Presentation on theme: "Statistics on State and Local Governments Joseph Dalaker U.S. Census Bureau Economy-Wide Statistics Division Disclaimer: This report is released to inform."— Presentation transcript:
Statistics on State and Local Governments Joseph Dalaker U.S. Census Bureau Economy-Wide Statistics Division Disclaimer: This report is released to inform interested parties of research and to encourage discussion of work in progress. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau.
Statistics About Governments Main purposes Provide economic statistics about governments Serve as public-sector counterpart to private sector Track activity of governments over time Response is voluntary Public nature of the data
State and Local Government Data: Uses Calculation of important economic measures GDP: Bureau of Economic Analysis Flow of Funds: Federal Reserve Board Time series analysis Comparative analysis Public Policy Tax, health, education, welfare, transit, etc.
Governments as Producers Components of Gross Domestic Product Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table 1.1.5 Gross Domestic Product 2013 7.3% Federal Govt. 11.4% State & Local Govt.
Governments as Economic Entities Governments as employers: 16.5% of civilian labor force 2.1% federal government 14.4% state & local government 4.0% state government 10.4% local government (March 2012) Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 Current Employment Statistics Survey and U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 Census of Governments: Public Employment and Payroll
1790 First Population Census 1840 Decennial Census collected some data on the number and types of schools and pupils 1850 Information collected in the Decennial Census included tax levies, governmental debt, and wealth, and the number and types of schools and their pupils 1880 Inquiries included the number of schools, details about cities including sewage and drainage, utilities, and public services and 105 additional questions that assessed governments’ financial conditions 1902 First comprehensive compilation of governmental data by the new “Census Office” 1950 Congress enacted legislation which provided that a “Census of Governments” be taken every 5 years, for years ending in “2” and “7” (Title 13, Section 161, U.S. Code) 1957 First Census of Governments focusing on four major areas of data collection -Governmental Organization -Taxable Property Values -Employment -Finances History of Statistics on Governments 2012 Census of Governments
Statistics on Governments FrequencySurvey/Program Data Available For: Data Items IncludedSponsoring Agency USStateCounty Every 5 Years Census of Governments XXX Number of Units, Employment, Finance, etc. Census Bureau Government Units SurveyX Functions performed, authorizing legislation, etc. Census Bureau Annual Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll XXXEmployment, wages, etc.Census Bureau Annual Survey of State Government FinancesXX Revenue, expenditures, etc.Census Bureau Annual Survey of School System FinancesXXXRevenue, expenditures, etc.Census Bureau/NCES Annual Survey of Public PensionsXXXContributions, assets, etc.Census Bureau Annual Survey of Local Government FinancesXXX Revenue, expenditures, debt, assets Census Bureau Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections XX Tax revenueCensus Bureau Quarterly Quarterly Survey of Public PensionsX Contributions, assets, etc.Census Bureau Quarterly Summary of State and Local Government Tax Revenues XX Tax revenueCensus Bureau
Census of Governments First conducted in 1957 Conducted every 5 years – ending 2 & 7 Content: Counts & structure of governments Employment measures Financial measures
Census vs. Annual Surveys Content is the same Number of governments surveyed is different
State and Local Government Data Collection Methods Mail canvass Electronic reporting - Centurion & Harvester Central collection - paper & electronic Compilations
Content Government Organization Government Finances Public Employment and Payroll
Government Organization Why is understanding government structure important? What is included and what isn’t? How are basic services provided? Which comparisons are valid?
Defining a Government Three criteria for defining a government: Existence as an organized entity Governmental character Substantial autonomy Fiscal independence Administrative independence
Governmental Structure Core government Executive, legislative, and sometimes judicial Dependent agencies Jointly governed activities
90,106 Government Organizations 90,056 Local Governments 38,910 General Purpose Governments 3,031 Counties 19,519 Cities 16,360 Townships 51, 146 Special Purpose Governments 38,266 Special Districts 12,880 Independent School Districts 50 State Governments Types of Governments Measured and Defined Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 Census of Governments
Examples Government Airport authorities Cities Counties Sanitary districts States Non-Government Homeowners’ associations Most charter schools Many services can be provided either by governments or by private entities – what matters is how the entity is organized, whether it has governmental character, and whether it has substantial autonomy.
