8How will my writing be scored? Short-Response Questions4 total points, 2 for each question0 Points → incoherent, unfocused, or personal in nature
9How will my writing be scored? Short-Response Questions1 Point → partially developed, implied evidence, grammatical errors2 Points → well-developed and focused, may have errors that do not hinder comprehension
10Read the Directions!Question #26 requires you to refer directly to both provided passagesQuestion #27 requires you to choose one of the two passages to construct your response and make reference to a literary element or technique
11Read the Directions!Remember – your response doesn’t have to have sophisticated language or be error free to earn full credit
12Critical Lens Essay Score 0-6 Points, 4 or better is considered passingMeaningDevelopmentOrganizationLanguage UseConventions
13Read the Directions! Be sure to: Interpret the quotation Agree or disagree with the quotation as you’ve interpreted itChoose two literary works to defend your interpretation of the critical lensMake reference to literary elements that support your analysis of the quotation and literary works that you’ve selected
14MeaningMeaning is the extent to which your response exhibits sound understanding, interpretation, and analysis of the task and texts.
15MeaningDid you….prove you understand the question and literary works you’ve selected?provide a reasonable explanation of the Critical Lens quotation?analyze the literary works effectively as they apply to your interpretation of the quotation?
16DevelopmentDevelopment is the extent to which ideas are elaborated using specific and relevant evidence from the texts.
17Be careful to avoid PLOT SUMMARY!!! DevelopmentDid you….Use specific and appropriate evidence from the literary works you selected to defend your point?Use specific and appropriate literary elements from the literary works you selected to further develop your argument?Be careful to avoid PLOT SUMMARY!!!
18OrganizationOrganization is the extent to which the response exhibits direction, shape, and coherence.
19OrganizationDid you….include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion?ensure that your ideas flow logically from one sentence to the next?remain focused in your analysis?use transitional words and phrases in a way that unifies your essay?
20Transition Words & Phrases Transitions to show timebefore, after, first, second, eventually, finally, since, suddenly, to begin withTransitions of agreementlikewise, furthermore, additionally, similarly, moreover, in addition, by the same tokenTransitions to contrastbut, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, however, nevertheless, conversely
21Transition Words & Phrases Transitions to emphasize a pointagain, indeed, for this reason, in fact, notably, especially, significantlyTransitions to add informationadditionally, also, for example, for instance, such as
22Transition Words & Phrases Transitions to clarifyin other words, that is to say, to clarify, put another wayTransitions to conclude/summarizeAs a result, finally, in conclusion, consequentially, therefore, accordingly, in essence
23Language UseLanguage Use is the extent to which the response reveals an awareness of audience and purpose through effective use of words, sentence structure, and sentence variety.
24Language UseDid you….demonstrate that you understand the audience and purpose of your essay?use sophisticated language when appropriate?construct sophisticated sentences when appropriate?vary the length of your sentences as appropriate?
25ConventionsEvaluation of conventions is the extent to which the response exhibits conventional spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, capitalization, grammar, and usage.Did you…. PROOFREAD?????
26Task 1: Listening for Understanding The Directions:You will hear a listening passage once.You are permitted to take notes in your exam booklet.You will have a few minutes to review your notes and the multiple-choice questions.
27Task 1: Listening for Understanding The Directions:You will hear the listening passage a second time.You may take notes during the second reading or answer the questions.
28The Listening Passage Is non-fiction Is approximately a page and a half longMay take between five and ten minutes to read The January 2011 and NYS Sample Listening Passages were:Approximately 800 words longTold from a 1st person point of view
29Active Listening An Active Listener will: Remember why s/he is listeningMake a conscious effort by remaining focusedListen for key words, ideas, and phrasesThink about information in the passage while listening to it
30Active Listening An Active Listener will: Note important signals or verbal cues that indicate important informationDoes the speaker slow down?Does the speaker raise his or her voice?Does the speaker change his or her tone?Does the speaker gesture with his/her hands?
