Presentation on theme: "Malaysia’s Fiscal Policy Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Malaysia’s Fiscal Policy Management Ladies and Gentlemen.Assalamualaikum and a Very Good Morning.It is my pleasure to deliver the talk on “Setting the Scene: Surveying the Public Sector Landscape”.1
2The Objectives This presentation will briefly touch on: 1. Constitutional and administrative system2. Malaysia’s fiscal stance3. The role of fiscal policy in economic development4. Financing and debt management5. Procedural safeguards and numerical rules to ensure fiscal sustainability
3Constitutional and Administrative System The government practices participative democracy akin to West Minster ModelIt is multi-tiers – Federal (central), State (provincial) and Local (municipal)There is a separation of power into executive, judiciary and legislature at all levels of governmentThe Malaysian Constitution gave more power and jurisdiction to the central governmentThe Federal Government has more power to raise revenue and to expense operating and development allocationsThe Federal Government provides grants and transfers to State Governments as provided under the terms and proviso of the ConstitutionWill discuss more detail the financial relationship between the Federal and State Governments in section 5 of the presentation
4Fiscal StanceMalaysia has the flexibility to adopt fiscal stance according to the state and the need of the economy:anti cyclicalpro growthdevelopmentalThe key to fiscal flexibility is to ensure that the mandatory spending and the size the government is not too large, fiscal deficit (if any) is not structural, and public debt level not excessively high
5The Role of Fiscal Policy Over the decades, the Government of Malaysia has effectively used the fiscal policy (through tax measures and allocation of operating and development expenditures) to attained a broad range of macroeconomic objectives:growth & equity (e.g. the NEP and NDP)macroeconomic stabilityreform & restructuring (tax incentives to facilitate reform and structuring of economy)sectoral and regional development (tax incentives and expenditure directed at targeted sectors)
6GDP growth and public expenditure share to GDP (%)
7Federal Government Position (1993-2005) RM billion2.4%2.3%0.8%0.7%0.2%-1.8%-3.2%The Federal Government has incurred five consecutive years of deficit since 1998, increasing from 1.8% of GDP to 5.6% of GDP in In 2003, the deficit is expected to be maintained at 5.5% of GDP.The highest fiscal deficit as a percentage of GDP that the Federal Government has ever recorded since 1970 was in 1982 that is 16.7% of GDP.The highest fiscal surplus as a percentage of GDP that the Federal Government has ever recorded was in 1997 that is 2.4% of GDP.-5.7%-5.5%-5.6%-5.3%-3.8-4.3%Surplus / deficit as percent of GDP
8Federal Government Finance (RM billion) (1980-2005) Total ExpenditureRevenueDeficitsOESurplusCurrent surplusDESources of increasing deficit….Increase in expenditure is higher than revenue.Revenue declined in 1998 but has recovered and since 2001 was higher than pre-crisis level.Increase in expenditure was most significant since 1998 for development expenditure and since 1999 for operating expenditure.
9Maintaining Fiscal Flexibility and Sustainability Malaysia’s experience:Operating expenditure (OE) not exceeding current revenue; Borrowing was for development expenditureAvoiding large scale welfare or social programmesLimiting Federal Government deficit to 6% of GDPLimiting debt service charges to less than 20% of OEFinancing from non-inflationary domestic sources; External borrowing as a last resortSpending to enhance efficiency, productivity and GDP potential
10Financing & Public Debt Management Borrowing raised were used only to finance development expenditureThe bulk of the borrowing (more than 80%) were from non-inflationary domestic sourcesThe Government monitors all external debts of the economy which include: the external debt of the Federal Government; the external debt of public enterprises (guaranteed and non guaranteed); the external debt of the private sectorThe Government monitors the domestic debts of the Federal Government and the guaranteed domestic debts of public enterprises
11National and Federal Government Debts (1980-2004) % to GDPNationalFederal GovtDebt to GDP is still low, about 45.7% in 2002.We have touched 80% in the 1980s.
12Procedural Safeguards and Numerical Rules All annual tax and expenditure proposals (the national and state budgets) require Parliamentary/state assembly debates and approvalThe Budgets spell out: major policy thrusts for the coming year; new tax proposals and changes in existing tax rates; detail expenditures based on programs, projects and activitiesThe Government “shall not borrow except under the authority of Federal Law”The Constitution does not authorize the state (provincial) governments to borrow except from the Federal GovernmentAll issues of municipal bonds require Federal Government’s approval
13Procedural Safeguards and Numerical Rules Debt service charges (interest expense) are charged expenditure, i.e. it takes precedence over other operating expendituresThe public accounts are subjected to audit – the tenure and position of the Auditor General is similar to the High Court Judge
14Procedural Safeguards and Numerical Rules Federal Laws provides for maximum levels of debt that can be committed by the Federal Government. For example:External Loan Act, 1963 provides a ceiling of RM60 billion for all Federal Government foreign market borrowingLoan (Local) Ordinance 1959 provides a ceiling of not more than 40% GDP for Malaysian Government Securities (MGS)Treasury Bill (Local) Act, 1946 provides a ceiling of RM10 billion for Treasury BillsGovernment Investment Act, 1983 provides a ceiling of RM 15 billion for Government Investment Issuance (based on Islamic principle)
15Procedural Safeguards and Numerical Rules International reserveto short term debt (times)Reserve to retainedimport (times)External debt to export (%)External debt to GDP (%)Debt service ratioFed. Govt. Debt servicecharges of total OE (%)