Presentation on theme: "FORMATION OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION."— Presentation transcript:
FORMATION OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Bellwork: Journal- If you were creating a new government, what are the five most important rules that you would include? List and explain.
Class work Read pages in your text book Answer the 4 read to discover questions on page 222 Define the 5 key terms on page 227. Also define the term Social Contract Put in your NOTES section of your binder
Read to Discover What ideas and documents shaped American beliefs about government? How did state constitutions contribute to the development of representative government? What powers did the central government have under the Articles of Confederation? What did the Northwest Ordinance accomplish?
Read to Discover What ideas and documents shaped American beliefs about government? English Bill of Rights, Magna Carta, Enlightenment How did state constitutions contribute to the development of representative government? They all believed in the idea of representation and limited government power What powers did the central government have under the Articles of Confederation? Make coins/borrow money Negotiate and make treaties Settle conflicts between states What did the Northwest Ordinance accomplish? Helped to form a political system of the region north of the Ohio River Created the Northwest Territory Included present day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin Also created a system for bringing new states to the union
Define Constitution A set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government. Republicanism Support for a system of representative government known as a republic. limited government A political principle which holds that government should be bound by laws that limit its power. Suffrage Voting Rights Ratification Formal approval Social Contract Agreement between the government and the people
FORMATION OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
Early Influences English Influences England limited the power of its king and queens in two documents Magna Carta: “Great Charter” Required king to follow the rule of law English Bill of Rights Kept the king or queen from passing new taxes or laws without Parliament’ approval Enlightenment People used reason to explain things logically Belief in human goodness John Locke- belief in social contract: the government had a duty to protect the people’s rights
During the Enlightenment, philosophers often discussed their ideas at elegant social gatherings. How does the painting suggest the interest that the wealthy had in Enlightenment ideas?
State Constitutions Constitution- set of basic principles and laws that state the powers and duties of the government During/After the American Revolution, almost every colony wrote a new state constitution Constitutions showed belief in republicanism Republicanism- support for a system of gov’t called a republic, where citizens elect representatives Limited Government- kept leaders from gaining too much power, all leaders have to obey the law and no one has total control.
State Constitutions Cont’d Most state constitutions protected the individual rights of citizens Some rights included Trial by jury, freedom of the press, private ownership of property Separation of church and state Suffrage – voting rights Varied from state to state
Articles of Confederation For some colonial leaders, individual state governments were not enough Other leaders feared that a central government would gain too much power, like in Britain The Second Continental Congress appointed a Committee of Thirteen, one from each colony This group was to create a national constitution Met for a month and created the Articles of Confederation Ratification – official approval
Under the Articles of Confederation A new Confederation Congress would become the central national government Each state would have one vote in the congress No president or court system Confederation had limited powers Make coins/borrow money Negotiate and make treaties Settle conflicts between states Could ASK for money and troops from states
Northwest Territory Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Helped to form a political system of the region north of the Ohio River Created the Northwest Territory Included present day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin Also created a system for bringing new states to the union Also included a bill of rights Required public education for all citizens of the region Outlawed slavery in the territory
Bellwork What makes a government weak? List as many things as possible.
Problems in the New Nation Congress could do little to protect citizens against foreign threats Could not force states to provide soldiers for an army No controlled army = difficulty enforcing treaties Britain and Spain took advantage of the weakness of the U.S.; didn’t follow all the rules and agreements
Economic Problems U.S. faced problems with G.B. Britain closed many of its ports to American ships U.S. merchants had to pay high duties on U.S. exports British goods flowed freely into the U.S. British merchants could sell products cheaper than locally made goods Loss of trade with the British shook the U.S. economy Good plus tax $ Goods for free!
Continental Congress could not fix the problem because they did not have the power to pass tariffs-taxes on imports/exports If one state passed a tariff, British could sell to another state who didn’t have any No strong government hurt the U.S. economically
Economic Problems at home Interstate commerce – trade between states Congress had no power to regulate this trade Trade laws differed between states, made trade difficult Printing Money States printed their own money In order to pay off debts after the Revolution, states printed large amounts of money, resulting in inflation Inflation - increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Inflation continues Debtors- people who owe money Creditors- people who lend money Depression- period of low economic activity combined with a rise in unemployment Each state handled its problems differently some refused to print paper $ Some taxed land to raise money When people could not pay the tax, courts began selling their property. Some had to spend time in debtors’ prison Some sold themselves as indentured servants
Shays’ Rebellion September 1786, farmers in 3 Massachusetts counties began a revolt Angry citizens w/pitchforks and other tools closed down courts in the western part of the state With the courts shut down, no one’s property could be taken Known as Shays’ Rebellion Farmer and war veteran Daniel Shays was the main leader At a later uprising, the rebels were eventually defeated and arrested 14 leaders were sentenced to death State freed most of the rebels, including Shays due to popular opinion
Results of the rebellion The rebellion helped to reveal the weakness of the Confederation government Drew attention to the Articles of Confederation- they weren’t working The national government could offer little help to the states when they asked Citizens were calling for a stronger central gov’t Many felt a change was needed
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation No President or court system Could not FORCE the states to provide money or troops Couldn’t create an army Could not protect citizens from foreign threats Difficult to enforce terms of international treaties