31Strategies for Note Taking Write only what seems important – key words and phrases, main ideas, important facts and detailsBe concise – be as brief as possible without losing meaning – write words and short phrases, not entire sentences
32Strategies for Note Taking Organize your ideas – try to follow a simple outline format or put main ideas on the left and supporting details on the right; leave space for more notes during the 2nd readingUse shortcuts – b4, bc, w/, w/o, &, info, →, ?Consider the “five Ws” – who, what, where, when, why…and also how
33Test-taking Strategies Multiple-Choice QuestionsRead only the question first; try to think of a reasonable answer on your own.Check to see if there is a choice close to the answer you imagined.Use the process of elimination by crossing out answers you know are wrong.
34Dissecting the MC Questions InferenceListening ComprehensionTonePoint of View
35Inference QuestionsAn inference question is a question that requires you draw a conclusion, or inference, based on the information presented and logical reasoning.
36Inference QuestionsBy stating that Abigail Adams “reached beyond the kitchen and the nursery,” the speaker suggests that Abigail:(1) suffered from boredom(2) broke with tradition(3) sought new friends(4) Traveled the country
37Which answers are wrong? (1) – there is no evidence that Abigail Adams is bored(3) – while this may be true, there is no evidence to prove it(4) – this is the tricky choice!The correct answer is (2).
38Listening Comprehension Listening comprehension questions are questions that require you to recall or recollect a fact or detail from the passage that was directly stated.
39Listening Comprehension As stated by the speaker, letter writing presented Abigail Adams with:(1) an unexpected friendship(2) a trivial pastime(3) an emotional release(4) a displeasing chore
40Tone and Point of ViewTone is the attitude of a speaker, writer, or subject.Point of View is the perspective of the speaker, writer, or subject.Both tone and point of view questions often have adjectives as possible answers.
41Strategies for Tone and POV Read the question, cover the choices, and answer the question with your own adjective – is there a choice that is a synonym of the word you selected?
42Strategies for Tone and POV Ask yourself if the attitude or perspective is positive or negative – eliminate choices that don’t seem to match your determination – sometimes you can do this even if you don’t know the meaning of some of the choices!
43What is the TONE?The speaker’s tone in the account can be described as(1) harsh (3) sarcastic(2) respectful (4) objectivePrefixes with Positive Connotation:pro, syn, sym, benPrefixes with Negative Connotation:de, dis, non, in, im, un, con, mal
44Task 2: Reading for Understanding 12 multiple-choice questions6 questions on an informational, non-fiction passage6 questions on a literary passage (fiction)
45Task 2: Reading for Understanding The January 2011 and NYS Sample Reading Passages were:InformationalBetween wordsTold from a 3rd person perspectiveLiteraryApproximately 600 words
46Part 2: The Informational Passage Reading ComprehensionInferenceMain IdeaVocabulary in ContextStructure
47Vocabulary in ContextThe Passage: “It’s an accessible sport. It’s not just for racing; it’s also for recreational riding. It’s a barrier breaker that allows a disabled rider to participate in cycling with friends and families who may be riding conventional bicycles.”
48Vocabulary in Context The Question: The passage includes the quotation about the handcycle being a “barrier breaker” (line 8) in order to stress its(1) durability(2) affordability(3) portability(4) accessibility
49Structure QuestionsAnecdote – the author’s use of personal stories to convey the main ideaCause & Effect – the author presents a problem or idea, outlines causes of the problem or idea, and then presents the effects that the causes have on the problem or ideaChronological Order – information is presented in the order it happens
50Structure QuestionsComparison/Contrast – the author introduces two or more events, people, places, or ideas and then identifies their similarities and differencesProblem & Solution – the author presents a dilemma and a possible solution or solutionsProcess/Listing – an author might use this style if the information presented involves a series of steps
51Part 2: The Literary Passage InferenceVocabulary in ContextStructureLiterary Terms
52Part 2: The Literary Passage Special Cases:Author’s PurposePunctuation – dashes (emphasis), question marks (reflection), exclamation points (strong emotions)
53Literary Term Questions IdentifyFor example, “Line 27 contains an example of…”ApplyFor example, “The repetition used in line 16 emphasizes the…” or “The water jug (line 42) becomes a symbol of…”
55Important Literary Terms Point of ViewConflictThemeToneImageryMoodPoint of ViewConflictThemeToneImageryMoodSound DevicesAlliterationAssonanceConsonanceOnomatopoeiaRhymeRepetitionFigurative LanguageSymbolismPersonificationSimileMetaphorHyperboleRepetitionFigurative LanguageSymbolismPersonificationSimileMetaphorHyperbole
56Part 3: Reading for Critical Response Two literary passagesPoemShort storyExcerpt from a novel
57Part 3: Reading for Critical Response Five Multiple-choice QuestionsInferenceVocabulary in ContextStructure/FormMood/ToneLiterary Terms
58Writing for Critical Response Two Short-Response Questions#26 – Controlling Idea/Both passages#27 – Literary Element or Technique/One PassageShort response does NOT mean short!
