Presentation on theme: "Why did Parliamentary Government decline after 1930? L/O – To identify how Presidential Government replaced Parliamentary Government in 1930-32."— Presentation transcript:
Why did Parliamentary Government decline after 1930? L/O – To identify how Presidential Government replaced Parliamentary Government in
Decline of Parliamentary Government After 1930 democracy declined as Germany moved from parliamentary government to presidential government, and then to dictatorship. Article 48 of the constitution gave the President powers to issue decrees (laws), which had been intended to be used only in emergency, to defend the regime against potential enemies. After 1930 it was increasingly used to sustain governments that were unable to get their legislation through the Reichstag: Presidential decree laws Reichstag laws Reichstag: days sitting President Hindenburg →
Decline of Parliamentary Government The prospect of parliamentary government surviving was further weakened by the Reichstag elections of In both July and November the majority of voters supported the two extremist parties who were hostile to the parliamentary regime. Parliamentary Government Muller led a coalition government with majority support in the Reichstag Presidential Government, Hindenburg dismissed Muller. He was succeeded by a series of Chancellors who had little support in the Reichstag and depended upon President Hindenburg for support and to issue decrees. There was a growing move to change the Weimar System, by reducing the power of parliament and establishing a more authoritarian government. Dictatorship In 1933 Hindenburg appointed Hitler, leader of the largest party, as Chancellor. Within a year he set up a dictatorship.
Impact of the Great Depression On Oct 29th 1929, the Wall Street Crash caused the US stock market to collapse. This led to a terrible chain reaction that threw the whole world into an economic crisis (Depression). Germany was hit particularly hard because the country had borrowed a lot of money to pay for reparations, especially from the USA. These loans were now recalled.
Impact of the Great Depression The Depression changed everything. By 1932, 40% of industrial workers (6 million) were unemployed. The Depression scared people; and in extreme situations there is a demand for extreme solutions. Industrialists, terrified by Communism, poured money at the Nazis who began an intensive propaganda campaign.
Reaction of the Nazis - Propaganda It was during the Depression that the Nazis really started to use propaganda effectively, masterminded by Josef Goebbels. In 1932, Hitler ran for President and came a very close second to Paul von Hindenburg. Posters were produced depicting Hitler as ‘Germany’s last hope’. Planes were used to help him travel all over. Radio was used to help him reach a wider audience.
Reaction of the Nazis - Policies Propaganda is only effective if it is publicising popular policies. The Nazis came up with policies that appealed to many ordinary Germans. End unemployment: Hitler promised jobs for the unemployed. Tear up ToV: Hitler said he would break the Treaty and make Germany great. Blame the Jews: Hitler gave people a scapegoat for the depression and the 1918 defeat.
Reaction of the Weimar Republic - Indecision Parliament – Proportional Representation: The electoral system meant that Reichstag seats were split between many parties. No party could get a majority, so weak, indecisive coalition governments were formed. President – Article 48: The President had emergency powers, but his advisers discouraged him from raising unemployment benefits, fearing another hyperinflation crisis like in 1923.
Reaction of the Weimar Republic - Miscalculation As well as pursuing unpopular policies, the Weimar Republic made a terrible mistake in appointing Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933 – even though he made it clear he hated democracy. What makes this decision even more surprising is that: Support for the Nazi Party was declining Germany was coming out of the Depression President Hindenburg had nothing but contempt for Hitler (a little Bohemian corporal)
: The ‘Backstairs Intrigue’ June 1932 – Hindenburg sacks his Chancellor, Bruning, and appoints his unpopular friend, Franz von Papen, in his place. Creates tension. July 1932 – Elections. Nazis win 230 seats. Become largest party. Hitler demands to become Chancellor. Hindenburg refuses. He allows Papen to carry on, getting his measures passed by Article 48. Nov 1932 – Elections. Hindenburg replaces Papen as Chancellor with Schleicher, but Papen remains a close advisor. Nazis still largest party although they lose 34 seats as depression starts to fade.
: The ‘Backstairs Intrigue’ Dec 1932 – Schleicher resigns. He had no support in Reichstag, and is fed up of being Papen’s mouthpiece. Jan 1933 – Hindenburg is desperate to appoint a Chancellor who has Reichstag support, and avoid the possibility of violence from the SA. Hitler is therefore appointed with Papen as vice chancellor. They felt Hitler can be controlled in a coalition. They were wrong.