the rule of the wealthy classTheocracy: government based on the rule of religious leaders
19Some examples of Oligarchic Governments Fascism: a political regime that exalts the nation and sometimes race above the importance of the individual; strong central authority is usually symbolized in a dictatorial leader who enforces strict regimentation and uses violence to defeat any opposition.Adolf Hitler was the dictatorial leader of the Nazi Party, a fascist regime, in Germany from the early 1930s to 1945.
20Terms related to Democratic Governments A government in which the people directly exercise their power by debating and voting on every issue is a __________________.A government in which the people elect representatives who hold the decision making power is a ____________________.Republic: (basically the same as a representative democracy); a form of government characterized by popular sovereigntyPopular Sovereignty: the belief that all political power ultimately rests with the people
21What are the levels of government referred to here? Terms related to Democratic GovernmentsConstitution: a document that specifies the laws and principles under which a government operates; defines which level of government has which powersWhat are the levels of government referred to here?Constitutional Monarchy: a king or queen has the powers granted to them by the country’s constitutionKing or QueenElectedRepresentativesPowers defined by a constitution
22Capitalism, Socialism and Communism A very, very, very, brief look at and comparison ofCapitalism, Socialism and CommunismWhat is capitalism?First, it’s NOT a form of government!!It is an economic systemBased on:private ownership of the means of producing goods and servicescompetitionOften referred to as the Free Enterprise or Private Enterprise system
23More on Capitalism...The means of production, distribution and exchange (factories, mines, stores, farms, railroads, airlines, banks) are privately owned and managed.Competition is the “lifeblood” of the system.Competition (in its purest form): involves providing the best possible product at the lowest possible priceUsing this definition of competition, does the U.S. have a pure capitalist system?
24Regulation of Pollution Investment Regulations The United States has a system that is commonly referred to as a Mixed Economy.Mixed Economy: economic system in which both private enterprise and regulation play important rolesWhat are some examples of how our national, state and local governments regulate our economy?Antitrust LawsPure Food and Drug LawsRegulation of PollutionInvestment RegulationsZoning Ordinances
25SocialismWhen an economic system is based on the public ownership of the means by which goods and services are produced, distributed , and exchanged, it is called Socialismrejects the ideas of private ownership, competition, and profit (the opposite of competition)
26Most modern-day socialists follow a doctrine of democratic socialism: an economic system managed by democratically elected leadersThe government plays the dominant role in regulating the economy, thereby eliminating class differences and fluctuations in the market
27CommunismAn extreme form of socialism with an authoritarian government that rests on the idea of collective ownership and control of property and the means of production; all individuals are expected to contribute to society according to ability and all receive from society according to need.Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto, which spelled out why he believed a communist system like this would eliminate class differences.
28While Marx believed that a “collective ownership” was essential, former Soviet Union leader and founder, Vladimir Lenin altered the concept of communism.believed that a revolution was necessary to overthrow capitalismallowed for a strong centralized government that would control the economythe government was not a “collective” - it was an example of totalitarianism