59How do I construct a well-developed paragraph? A well-developed paragraph for Question #26 will include the following:Introduction of the topic sentence and controlling idea (1-2 sentences)Development of the controlling idea (1-2 sentences)Examples or details from the 1st passage that support your controlling idea and a description of how they prove your point (2-3 sentences)
60How do I construct a well-developed paragraph? A well-developed paragraph for Question #26 will include the following:Examples or details from the 2nd passage that support your controlling idea and a description of how they prove your point (2-3 sentences)A conclusive statement that reiterates your controlling idea (1 sentence)
61Exemplar – Question #26“Successful and efficient communities cannot be built on laziness. In this era, in which hard work is rewarded and lathargy punished, communities must have a solid core of hard workers. In Passage II, the author expresses his gratitude torward these people. In fact, he states, “I love people who harness themselves…who pull like water buffalo, who strain in the mud and the muck to move things forward.”
62Exemplar – Question #26“The author compares these hard workers to oxen and water buffalo, who are some of the hardest working animals. In Passage I, the author clearly admires his grandfather, who worked extremely hard to take care of his farm. Now it is the author’s turn to work, shoveling the sidewalks on his street corner. Since there is a high school and elementary school nearby, it is imperative that the author do his job.”
63Exemplar – Question #26“Children often walk by his house on their way to school and back and it is his “obligation” to keep those streets clear. The author’s hard work is crucial in his communities’ success. In both passage, hard work is rewarded with gratitude and respect.”
64How do I construct another well-developed paragraph? A well-developed paragraph for Question #27 will include the following:An introductory thesis statement (1-2 sentences)Introduction and explanation of the literary element or technique (1 sentence)Examples from the passage you’ve selected of the literary element or technique you’ve chosen; try to find at least two or three! (2 sentences)
65How do I construct another well-developed paragraph? A well-developed paragraph for Question #27 will include the following:Analysis of HOW the author’s use of that literary element or technique help the author to develop the passage, and specifically, the controlling idea (2-3 sentences)A conclusive statement that reiterates your analysis of how the literary technique conveys meaning (1 sentence)
66WARNING!!!The directions for Question #27 do not say you must define the literary element or technique you select. HOWEVER, the January 2011 scoring materials provided to teachers say that a score of 2 “provides an appropriate explanation of the literary element or technique chosen”.
67WARNING!!!Remember, this is a new exam and the test-makers are still ironing out problems with the exam. Perhaps this will be corrected for the June exam, but to be safe, please provide an explanation or definition of the literary element or technique that you choose! It certainly will not hurt your score!
68Exemplar – Question #27“In Passage I the author uses the literary element of point of view to help develop his passage. The story is narrated by the author. This allows the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the narrator because the reader is given a direct window into the mind of the author. This window gives the reader an opportunity to understand his thought process.”
69Exemplar – Question #27“When the narrator starts discussing how his obligation to shovel his sidewalk was passed onto him by his grandfather the reader has an easier time understanding and connecting to it than they would if the narrator was someone other than the author.”
