2Aristotle Scholar in ancient Greece. First to study Gov’t He studied the Greek PolisMany Gov’t terms come from Ancient Rome and GreecePolitics, Democracy, Republic
3The State (Government) The word state comes from a form of the Latin word “stare,” which means “to stand.”Today a state is:A political community that occupies a defined territoryHas an organized Gov’tMakes laws w/o approval from a higher power.(US States answer to a Federal Gov’t)
4The State (Government) Nation- any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of Race, Language, customs, traditions, and sometimes religion.
5Essential Features of a State PopulationTerritorySovereigntyGovernment
6Population Effects Strength and stability of the Government. Got to have people to make it strong and they have to agree to make it stable
7Territory States have to have an established boundaries Defined borders
8SovereigntyHas complete power and authority with in territorial boundariesCan’t interfere with other statesThat why each state has its own lawsSeatbelt lawSpeed limit
9GovernmentThe institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living with in the state.
10Theories of the Origin of Gov’t Evolutionary TheoryThe State evolved from the familyThe head of the family served as the authority (can have hundreds of people)Ex- Abraham in the Old TestamentOver time the extending families needed more organization
11Force TheoryIn early civilizations people built walled cities to help control flooding and for protection.This banded people together and over time someone took charge and organization took place.
12Divine Right TheoryPeople were chosen by God or gods and born to rule.Ex- Alexander the Great
13Social Contract Theory People surrender to the state (gov’t) to protect themselves from one another and keep peace.For our own good
14Social Contract Cont. Thomas Hobbes Believed that people were forced to stay in contract with the government and couldn’t get out.
15John Locke (SC Cont.)Believed that people were born with the right to life, liberty, and property.To preserve these rights people willingly gave power to the governmentWhen gov’t fails to do these things people are free to break the contract. (1688)1776 American Colonists used this thought to break free of G.B.
16The Purpose of Gov’t Maintain social order Provide public services (sewer systems/Healthcare)Provide National Security (Armed Forces)Control Economic System (Money)
17The Formation of Govt’s The relationship among the National Government and the smaller divisions can be described as either:Unitary SystemGives all key powers to the National or Central Government (Canada/GB)
18The Formation of Govt’s Federal SystemDivides the power between National and State Government (US)* Each level has sovereignty in some areas* Originally had a confederacy-loose union of independent states* When Constitution was drafted that changed
19ConstitutionConstitution- a plan that provides the rules for government.PurposesSets ideas shared by NationEstablishes basic gov’t structure and defines its powers and dutyProvides the Supreme Law
20Constitution Cont.US Constitution (1787) is the oldest Constitution still being used today.The Preamble- states the major goals of the gov’t.Constitutions are divided into parts called articles and sections (have the procedures for amending or changing the constitution)US has 7 articles and 21 sections
21Constitution Cont.Constitutional Law- The interpretation and application of the Constitution.Politics- The effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government.People get involved with politics to try and achieve benefitsThere is constant struggle with what a Gov’t should provide and shouldn’t
22NationsIndustrialized Nations- A nation with large industries and advanced technology that provides a more comfortable way of life than developing nationsDeveloping Nations- a nation only beginning to develop industrially.
23Types of Government 1. Autocracy Any system of government in which the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual.Oldest and most common form of gov’tPower is gained through Inheritance or ruthless military power.
24Types of Government Totalitarian Dictatorship The ideas of the leader are glorified and the gov’t seeks to control all aspects of social and economic lifeThe gov’t is not responsible to the people.People have no power to limit the gov’t rule.Ex- Hitler, Stalin
25Types of Government Monarchy King, Queen, or Emperor exercise the supreme powers of Gov’t.Absolute Monarch- Have complete and unlimited power to rule their peopleRare Today (prominent ’s)Ex- NapoleonConstitutional Monarch- Share gov’t powers with the elected legislatures or serve as the ceremonial leaders of their governments.Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the monarch may have strictly ceremonial duties or may have reserve powers, depending on the constitution
27Types of Government2. OligarchyAny system of gov’t in which a small group holds the power.Groups derive their power from wealth, military power, social position, or a combination of these.Ex- The Medici family of Florence during the Renaissance (Aristocratic Families)Communist Russia is said to be an Oligarchy.