Differences in Governmental Structure Among States Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 Census of Governments State County Governments City Governments Township Governments Special District Governments School District Governments Alabama674610548132 Connecticut03014944717 Georgia1535350510180 Indiana915691,006752291 New York576149291,174679 Texas2541,21402,6001,079 Washington3928101,285295
1952 1982 2012 116,694 82,290 90,056 Total Number of Governments Number of Local Governments: United States The Evolving Picture of our Governments Source: 1952, 1982, & 2012 Census of Governments Counties 2% Counties 3% Counties 4%
Government Finances Revenue by type Expenditure by character & function Debt by term Cash and securities by type of holding Data products by: topic (tax collections, public schools, pension systems) level of government (state, local, state and local combined)
Finance Data are Nested State Tax Public Pension Data Public Education Data State Finance Data State and Local Finance Data
Sources of Tax Revenue – Variety Among States Percent Distribution of State Government Tax Revenue Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 Survey of State Government Tax Collections Percent Distribution of State Government Tax Revenue Total %Sales Total General Sales Selective Sales License Taxes Total Income Taxes Total Individual Income Corporation Income All Other Taxes Total Property Taxes Other Taxes U.S. Average10046.422.214.171.1241.9126.96.36.199.63.6 Alabama10050.8188.8.131.528.7184.108.40.206.51.7 Alaska1004.9 X 2.612.3X 85.21.978.3 Delaware10014.6X 37.643.033.89.34.8X Florida10082.5220.127.116.11.0X 5.8>.015.8 Indiana10060.818.104.22.168.029.44.63.6.043.6
FrequencySurvey/Program Data Available For: Data Items IncludedSponsoring Agency USStateCountyPlace Every 5 Years Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities (Prison Census) XX Staffing, facility size, capacity, programs offered, basic prisoner information BJS (DOJ) Census of Jail InmatesXXXX Staffing, facility size, capacity, programs offered, inmate characteristics BJS (DOJ) Biennial Academic Libraries SurveyXX Expenditures, staffing, circulation, etc. NCES (Dept. of Education) Census of Juveniles in Residential PlacementXX Demographic, offense, etc.OJJDP (DOJ) Juvenile Residential Facility SurveyXX Facility characteristicsOJJDP (DOJ) Survey of Government Research and Development Expenditures XX Type of R&D, funding, etc.NSF Annual Annual Survey of JailsX XXJails and inmatesBJS (DOJ) Criminal Justice Expenditure and Employment Survey X Finance and employmentBJS (DOJ) Annual Survey of School System FinancesXXXXRevenue, expenditures, etc.Census Bureau/NCES Federal Audit Clearinghouse FinanceOMB Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - PublicXXXXHealth plans, premiums, benefits, and enrollmentAHRQ National Public Education Financial SurveyXX Revenue, expenditures NCES (Dept. of Education) Common Core of Data - Non-fiscal XX Directory, membership, teachers, staff, dropouts, graduates NCES (Dept. of Education) Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates XXDemographic and geographic support NCES (Dept. of Education) Public Libraries SurveyXX Circulation, visits, staffing, etc.IMLS Survey of Sexual ViolenceXXX Allegations, demographicsBJS (DOJ) National Prisoner Statistics 8XX Characteristics of persons under sentence of death and of execution BJS (DOJ) Teacher Compensation Survey*XX Salaries, expenditures, degree earned, etc. NCES (Dept. of Education) Biannual National Prisoner Statistics 1BXX Characteristics of populationBJS (DOJ) School Attendance Boundary SurveyXXGeographic school boundaries NCES (Dept. of Education)
Reimbursable Surveys Follow the survey life cycle Differences Contract negotiation Collection content determined by sponsor Deliverables content and date set by sponsor Follow sponsor’s statistical and publication standards Funding comes from sponsor Sponsoring agency releases the data
Conclusion The Census Bureau collects information on state and local governments including their characteristics, finances, and employment. The Census Bureau also collects information for other agencies on topics including libraries, education, and criminal justice.