70Part 4: Writing for Critical Analysis Before your exam:Choose 4 or 5 novels or plays that you have read at some point in high school about which you feel you can write wellTake time to review the titles, authors, main characters, setting, conflicts, symbols, and themes
71Part 4: Writing for Critical Analysis Before your exam:It’s generally not a good idea to choose a book that you read on your own, as you will likely find yourself writing about plot as opposed to conducting literary analysis
72Possible Choices August Wilson John Steinbeck William Golding The Piano LessonFencesJohn SteinbeckOf Mice and MenThe Grapes of WrathWilliam GoldingLord of the FliesF. Scott FitzgeraldThe Great GatsbyCharles DickensA Tale of Two CitiesHarper LeeTo Kill a MockingbirdElie WieselNight
73Possible Choices William Shakespeare John Knowles Sue Monk Kidd Romeo and JulietJulius CaesarHamletMacBethOthello: The Moor of VeniceJohn KnowlesA Separate PeaceSue Monk KiddThe Secret Life of BeesChinua AchebeThings Fall ApartToni MorrisonBelovedAlice WalkerThe Color PurpleArthur MillerThe Crucible
74The Critical Lens Essay Interpret the Critical Lens QuotationAgree or disagree with the quote as you’ve interpreted itSelect two literary works that you will use to defend your analysisInclude specific evidence and literary elements or techniques from the selected works to validate your interpretation
75Analyzing the Quote“…although the world is full of suffering, it is full also of the overcoming of it.”—Helen KellerOptimism, 1903Essentially, this means that while the world is indisputably plagued with challenge, obstacle, and strife, there are people who, through perseverance, determination, and courage, are able to conquer the difficulties they face and thrive as a result.
76Framing an Introduction Introduce the TopicConnect the Topic to LiteratureThe introduction of the topic has nothing to do with the books you will discussIntroduce the specific literary works you will use to support your interpretation of the topicTHESIS STATEMENTThis is the first time you should mention the books you will discussYour thesis statement is the most important sentence in your essay. It should connect the topic, literary works, and the authors’ use of literary elements. Make sure your thesis makes clear what you will discuss, why you’re discussing, and how the works you’ve selected demonstrate your point.
77Sample IntroductionIt is undeniable that the world is full of widespreadanguish and grief, but it is heartening to trust that it isalso full of individuals who strive to overcome that struggle in a way that yields happiness, accomplishment, or simply, peace. In literature, authors often craft characters that struggle with such sorrow, but in the end, they emerge victorious. Helen Keller once said, “…although the world is full of suffering, it is full also of the overcoming of it.”
78Sample IntroductionEssentially, this means that while the world is indisputably plagued with challenge, obstacle, and strife, there are people who, through perseverance, determination, and courage, are able to conquer the difficulties they face and thrive as a result. For example, in the works Night by Elie Wiesel and The Color Purple by Alice Walker, both protagonists overcome great struggle in worlds filled with obstacle. Through characterization and setting, both authors convey the triumph of the protagonists, which simultaneously proves the aforementioned interpretation valid.
80Building a Body Paragraph Topic SentenceThis sentence should re-introduce the topic for this particular paragraph and narrow your focus of discussion
81Building a Body Paragraph Textual EvidenceMinimize Plot Summary (no more than one sentence!)Analyze the example you’ve provided, connecting it back to the original question (at least three sentences)Be clear about how your example supports your point (literary techniques)Repeat this process for each exampleBe sure to integrate text evidence and if possible, direct quotes into your exampleEach body should be a minimum of twelve sentences, no more than two of which should be plot summary
82Building a Body Paragraph Concluding SentenceEnd each body paragraph with an original statement that ties back to the question.NEVER, EVER, EVER end a body paragraph with plot summary!
84Crafting a ConclusionRestate your original thesis, preferably in new, original language.Reemphasize the important points you made in your essay in a creative fashion.This paragraph should be 3-5 sentences.
85Writing TipsTitles of novels get underlined; plays, short stories, and poems should be in quotation marksUse present tense verbs to discuss literatureWrong: Celie eventually found happiness.Right: Celie eventually finds happiness.
86Writing TipsExplicitly reference literary terms such as characterization or symbolismAvoid personal pronounsWrong: The quote means you can overcome dark times.Right: The quote means that one can overcome dark times.
87Time ManagementYou have three hours to complete your exam. The reading of the listening passage will take about 15 minutes.
88Time Management Recommendations: 1st: Listening Passage MC Questions (15-20 minutes)2nd: Part 4: Critical Lens Essay (1 hour)3rd: Part 3: Paired PassagesMC Questions: minutes#26: 20 minutes#27: 20 minutes4th: Part 2: MC Questions : (20-30 minutes)