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5-1. 5-2 BAB 5 LAPORAN POSISI KEUANGAN DAN LAPORAN ARUS KAS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield.

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Presentation on theme: "5-1. 5-2 BAB 5 LAPORAN POSISI KEUANGAN DAN LAPORAN ARUS KAS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield."— Presentation transcript:

1 5-1

2 5-2 BAB 5 LAPORAN POSISI KEUANGAN DAN LAPORAN ARUS KAS Intermediate Accounting IFRS Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

3 5-3 Laporan Posisi Keuangan Informasi Tambahan KegunaanBatasanKlasifikasiCatatan Teknik Pengungkapan Pedoman lainnya LAPORAN POSISI KEUANGAN DAN LAPORAN ARUS KAS LAPORAN POSISI KEUANGAN DAN LAPORAN ARUS KAS Laporan Arus Kas Tujuan Isi dan Format PerseiapanKegunaan

4 5-4 Statement of Financial Position Laporan Posisi Keuangan, disebut juga sebagai Neraca: 1.Laporan aset, kewajiban, dan ekuitas pada tanggal tertentu. 2.Memberikan informasi tentang sumber daya, kewajiban kepada kreditur, dan ekuitas dalam sumber daya bersih. 3.Membantu dalam memprediksi, waktu, dan ketidakpastian arus kas masa depan.

5 5-5 Menghitung tingkat pengembalian. Menevaluasi struktur modal Menilai resiko dan arus kas masa depan. Menganalisa perusahaan:  Likuiditas  Solvabilitas  Fleksibilitas keuangan Kegunaan Statement of Financial Position LO 1 Explain the uses and limitations of a statement of financial position.

6 5-6 Kebanyakan aset dan kewajiban dilaporkan berdasarkan biaya perolehan. Menggunakan penilaian dan estimasi. Banyak nilai keuangan yang dihilangkan. Keterbatasan LO 1 Explain the uses and limitations of a statement of financial position. Statement of Financial Position

7 5-7 Klasifikasi LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. Statement of Financial Position Unsur Laporan Posisi Keuangan 1. Aset 2. Kewajiban 3. Ekuitas Unsur Laporan Posisi Keuangan 1. Aset 2. Kewajiban 3. Ekuitas

8 5-8 Subklasifikasi Statement of Financial Position Aset Aktiva Tdk Lancar Investasi Perlengkapan, tanah dan peralatan Aset tak berwujud Aset lainnya Aktiva lancar Kewajiban dan Ekuitas Ekuitas Bagian saham Bagian Agio Saldo laba Akumulasi pendapatan komprehensif Saham minoritas Kewajiban tdk lancar Kewajiban lancar

9 5-9 Secara umum terdiri dari: Investasi jangka panjang Tanah, Bangunan dan peralatan Aset tak berwujud Aset lainnya ClassificationClassification LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. Aktiva tak lancar

10 5-10 Investasi Jangka Panjang 1.Sekuritas (bonds, ordinary shares, or long-term notes). 2.Aktiva tak berwujud saat tidak digunakan dalam operasi (tanah yang dimiliki untuk spekulasi). 3.Dana Khusus (dana pembayaran utang, pensiun dan dana pengembangan perusahaan). 4.Bukan anak perusahaan atau cabang dan asosianya Non-Current Assets ClassificationClassification

11 5-11 Tangible long-lived assets used in the regular operations of the business. Physical property such as land, buildings, machinery, furniture, tools, and wasting resources (minerals). With the exception of land, a company either depreciates (e.g., buildings) or depletes (e.g., oil reserves) these assets. Tanah Bangunan dan Peralatan LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

12 5-12 Investments in Debt and Equity Securities ClassificationClassification LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. PortfolioTypeValuationClassification Held-for- Collection Debt Amortized Cost Current or Noncurrent TradingDebt or EquityFair ValueCurrent Non-Trading Equity EquityFair Value Current or Noncurrent

13 5-13 Investments in Debt and Equity Securities ClassificationClassification LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. PortfolioTypeValuationClassification Held-for- Collection Debt Amortized Cost Current or Noncurrent TradingDebt or EquityFair ValueCurrent Non-Trading Equity EquityFair Value Current or Noncurrent

14 5-14 Lack physical substance and are not financial instruments. Patents, copyrights, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, trade names, and customer lists. Amortize limited-life intangible assets over their useful lives. Periodically assess indefinite-life intangibles for impairment. Intangible Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

15 5-15 Items vary in practice. Can include:  Long-term prepaid expenses  Non-current receivables  Assets in special funds  Property held for sale  Restricted cash or securities Other Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

16 5-16 Cash and other assets a company expects to convert into cash, sell, or consume either in one year or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current Assets ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-5 LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position.

