2The way our government works today can be traced to important documents in history:
3Important Philosophies that Influenced U.S. Government John Locke (certain rights belong to all people-Natural Rights Philosophy, behavior is motivated by self-interest, consent of the governed-Social Contract Theory)Thomas Hobbes (big governments are like a monster-Leviathan)
4Important Philosophies (cont.) Baron de Montesquieu (division of power, mixed government-power divided among societal classes)Classical Republicanism (citizens and government must work together, civic virtue--”public spiritedness”, moral education and small uniform communities where everyone knows and cares for one another)
5English colonist brought three main concepts: The need for an ordered social system, or government.The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful.The concept of representative government—a government that serves the will of the people.
6Early Colonial Governments The royal colonies were ruled directly by the English monarchy.The King granted land to people in North America, who then formed proprietary colonies.The charter colonies were mostly self-governed, and their charters were granted to the colonists.
7Common Features of State Constitutions Civil Rights and LibertiesPopular SovereigntyLimited GovernmentSeparation of Powers and Checks and BalancesThe principle of popular sovereignty was the basis for every new State constitution. That principle says that government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed. The people hold power and the people are sovereign.The concept of limited government was a major feature of each State constitution. The powers delegated to government were granted reluctantly and hedged with many restrictions.In every State it was made clear that the sovereign people held certain rights that the government must respect at all times. Seven of the new constitutions contained a bill of rights, setting out the “unalienable rights” held by the people.The powers granted to the new State governments were purposely divided among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch was given powers with which to check (restrain the actions of) the other branches of the government.
8Articles of Confederation Approved November 15, 1777Est. “a firm league of friendship” between the statesNeeded the ratification of the 13 statesMarch 1, 1781 Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective
9Articles of Confederation Powers of Congress:Make war and peaceSend and receive ambassadorsMake treatiesBorrow moneySet up a money systemEst. post officesBuild a navyRaise an army by asking the states for troopsFix uniform standards of weights and measuresSettle disputes among the states
10Articles of Confederation States Obligations:Pledge to obey the Articles and Acts of the CongressProvide the funds and troops requested by the congressTreat citizens of other states fairly and equallyGive full faith and credit to public acts, records, and judicial proceedingsSubmit disputes to congress for settlementAllow open travel and trade b/w and among statesPrimarily responsible for protecting life and propertyAccountable for promoting the general welfare of the people
12Critical Period, the 1780’sRevolutionary War ended on October 19, 1781Signed the Treaty of ParisWith Peace comes hardshipsEconomic problemsPolitical problemsProblems a result of the weaknesses of AofC
13Critical Period, the 1780’s Problems included Shay’s Rebellion Central government who could not actStates entering into treatiesStates taxing on goods and banning tradeDebts, public and private were unpaidShay’s RebellionFarmers were losing their landShut down courtsLed and attack on Federal arsenalMass. State legislature eases the burden of debtors
14Constitutional Convention Mid-February of 1787Seven states name delegatesDelaware, Georgia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia
16Constitutional Convention Meet summer of 1787 in PhiladelphiaElected George Washington as president of the conventionMajority of States needed to conduct businessOne vote per State on all mattersMajority of votes needed to pass proposalsWorked in Secrecy
17Father of the Constitution James Madison:Kept detail records of the conventionConventions Floor leaderContributed more to the constitution than any otherFull body settled all questions
18The Virginia Plan: Called for a NEW Government Three Separate branches of governmentLegislature, Executive, and JudicialBicameral legislatureBased on population or money given to support the central governmentMembers of House of Reps = based on populationSenate = chosen by House from a list from the State LegislatureCongress would be given powers it had under the A of CVeto any State law that conflicted with National Law
19The New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress of the Confederation Each state equally representedAdd closely limited powersTax and regulate tradeFederal ExecutiveMore than one personChosen by Congress/could be removed with maj. VoteFederal JudiciarySingle “supreme Tribunal”Selected by Executive
20Differences between the plans How should the states be represented in Congress?Based on population?Financial contribution?State equality?4 weeks they deliberatedHeated debateLines drawn in the sand
21The Compromises Connecticut Compromise Two housesSenate – equal representationHouse – proportional representationCombination of Virginia and New Jersey plansAKA: The Great Compromise
22The Compromises Three-Fifths Compromise Should Slaves be counted? Split North v SouthAll “free person’s” will be counted; 3/5 of all other personsSoutherners could count slaves but had to pay taxes on them
23The Compromises The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromises Congress = power to regulate foreign and interstate tradeScared southerners (Controlled by industrial North)No export taxContinue the slave trade for at least 20 years
24Ratifying the Constitution FederalistsArticles of Confederation were weakargued for the ratification of the Constitution.James MadisonAlexander HamiltonAnti-Federalistsobjected to the Constitution for including the strong central governmentthe lack of a bill of rights.Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Samuel Adams
25The Constitution is Ratified Nine States ratified the Constitution by June 21, 1788, but the new government needed the ratification of the large States of New York and Virginia.Great debates were held in both States, with Virginia ratifying the Constitution June 25, 1788.New York’s ratification was hard fought. Supporters of the Constitution published a series of essays known as The Federalist.
26Inaugurating the Government The new Congress met for the first time on March 4, 1789.Congress finally attained a quorum (majority) on April 6 and counted the electoral votes. Congress found that George Washington had been unanimously elected President. He was inaugurated on April 30.