Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Government A Brief Overview. 1. Influences on American Democracy: AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment philosophers -- rational,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Government A Brief Overview. 1. Influences on American Democracy: AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment philosophers -- rational,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Government A Brief Overview

2 1. Influences on American Democracy: AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment philosophers -- rational, humanistic and skeptical of -- rational, humanistic and skeptical of conventional authority conventional authority -- reflected on the spirit of scientific and technological discovery of the 1500 and 1600s -- reflected on the spirit of scientific and technological discovery of the 1500 and 1600s -- observed the world around them -- observed the world around them -- emphasized the power of _________________ -- emphasized the power of _________________

3 Age of Enlightenment State of nature--no higher authority to check mankind’s natural liberty State of nature--no higher authority to check mankind’s natural liberty No government people would live in constant fear and warfare with each other No government people would live in constant fear and warfare with each other Social Contract is voluntarily agreed upon by people to give up some of their freedom and power to a single ruler, who in turn protects the safety and well- being of all Social Contract is voluntarily agreed upon by people to give up some of their freedom and power to a single ruler, who in turn protects the safety and well- being of all John Locke believed that the government was to protect the rights of life, liberty and property, the right to enjoy the fruits of their labors--Power came from the people John Locke believed that the government was to protect the rights of life, liberty and property, the right to enjoy the fruits of their labors--Power came from the people

4 Age of Enlightenment in United States If the government betrayed the social contract and oppressed its citizens, it was no longer a legitimate authority If the government betrayed the social contract and oppressed its citizens, it was no longer a legitimate authority

5 Enlightenment in the United States People had the right to overthrow a tyranny (absolute and unjust government) that violated their natural rights People had the right to overthrow a tyranny (absolute and unjust government) that violated their natural rights

6 Enlightenment in the United States The new government that formed in the United States was in many ways a grand experiment in which the political and philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment were put into action The new government that formed in the United States was in many ways a grand experiment in which the political and philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment were put into action

7 2. MAGNA CARTA 1215 Magna Carta King of England forced to sign this document that limited his power Magna Carta King of England forced to sign this document that limited his power. Resulted from nobles wanting more rights Resulted from nobles wanting more rights The King had to consult with the barons before raising taxes. The King had to consult with the barons before raising taxes. King acknowledged that the nobles had certain rights--trial by jury, and king could not take their life without just cause. King acknowledged that the nobles had certain rights--trial by jury, and king could not take their life without just cause. Magna Carta set limited government Magna Carta set limited government

8 3. ENGLISH POLITICAL TRADITION England: England: debating the issues of balance between order and freedom debating the issues of balance between order and freedom ensure that justice is fair with popular participation and nature of sovereignty ensure that justice is fair with popular participation and nature of sovereignty The 13 colonies that fought were settled and governed by people from England The 13 colonies that fought were settled and governed by people from England

9 4. DISTANCE FROM HOME COUNTRY: Colonies in America Far from the monarchy Far from the monarchy Colonists had considerable _control_ government Colonists had considerable _control_ government Some colonies, structure of government was established back in England by those who paid for the colony, others the settlers decided. Some colonies, structure of government was established back in England by those who paid for the colony, others the settlers decided. Pilgrims --Mayflower Compact, a social contract. Pilgrims --Mayflower Compact, a social contract. Each colony had to sign an agreement with the English government outlining its basic rules, called _Charters. Each colony had to sign an agreement with the English government outlining its basic rules, called _Charters.

10 Six Foundations of American Democracy People must accept the principle of majority rule People must accept the principle of majority rule Political rights of minorities must be protected Political rights of minorities must be protected Citizens must agree to a system of rule of law Citizens must agree to a system of rule of law

11 Six Foundations of American Democracy Free exchange of _opinions and ideas must not be restricted Free exchange of _opinions and ideas must not be restricted All citizens must be equal before the law All citizens must be equal before the law Government exists to serve the people, because it gets its power from the people Government exists to serve the people, because it gets its power from the people

12 WHAT ABOUT THE REST OF THE WORLD??

13 Today’s Political Map

14 Government Terms __Autocracy_: rule of the one __Autocracy_: rule of the one __Oligarchy _: rule of the few __Oligarchy _: rule of the few __Democracy__: rule of the many __Democracy__: rule of the many __Anarchy____: no government __Anarchy____: no government

15 Monarchy: 2 Types Monarchy: Absolute Monarchy: hereditary, tradition outweighs desire among citizens. Tonga, Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Oman, Qatar Monarchy: Absolute Monarchy: hereditary, tradition outweighs desire among citizens. Tonga, Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Oman, Qatar

16 Constitutional Monarchy Most ceremonial: Norway, Bahamas, Australia, Denmark

17 Democracy _Democracy: Direct, Presidential, Parliamentary, Multi-party/Presidential, Presidential Regimes and Non-Party: predominant system of rule in the world for the past 50 years. Roots in Greece and Rome. _Democracy: Direct, Presidential, Parliamentary, Multi-party/Presidential, Presidential Regimes and Non-Party: predominant system of rule in the world for the past 50 years. Roots in Greece and Rome.