17 5-17 Inventories Disclose: Basis of valuation (e.g., lower-of-cost-or-market). Cost flow assumption (e.g., FIFO or average cost). LO 2 ClassificationClassification Illustration 5-6

18 5-18 Claims held against customers and others for money, goods, or services. Major categories of receivables should be shown in the statement of financial position or the related notes. Receivables LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

19 5-19 Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future. insurancesuppliesadvertising Cash Payment Expense Recorded BEFORE rent maintenance on equipment Prepayments often occur in regard to: Prepaid Expenses LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

20 5-20 Generally any monies available “on demand.” Cash equivalents - short-term highly liquid investments that mature within three months or less. Restrictions or commitments must be disclosed. Cash LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

21 5-21 Equity LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification

22 5-22 Equity LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification  Ordinary shares and preference shares - must disclose the par value and the authorized, issued, and outstanding amounts.  Share premium - company usually presents one amount for ordinary and preference shares.  Retained earnings - amount may be divided between the unappropriated and restricted amounts.  Treasury shares - shown as a reduction of equity.

23 5-23 Non-Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Obligations that a company does not reasonably expect to liquidate within the longer of one year or the normal operating cycle. Three types: 1.Obligations arising from specific financing situations. 2.Obligations arising from the ordinary operations of the company. 3.Obligations that depend on the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more future events to confirm the amount payable, or the payee, or the date payable.

24 5-24 Current Liabilities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the statement of financial position. ClassificationClassification Obligations that a company generally expects to settle in its normal operating cycle or one year, whichever is longer. This concept includes: 1.Payables resulting from the acquisition of goods and services: accounts payable, wages payable, and so on. 2.Collections received in advance for the delivery of goods or performance of services, such as unearned rent revenue. 3.Other liabilities whose liquidation will take place within the operating cycle or one year.

25 5-25 Statement of Financial Position Format IFRS does not specify the order or format in which a company presents items in the statement of financial position. Account form or report form. LO 3 Prepare a classified statement of financial position using the report and account formats. ClassificationClassification

26 5-26 ClassificationClassification Account Form LO 3 Prepare a classified statement of financial position using the report and account formats.

27 5-27 ClassificationClassification LO 3 Report Form Illustration 5-17

28 5-28 The Statement of Cash Flows One of the three basic objectives of financial reporting is “assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows.” IASB requires the statement of cash flows (also called the cash flow statement).

29 5-29 Primary Purpose : To provide relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period. The statement provides answers to the following questions: 1.Where did the cash come from? 2.What was the cash used for? 3.What was the change in the cash balance? Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 4 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

30 5-30 OperatingOperating Cash inflows and outflows from operations. InvestingInvesting Cash inflows and outflows from non- current assets. FinancingFinancing Cash inflows and outflows from non- current liabilities and equity. Statement helps users evaluate liquidity, solvency, and financial flexibility. LO 5 Identify the content of the statement of cash flows. Content and Format

31 5-31 LO 5 Identify the content of the statement of cash flows. Illustration 5-19 Content and Format

32 5-32 Information obtained from several sources: (1) comparative statement of financial position, (2) current income statement, and (3) selected transaction data. Sources of Information Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

33 5-33 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows: On January 1, 2011, in its first year of operations, Telemarketing Inc. issued 50,000 ordinary shares ($1 par value) for $50,000 cash. The company rented its office space, furniture, and telecommunications equipment and performed marketing services throughout the first year. In June 2011 the company purchased land for $15,000. Illustration 5-20 shows the company’s comparative statement of financial position at the beginning and end of LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

34 5-34 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Illustration 5-21 Illustration 5-20

35 5-35 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows Determine: 1.Cash provided by (or used in) operating activities. 2.Cash provided by or used in investing and financing activities. 3.Determine the change (increase or decrease) in cash during the period. 4.Reconcile the change in cash with the beginning and the ending cash balances. LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

36 5-36 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Cash provided by operating activities Illustration 5-22 Illustration 5-20Illustration 5-21 LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

37 5-37 The Statement of Cash Flows Illustration 5-29 Next, the company determines its investing and financing activities. Illustration 5-20Illustration 5-21

38 5-38 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows (BE 5-12): Keyser Beverage Company reported the following items in the most recent year. Activity Operating Financing Operating Investing Operating Financing Required: Prepare a Statement of Cash Flows Net income $40,000 Dividends paid 5,000 Increase in accounts receivable 10,000 Increase in accounts payable 7,000 Purchase of equipment 8,000 Depreciation expense 4,000 Issue of notes payable 20,000 LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

39 5-39 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows (BE 5-12) LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows. Noncash credit to revenues. Noncash charge to expenses.