29Types of Government 3. Democracy Any system of gov’t in which the rule is by the people. (People have sovereign power)Comes from Greek word demos (“The people”)“Government of the People, by the People, and for the People.”- Abe Lincoln
30Forms of Democracy Direct Democracy The people govern themselves by voting on all issues individually as citizensTypically can only exist in small groups or societies
31Forms of DemocracyRepresentative Democracy (Indirect) – The people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government.Assembly of Reps may be calledCouncilLegislatureCongress (House of Representation and Senate)Parliament
32Forms of Democracy Republic- Voters hold sovereign power. Elected officials exercise that powerWhen coming out of the Constitutional Convention (1787) Franklin was asked what type of government he gave the people.He answered, “A Republic, Madam, If you can keep it!”Meaning that the people had to participate for it to work
33Characteristics of Democracy Individual LibertyMajority Rule w/ Minority RightsFree ElectionsCompeting Political Parties
34Individual LibertyFree to do anything as long as it doesn’t infringe on anyone else’s freedoms
35Majority Rule w/ Minority Rights The majority votes count as long as they don’t infringe on the minorities rightsThe Constitution protects the minority
36Free ElectionsGives people a chance to choose their leaders and voice their opinions on various issuesEveryone’s free to voteFree to voice opinionsGives access to competing ideas
37Competing Political Parties Political Party -Group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, and conduct gov’t.
385 General Criteria for Democracy Active citizen participationFavorable Economy- Free Enterprise (Control own Economic decisions)Wide Spread EducationStrong Civil Society- Associations, economic groups, Church organizations (exist independent of gov’t)Social Consensus- Everyone must agree on the powers of gov’t
39Economic TheoriesEconomics – The study of human efforts to satisfy seemingly unlimited wants through the use of limited resources (Land, water, minerals, and trees)- Also includes human factors such as skills, knowledge, and physical abilities
40Economics Cont.There are never enough resources to produce all of the wants and services people need.People must decide how to use these limited resources.Normally the Government makes that decision.
41Three Major Economic Decisions What and how much should be producedHow goods and services should be producedWho gets the goods and services producedThese questions can be answered differently
42Three Major types of Economic Systems CapitalismSocialismCommunism
52CapitalismAn Economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises.People make their own decisions
535 Main Characteristics of Capitalism Private ownership and control of economic resourcesFree Enterprise (Gov’t only maintains Free market)Competition among businessesFreedom of ChoicePossibility of Profits
54Adam Smith (1776) Came up with the idea of a Laissez-faire type gov’t. French for “To let alone”The Gov’t is hands off of the economy and doesn’t interfere
55Mixed-Market Economy The U.S. is described as this Free Enterprise mixed with Government decisionsGovernment keeps competition Free and fair and protects the public interests.
56SocialismThe Government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as education, Healthcare, and Welfare.
57Goals of SocialismThe distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among peopleSociety’s control of all major decisions about productionPublic ownership of most land, of factories and of other means of production.
58Democratic SocialismPeople have basic human rights and have some control over the Government through free elections and multiparty systems.Government still owns the basic means of production and makes most decisionsOpponents feel that socialism hinders economic growth.
59Communism Karl Marx* – German thinker and writer Socialist Believed capitalism would failAdvocate for violent revolutionPublished “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848 and “Das Kapital” (1867)
60Marx BelievedAn Industrialized nation was split into Capitalists (Bourgeoisie) and workers (Proletariat).The capitalist rule the workers and don’t give them proper compensation for their labor, b/c capitalist keep the profits giving the workers just enough to survive.He thought that eventually the workers would rebel violently and kill the capitalist.
61CommunismCommunism- Overtime every class system would evolve into one class where everyone has all aspects of society in common and you would have no need for Government.Command Economy- Those in charge decide what to produce, how much, and how it is distributed.State owns everything