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Principles of Government

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1 Principles of Government
Mr. Biddle

2 Aristotle Scholar in ancient Greece. First to study Gov’t
He studied the Greek Polis Many Gov’t terms come from Ancient Rome and Greece Politics, Democracy, Republic

3 The State (Government)
The word state comes from a form of the Latin word “stare,” which means “to stand.” Today a state is: A political community that occupies a defined territory Has an organized Gov’t Makes laws w/o approval from a higher power. (US States answer to a Federal Gov’t)

4 The State (Government)
Nation- any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of Race, Language, customs, traditions, and sometimes religion.

5 Essential Features of a State
Population Territory Sovereignty Government

6 Population Effects Strength and stability of the Government.
Got to have people to make it strong and they have to agree to make it stable

7 Territory States have to have an established boundaries
Defined borders

8 Sovereignty Has complete power and authority with in territorial boundaries Can’t interfere with other states That why each state has its own laws Seatbelt law Speed limit

9 Government The institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living with in the state.

10 Theories of the Origin of Gov’t
Evolutionary Theory The State evolved from the family The head of the family served as the authority (can have hundreds of people) Ex- Abraham in the Old Testament Over time the extending families needed more organization

11 Force Theory In early civilizations people built walled cities to help control flooding and for protection. This banded people together and over time someone took charge and organization took place.

12 Divine Right Theory People were chosen by God or gods and born to rule. Ex- Alexander the Great

13 Social Contract Theory
People surrender to the state (gov’t) to protect themselves from one another and keep peace. For our own good

14 Social Contract Cont. Thomas Hobbes
Believed that people were forced to stay in contract with the government and couldn’t get out.

15 John Locke (SC Cont.) Believed that people were born with the right to life, liberty, and property. To preserve these rights people willingly gave power to the government When gov’t fails to do these things people are free to break the contract. (1688) 1776 American Colonists used this thought to break free of G.B.

16 The Purpose of Gov’t Maintain social order
Provide public services (sewer systems/Healthcare) Provide National Security (Armed Forces) Control Economic System (Money)

17 The Formation of Govt’s
The relationship among the National Government and the smaller divisions can be described as either: Unitary System Gives all key powers to the National or Central Government (Canada/GB)

18 The Formation of Govt’s
Federal System Divides the power between National and State Government (US) * Each level has sovereignty in some areas * Originally had a confederacy-loose union of independent states * When Constitution was drafted that changed

19 Constitution Constitution- a plan that provides the rules for government. Purposes Sets ideas shared by Nation Establishes basic gov’t structure and defines its powers and duty Provides the Supreme Law

20 Constitution Cont. US Constitution (1787) is the oldest Constitution still being used today. The Preamble- states the major goals of the gov’t. Constitutions are divided into parts called articles and sections (have the procedures for amending or changing the constitution) US has 7 articles and 21 sections

21 Constitution Cont. Constitutional Law- The interpretation and application of the Constitution. Politics- The effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government. People get involved with politics to try and achieve benefits There is constant struggle with what a Gov’t should provide and shouldn’t

22 Nations Industrialized Nations- A nation with large industries and advanced technology that provides a more comfortable way of life than developing nations Developing Nations- a nation only beginning to develop industrially.

23 Types of Government 1. Autocracy
Any system of government in which the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual. Oldest and most common form of gov’t Power is gained through Inheritance or ruthless military power.

24 Types of Government Totalitarian Dictatorship
The ideas of the leader are glorified and the gov’t seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life The gov’t is not responsible to the people. People have no power to limit the gov’t rule. Ex- Hitler, Stalin

25 Types of Government Monarchy
King, Queen, or Emperor exercise the supreme powers of Gov’t. Absolute Monarch- Have complete and unlimited power to rule their people Rare Today (prominent ’s) Ex- Napoleon Constitutional Monarch- Share gov’t powers with the elected legislatures or serve as the ceremonial leaders of their governments. Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the monarch may have strictly ceremonial duties or may have reserve powers, depending on the constitution

26 Napoleon

27 Types of Government 2. Oligarchy Any system of gov’t in which a small group holds the power. Groups derive their power from wealth, military power, social position, or a combination of these. Ex- The Medici family of Florence during the Renaissance (Aristocratic Families) Communist Russia is said to be an Oligarchy.

