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1 7. 4. spi. 1. define the different types of governments (i. e
7.4.spi.1. define the different types of governments (i.e., democracy, autocracy, oligarchy, monarchy, dictatorship). Types of Government

2 Governments How are they run?

3 Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person
Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person. It is the oldest and most common form of government. Advantages It is fast. When one person makes all the decisions, no one needs to be consulted and time is not taken to gather a vote. Helpful when critical decisions need to be made in a crises or for social control. Disadvantages Thoughts of other people are not considered. People do not have freedom. Over time, autocracy decision making leads to distrust, low morale, and inefficiency. Military is used against people if they try to protest or disagree.

4 Examples of Autocratic Governments
Autocracy Rule of One Examples of Autocratic Governments Types of Autocracies Absolute Monarchy Theocracy Totalitarian Dictatorship Saudi Arabia (Absolute Monarchy) Iran (Theocracy) Tsarist regimes in Russia ( ) Nazi regime in Germany ( ) China North Korea

5 Types of Autocratic Governments
Autocracy – Rule by one Totalitarian Dictatorship Monarchy (king or queen) Absolute Monarchy (complete and unlimited power) Constitutional Monarchy (shares power with elected parliament and prime minister) Theocracy

6 Autocracy: Dictatorship Rule by a single leader who has not been elected. Inotherwords, leader is in power without the people's consent. May use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control. Usually, there is little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights. Leader is glorified. Government controls all aspect of social and economic life. Burma, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, China, Zimbabwe, West Indies, North Korea, Burma, Cuba, Chile, Uganda, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan, and Turkmenistan

7 Totalitarian Dictators
Examples of totalitarian regimes are Italy under Benito Mussolini 1922–45; Germany under Adolf Hitler 1933–45; the USSR under Joseph Stalin from the 1930s until his death in 1953; and more recently Romania under Nicolae Ceauşescu 1974–89.

8 Totalitarian Dictators
Other Totalitarian Dictators Raul Castro President of Cuba Communist He is the younger brother of Fidel Castro, Cuba's former president.

9 Autocratic Totalitarian Dictatorship Rule by a single political party
Autocratic Totalitarian Dictatorship Rule by a single political party. Votes for alternative candidates and parties are simply not allowed and “encouraged” to vote, but only for the government’s chosen candidate. North Korea

10 Monarchy Usually inherits the “throne”. Usually through a family.
King or Queen has power

11 Monarchy Two Kinds Constitutional Monarchy Absolute Monarchy

12 Monarchy Two Kinds Autocracy – Rule by one Totalitarian Dictatorship
Monarchy (king or queen) Absolute Monarchy (complete and unlimited power) Constitutional Monarchy (shares power with elected parliament and prime minister) Theocracy

13 Autocracy: Absolute Monarchy
Saudi Arabia Many nations who were once absolute monarchs , such as Jordan and Morocco, have moved to constitutional monarchies, although the monarch retains tremendous power. Saudi Arabia King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Mecca – time for prayer Water Problems:

14 Autocracy: Theocracy A form of government where the rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas, or as direct agents of a deity. Can government systems be a combination?

15 How is the government run?
Autocracy Rule by one Dictatorship Leader w/o consent, does not consider welfare of people. Often uses military force. Absolute Monarchy Monarchy with absolute control Theocracy Spiritual Authority Saudi Arabia

16 Oligarchy A small group picks the government. The rule of a few
Oligarchy A small group picks the government. The rule of a few. A form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interest, especially to accumulate wealth and privilege. Only members of this small group have a voice in government. The few are generally the people who are richer and more powerful than others: aristocrats or nobles. Government of the “best”. Often by powerful families who raise their children to “inherit” the government position.

17 Oligarchy Rule by a few The few pick the government
Examples: Former Soviet Union Most Communist countries are oligarchies. Examples: China (communist), South Africa in 20th century

18 Oligarchy Rule by a few The few pick the government
Rule by few: Communism The single party picks the government. Totalitarian Dictatorship Government tells people what to do China

19 Oligarchy Rule by a few The few pick the government
The whites in South Africa make up about 20% of population, but this small group has all educational and economic opportunities and proceeded to deny these opportunities to blacks. Called apartheid –legal separation based on race – this oligarchy dominated the Republic of South Africa from 1948 – Nelson Mandela led the force that changed this type of rule to democracy in He is now their first black president.

20 Democracy Two Kinds Democracy
Direct Democracy (everyone votes for everything) Representative Democracy Presidential Democracy System Parliamentary Democracy System

21 Direct Democracy People vote of everything Government in which all citizens have equal power. Every decision is voted on by the people. Rule by majority. Advantages Every citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making. Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a high degree of support and loyalty. Disadvantages Only works when a small number of people are involved. Must gather all citizens in one place for discussions and voting. 2. Decision making involving all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give input, debate, etc…

22 Direct Democracy Rarely exists has a total form of government because countries are now too large. Switzerland has a direct democracy.

23 Representative Democracy People pick government Government in which people elect representatives to make decision for them. Advantages People still have the power. They elect officials to represent their interests at meetings. The representatives will vote for the people. Practiced where there are too many people for a direct democracy. People can vote, protest and lobby. Can write their congressman or senator. Disadvantages Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please majority of constitutes may be harmful. Representatives may not always agree with constitutes. Lack of involved citizens allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.