18 Democracy According to the United Nations, the rights and freedoms of citizens are limited in more than half of the world According to the United Nations, the rights and freedoms of citizens are limited in more than half of the world The practice of democracy, even though it is claimed by the majority of nations, varies greatly around the world The practice of democracy, even though it is claimed by the majority of nations, varies greatly around the world

19 Roots of Democracy _Direct Democracy__is the most basic form _Direct Democracy__is the most basic form Citizens participate directly in the decision-making process by voting on laws and policies Citizens participate directly in the decision-making process by voting on laws and policies This works best in small, geographically compact communities, where citizens gather in one area This works best in small, geographically compact communities, where citizens gather in one area Common in the city-states of ancient Greece Common in the city-states of ancient Greece _Switzerland____ is the strongest example of a direct democracy _Switzerland____ is the strongest example of a direct democracy Town Meetings in New England Town Meetings in New England About half of the states in the United States allow for ballots that have new ideas About half of the states in the United States allow for ballots that have new ideas

20 Direct Democracy Closest to Direct Democracy today is Switzerland Closest to Direct Democracy today is Switzerland

21 Parliamentary Government English model English model Chief Executive is the _prime minister or Premier chosen by the legislature Chief Executive is the _prime minister or Premier chosen by the legislature Prime Minister responsible to the _legislature__ Prime Minister responsible to the _legislature__ Prime Ministers or Premiers do not have a _fixed___ term of office because they are not elected Prime Ministers or Premiers do not have a _fixed___ term of office because they are not elected

22 Presidential and Parliamentary Democracy _Legislature_ is elected and a_Chief Executive _Legislature_ is elected and a_Chief Executive _Chief Executive is in charge of executing or putting the law into use that has been passed by the legislature _Chief Executive is in charge of executing or putting the law into use that has been passed by the legislature Chief Executive in the United States is the __President_, chosen independently of the legislature (presidential government) Chief Executive in the United States is the __President_, chosen independently of the legislature (presidential government)

23 Presidential Democracy Presidential democracy there are representatives, but a separate_ election held by popular vote to select a president. U. S (_First Constitutional Republic_), Russian Federation, Mexico, South Korea Presidential democracy there are representatives, but a separate_ election held by popular vote to select a president. U. S (_First Constitutional Republic_), Russian Federation, Mexico, South Korea

24 Parliamentary Democracy a) __Parliamentary Democracy_relies upon the election of representatives from each voting region to form a governing body a) __Parliamentary Democracy_relies upon the election of representatives from each voting region to form a governing body Party which holds the _majority_is in control and its leader becomes the prime minister. India, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Norway, Iraq Party which holds the _majority_is in control and its leader becomes the prime minister. India, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Norway, Iraq

25 Multi-Party Democracy b) __Multi Party_______: France, Taiwan, Indonesia b) __Multi Party_______: France, Taiwan, Indonesia

26 Presidential Regime Democracy d) Presidential Regime: Stronger Executive: Angola, Zimbabwe d) Presidential Regime: Stronger Executive: Angola, Zimbabwe

27 Non-Party Democracy e) Non-Party: No political parties : Uganda, Micronesia e) Non-Party: No political parties : Uganda, Micronesia

28 Military Rule Military Rule: usually a result of a national emergency such as a coup, civil war or riot, where control of the country was assumed by the armed forces, usually not long lasting. Sudan Military Rule: usually a result of a national emergency such as a coup, civil war or riot, where control of the country was assumed by the armed forces, usually not long lasting. Sudan

29 Single Party Single Party: Dictatorship, Communism, many are completely secular. China, Vietnam, Syria, Cuba, Libya Single Party: Dictatorship, Communism, many are completely secular. China, Vietnam, Syria, Cuba, Libya

30 Theocracy _Theocracy government in the name of religion. Iran, Vatican City _Theocracy government in the name of religion. Iran, Vatican City

31 Countries in Transition _Transitional Rule_: Afghanistan, Somalia, Liberia, Bahrain, Egypt _Transitional Rule_: Afghanistan, Somalia, Liberia, Bahrain, Egypt It is estimated that there are 1,600 to 2,000 stateless nations today such as Palestine, Chechens, Catalans, Scots, etc. It is estimated that there are 1,600 to 2,000 stateless nations today such as Palestine, Chechens, Catalans, Scots, etc.

32 Government Governments around the world are always in transition Governments around the world are always in transition Influenced by economics, geography, political stability and outside interests Influenced by economics, geography, political stability and outside interests Government stability dependent on welfare of the population and security Government stability dependent on welfare of the population and security Countries with transitional governments are unstable Countries with transitional governments are unstable Libya will soon be in this category Libya will soon be in this category


Download ppt "Government A Brief Overview. 1. Influences on American Democracy: AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment philosophers -- rational,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google