28 Cosimo de Medici

29 Types of Government 3. Democracy
Any system of gov’t in which the rule is by the people. (People have sovereign power) Comes from Greek word demos (“The people”) “Government of the People, by the People, and for the People.” - Abe Lincoln

30 Forms of Democracy Direct Democracy
The people govern themselves by voting on all issues individually as citizens Typically can only exist in small groups or societies

31 Forms of Democracy Representative Democracy (Indirect) – The people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government. Assembly of Reps may be called Council Legislature Congress (House of Representation and Senate) Parliament

32 Forms of Democracy Republic- Voters hold sovereign power.
Elected officials exercise that power When coming out of the Constitutional Convention (1787) Franklin was asked what type of government he gave the people. He answered, “A Republic, Madam, If you can keep it!” Meaning that the people had to participate for it to work

33 Characteristics of Democracy
Individual Liberty Majority Rule w/ Minority Rights Free Elections Competing Political Parties

34 Individual Liberty Free to do anything as long as it doesn’t infringe on anyone else’s freedoms

35 Majority Rule w/ Minority Rights
The majority votes count as long as they don’t infringe on the minorities rights The Constitution protects the minority

36 Free Elections Gives people a chance to choose their leaders and voice their opinions on various issues Everyone’s free to vote Free to voice opinions Gives access to competing ideas

37 Competing Political Parties
Political Party -Group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, and conduct gov’t.

38 5 General Criteria for Democracy
Active citizen participation Favorable Economy - Free Enterprise (Control own Economic decisions) Wide Spread Education Strong Civil Society - Associations, economic groups, Church organizations (exist independent of gov’t) Social Consensus - Everyone must agree on the powers of gov’t

39 Economic Theories Economics – The study of human efforts to satisfy seemingly unlimited wants through the use of limited resources (Land, water, minerals, and trees) - Also includes human factors such as skills, knowledge, and physical abilities

40 Economics Cont. There are never enough resources to produce all of the wants and services people need. People must decide how to use these limited resources. Normally the Government makes that decision.

41 Three Major Economic Decisions
What and how much should be produced How goods and services should be produced Who gets the goods and services produced These questions can be answered differently

42 Three Major types of Economic Systems
Capitalism Socialism Communism










52 Capitalism An Economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises. People make their own decisions

53 5 Main Characteristics of Capitalism
Private ownership and control of economic resources Free Enterprise (Gov’t only maintains Free market) Competition among businesses Freedom of Choice Possibility of Profits

54 Adam Smith (1776) Came up with the idea of a Laissez-faire type gov’t.
French for “To let alone” The Gov’t is hands off of the economy and doesn’t interfere

55 Mixed-Market Economy The U.S. is described as this
Free Enterprise mixed with Government decisions Government keeps competition Free and fair and protects the public interests.

56 Socialism The Government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as education, Healthcare, and Welfare.

57 Goals of Socialism The distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among people Society’s control of all major decisions about production Public ownership of most land, of factories and of other means of production.

58 Democratic Socialism People have basic human rights and have some control over the Government through free elections and multiparty systems. Government still owns the basic means of production and makes most decisions Opponents feel that socialism hinders economic growth.

59 Communism Karl Marx* – German thinker and writer Socialist
Believed capitalism would fail Advocate for violent revolution Published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848 and “Das Kapital” (1867)

60 Marx Believed An Industrialized nation was split into Capitalists (Bourgeoisie) and workers (Proletariat). The capitalist rule the workers and don’t give them proper compensation for their labor, b/c capitalist keep the profits giving the workers just enough to survive. He thought that eventually the workers would rebel violently and kill the capitalist.

61 Communism Communism- Overtime every class system would evolve into one class where everyone has all aspects of society in common and you would have no need for Government. Command Economy- Those in charge decide what to produce, how much, and how it is distributed. State owns everything

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