24 Representative Democracy
Examples of Representative Democratic Governments Parliamentary democracy Presidential democracy Aruba, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, United Kingdom United States, Mexico, Brazil

25 Representative Democracy
A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the name) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it. People pick the president by voting.

26 What is Democracy?

27 Direct Democracy (everyone votes for everything)
Representative Democracy Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy

28 Parliamentary Democracy Led by representatives of the people
Parliamentary Democracy Led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party and remains in power as long as his/her party is in power. Advantages Quicker legislative action because the executive branch is chosen from the parliament’s majority party. Prime Minister is accountable to the parliament and can be removed at any time by a vote of no confidence. Disadvantages Close connection between the executive and legislative branches and absence of a clear separation of power provides less protection against government control. Less protection by rule of the majority.

29 Parliamentary Rule by All
States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. States denoted in green have the roles of head of state and head of government in one office, similar to presidential systems, but this office is filled by parliament's choice and elected separately. What government systems is Canada?

30 Representative Democracy
Parliamentary systems are characterized by no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a different set of checks and balances compared to those found in presidential systems. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being a figurehead, often a monarchy..

31 Constitutional Monarchy Representative Democracy
Monarch is guided by a constitution. Monarch rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in a constitution. Parliamentary A government in which members of the executive branch (Prime Minister and advisors) are chosen by parliament. Representative Democracy A form of government in which power rests with the people, but usually through representatives. Canada

32 Republic A Government by the Public Led by representatives of the people. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time. Advantages Separation of powers, providing checks and balances. Direct election of the President and legislators to a fixed term of office makes them more accountable to voters. More directly democratic. Disadvantages Divided government causes more disagreement between the president and legislature. Policy gridlock can result. Divided government can make it difficult to pass policies.

33 Republic A Government by the Public Led by representatives of the people. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time. A Republic, unique from democracy, has a very different purpose and an entirely different form, or system, of government. Its purpose is to control The Majority strictly, as well as all others among the people, primarily to protect The Individual’s God-given, unalienable rights and therefore for the protection of the rights of The Minority, of all minorities, and the liberties of people in general. The definition of a Republic is: a constitutionally limited government of the representative type, created by a written Constitution--adopted by the people and changeable (from its original meaning) by them only by its amendment--with its powers divided between three separate Branches: Executive, Legislative and Judicial. Here the term "the people" means, of course, the electorate.

34 Republic A Government by the Public Led by representatives of the people. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.

35 Republic https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2128.html

36 Anarchy Where there is not any government
Anarchy Where there is not any government. This can happen after a civil war in a country, when a government has been destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take its place. Primarily lawlessness and political disorder. Advantages None Disadvantages Disorder Corruption Warfare

37 Anarchy Somalia Chaos and Rebellion Civil War since 1991
Population: 7,200,000 Capital: Mogadishu Area: 246,200 Sq. Miles (smaller than Texas) Religion: Sunni Muslim, other

38 Barre and Dictatorship
Anarchy Somalia Barre and Socialism 1960 became independent from British rule. Said Barre seized power in 1969, proclaiming socialism. But instead of developing the country, he attached Ethiopia. Barre and Dictatorship After spending a lot of money on the war, Somalia’s economy deteriorated and weakened. Fighting between clans grew worse. Hahdi and Anarchy January 1991 to November 1991 Mohammad Ali Hahdi assumed power (ousted Barre and declared himself president) Clan warfare grew worse. 300,000 people died and 1.5 million were forced to flee as refugees. Many other people died of starvation. Aidid and Anarchy Mohamed Farrah Aided took control Anarchy, no government control

39 Anarchy Somalia Refugee Camp

40 REMEMBER: nearly every country in the world is ruled by a system that combines 2 or more government systems.

41 How is the government run?
Republic Led by representatives Who picks government? Representative Democracy Rule by majority. U.S.

42 Review Name the forms of government that fall under the category of AUTOCRACY.  Define each and give  examples.  How do some dictatorships and oligarchies try to make it seem as if the people have a say in the government?  How does the government really control the people? What are the two forms of democracy?  Describe what happens in each. What are the characteristics that make a government a true democracy? What gives voters a choice among candidates?  What are some other benefits to this system? What ancient civilizations as well as early American civilizations could be labeled as Theocratic and why?  Are there any THEOCRACIES today?

43 Types of Government Outline
How is the government run? A. Autocracy 1. Absolute Monarchy 2. Theocracy 3. Dictatorship B. Totalitarian C. Totalitarianism D. Monarchy E. Parliamentary F. Republic G. Anarchy Who picks the government? A. Revolution C. Oligarchy D. Democracy 1. Direct Democracy 2. Representative Democracy

44 Leader/ President/Prime Minister The United States of America
Country Leader/ President/Prime Minister The United States of America President Barack Obama Canada Prime Minister Stephen Harper Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto England David Cameron Russia Vladimir Putin China (not voted in by the people, voted by the oligarchy) Xi Jinping Germany Joachim Gauck North Korea Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un Cuba Raúl Castro

45 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2128.html


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