40 5-40 Review In preparing a statement of cash flows, which of the following transactions would be considered an investing activity? a. Sale of equipment at book value a. Sale of equipment at book value b. Sale of merchandise on credit b. Sale of merchandise on credit c. Declaration of a cash dividend c. Declaration of a cash dividend d. Issuance of bonds payable. d. Issuance of bonds payable. Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

41 5-41 Issuance of ordinary shares to purchase assets. Conversion of bonds into ordinary shares. Issuance of debt to purchase assets. Exchanges on long-lived assets. Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Significant financing and investing activities that do not affect cash are reported in either a separate schedule at the bottom of the statement of cash flows or in the notes. Examples include: Significant Non-Cash Activities LO 6 Prepare a basic statement of cash flows.

42 5-42 Preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows Illustration 5-24 Comprehensive Statement of Cash Flows

43 5-43 High amount - company able to generate sufficient cash to pay its bills. Low amount - company may have to borrow or issue equity securities to pay bills. Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Without cash, a company will not survive. Cash flow from Operations: LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.

44 5-44 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Ratio indicates whether the company can pay off its current liabilities from its operations. A ratio near 1:1 is good. LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Liquidity Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Average Current Liabilities Current Cash Debt Coverage Ratio = Illustration 5-26

45 5-45 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows This ratio indicates a company’s ability to repay its liabilities from net cash provided by operating activities, without having to liquidate the assets employed in its operations. LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Flexibility Average Total Liabilities Cash Debt Coverage Ratio = Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Illustration 5-27

46 5-46 Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows The amount of discretionary cash flow a company has for purchasing additional investments, retiring its debt, purchasing treasury stock, or simply adding to its liquidity. LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Free Cash Flow Illustration 5-29

47 5-47 Review The current cash debt coverage ratio is often used to assess a. financial flexibility. b. liquidity. c. profitability. d. solvency. LO 7 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows

48 5-48 Financial Statements and Notes IFRS requires that a complete set of financial statements be presented annually. Comprised of the following: LO 8 Determine additional information requiring note disclosure. 1.Statement of financial position at the end of the period; 2.Statement of comprehensive income for the period to be presented either as: a)One single statement of comprehensive income. b)A separate income statement and statement of comprehensive income. 3.Statement of changes in equity; 4.Statement of cash flows; and 5.Notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information.

49 5-49 Accounting policies Specific principles, bases, conventions, rules, and practices applied by a company in preparing and presenting financial information. First note generally titled, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.” Financial Statements and Notes LO 8 Determine additional information requiring note disclosure. Notes to the Financial Statements

50 5-50 Financial Statements and Notes

51 5-51 Additional Notes to the Financial Statements In many cases, IFRS requires specific disclosures. Examples include:  Items of property, plant, and equipment are disaggregated into classes.  Receivables are disaggregated into amounts receivable from trade customers, receivables from related parties, prepayments, and other amounts.  Inventories are disaggregated into classifications such as merchandise, production supplies, work in process, and finished goods. Financial Statements and Notes LO 8 Determine additional information requiring note disclosure.

52 5-52 LO 10 Identify the major types of financial ratios and what they measure. Using Ratios to Analyze Performance Analysts and other interested parties can gather qualitative information from financial statements by examining relationships between items on the statements and identifying trends in these relationships.

53 5-53 LO 10 Identify the major types of financial ratios and what they measure. Using Ratios to Analyze Performance Illustration 5A-1 A Summary of Financial Ratios

54 5-54 LO 10 Identify the major types of financial ratios and what they measure. Using Ratios to Analyze Performance Illustration 5A-1 A Summary of Financial Ratios

55 5-55 LO 10 Identify the major types of financial ratios and what they measure. Using Ratios to Analyze Performance Illustration 5A-1 A Summary of Financial Ratios

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